*******************************************************************************

1926/01 - 2010 REVISION:

23650 07/22/1926 M=12  1 SNBR= 532 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=2
23655 07/22*  0   0   0    0*140 579  35    0*142 588  40    0*146 603  40    0
23655 07/22*  0   0   0    0*128 565  35    0*135 580  40    0*142 596  50    0
                             *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  **

23660 07/23*151 618  45    0*156 632  55    0*163 645  60    0*171 658  65    0
23660 07/23*149 613  60    0*156 629  70    0*163 645  80    0*171 658  90    0
            *** ***  **          ***  **               **               **

23665 07/24*179 671  70    0*187 682  80    0*195 693  85    0*202 703  90    0
23665 07/24*179 671  90    0*187 682  85    0*195 693  80    0*202 703  75    0
                     **               **               **               **

23670 07/25*209 713  95    0*215 722 100    0*222 732 110    0*229 742 115    0
23670 07/25*210 713  85    0*218 724  95    0*225 735 105    0*231 744 115    0
            ***      **      *** *** ***      *** *** ***      *** *** 

23675 07/26*235 751 120    0*242 761 120    0*248 770 115    0*253 778 110    0
23675 07/26*237 753 120    0*243 762 120    0*248 770 115    0*252 776 110    0
            *** ***          *** ***                           *** *** 

23680 07/27*257 784 105    0*260 789  95    0*265 794  90    0*271 799  85    0
23680 07/27*256 781 105    0*259 785  95    0*263 790  95    0*269 795  95    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  **      *** ***  **

23685 07/28*277 802  80    0*283 806  75    0*289 811  60  975*296 817  60    0
23685 07/28*277 800  90    0*285 805  90  967*292 811  75    0*298 818  55    0
                ***  **      *** ***  **  *** ***      **  *** *** ***  **

23690 07/29*303 825  50    0*310 834  40    0*316 843  35    0*320 854  30    0
23690 07/29*305 826  50    0*313 835  40    0*320 845  35    0*324 855  30    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

23695 07/30*323 866  25    0*325 879  20    0*328 891  20    0*332 902  20    0
23695 07/30*327 866  30    0*329 878  25    0*330 888  25    0*332 896  25    0
            ***      **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **          ***  **

23700 07/31*335 910  20    0*341 914  20    0*350 910  20    0*361 900  25    0
23700 07/31*335 901  25    0*339 904  25    0*345 905  25    0*355 900  25    0
                ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      ***

23705 08/01E373 887  25    0E384 871  25    0E395 855  25    0E406 839  25    0
23705 08/01E370 887  25    0E384 871  25    0E395 855  25    0E406 839  25    0
            ***

23710 08/02E418 822  25    0E429 806  25    0E440 788  25    0*  0   0   0    0
23715 HRDFL2
23715 HRDFL2CFL1
            ****   




U.S. Continental Hurricanes:
----------------------------
#/Date         Time  Lat    Lon    Max  Saffir RMW   Central   States
                                   Wind Simpson      Pressure  Affected
1-7/28/1926    1000Z 29.0N  80.8W   90kt  2  15nmi    967mb    DFL2,CFL1

Minor changes to the track but major alterations to the intensity shown in McAdie 
et al. (2009).  Evidence for these changes comes from the Historical Weather Map 
series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather Review, the Original Monthly 
Records from NCDC, Dunn and Miller (1960), Perez (1971), Schwerdt et al. (1979), 
Ho et al. (1987), Jarrell et al. (1992), Boose et al. (2004), Neely (2006), and 
observations from English archives for the Caribbean provided by Mike Chenoweth.
           
July 22: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 12N, 56W.
HURDAT listed this as a 40 kt tropical storm at 14.2N, 58.8W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

July 23: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 16N,
65.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 60 kt tropical storm at 16.3N, 64.5W.
Ship highlights: 70 kt SE (no time) and 60 kt ENE with 1004 mb at 18 UTC at 17.4N, 
63.9W (MWR); 50 kt ESE and 1013 mb at 12 UTC at 17.4N, 63.9W (COA).  No other gales 
or low pressures.  Land highlights: 57 kt E and 1006 mb at San Juan, Puerto Rico at 
18.5N, 66.2W (MWR); 20 kt W and 1002 mb at 12 UTC at Santo Domingo, Dominican 
Republic (HWM).  1006 mb minimum pressure at 0730 UTC at Montserrat (Chenoweth).  
No other gales or low pressures.  “Storm on night of 22nd” – Comments from observer 
at Dominica (Chenoweth).  “1926 July 23-24 San Liborio – Hurricane of great diameter 
and moderate intensity.  The entire island experienced high winds and damagers were 
general…passed east-west along or near the south coast of Puerto Rico and over Cabo 
Rojo, beginning at sunset July 23rd and continuing through the night until the early 
morning hours of the 24th…San Liborio battered southern Puerto Rico with hurricane 
force winds.  Floods of the Arecibo, Guacio, Loiza, Bayamon, La Plata, Yauco, 
Penuelas, manati, and all rivers in southern Puerto rico.  $5 million damages.  
25 deaths” (Perez).  25 lives were lost and the damage was $2,350,000 in Puerto Rico 
(MWR). Boose et al. analyzed this system to be a Category 2 hurricane in Puerto Rico 
due to structural damage that occurred.

July 24: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near 18.8N,
69.4W.  HURDAT listed this as an 85 kt hurricane at 19.5N, 69.3W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 19N, 69W with an 1002 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.  $3,000,000 in damage
was done in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (MWR).

July 25: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 22.7N,
75.7W.  HURDAT listed this as an 110 kt hurricane at 22.2N, 73.2W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 22N, 74W.  Ship highlights: 
70 kt NNE at 12 UTC at 22.8N, 74.5W (COA); 70 kt E (no time) and 50 kt ENE with 
1000 mb at 17 UTC at 23.7N, 70.0W (MWR); 70 kt E and 1006 mb at 20 UTC at 24.5N, 
73.4W (MWR).  Several other strong gales.  A few other low pressures.  Land highlights: 
33 kt SE and 1005 mb at 01 UTC at Turks Island at 21.5N, 71.1W (MWR); 52 kt NE and 
1008 mb at 21 UTC at Nassau, Bahamas at 25.1N, 77.4W (MWR).  Regarding the intensity: 
"At 8 p.m [24th] [00 UTC]... Turks Island...velocity of 74 miles an hour from the 
northeast had shifted to southeast and decreased to 38 miles an hour" (MWR).

July 26: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 24N, 77.6W.
HURDAT listed this as an 115 kt hurricane at 24.8N, 77.0W.  The MWR Tracks for
Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 24.7N, 77W.  Ship highlights: 50 kt E 
and 1009 mb at 07 UTC at 25.0N, 74.2W (MWR); 60 kt NE at 19 UTC (MWR).  A few 
other gales.  A few other low pressures.  Regarding the intensity: "Unofficial 
reports indicated that the wind reached an estimated velocity of 135 miles an hour 
at that place (Nassau, Bahamas)" (MWR).  MWR also contained a very vivid account 
of the damage done to Nassau by this hurricane taken from a copy of the Nassau 
Guardian of July 28th.  “This hurricane [is] often referred to as the unnamed 
hurricane of 1926, the Nassau Hurricane of 1926 or Hurricane #1 of 1926.  This 
hurricane inflicted widespread devastation and loss of life here in The Bahamas 
and is one of the most deadly hurricanes to ever cross these islands.  It was 
estimated that 106 persons lost their lives in this storm here in The Bahamas…
It was reported as one of the most severe storm to affect Nassau in several years…
The storm also delivered flooding rains and loss of crops to many islands in The 
Bahamas…On July 26th while still moving on a northwest track, the storm’s eye passed 
directly over Nassau, where winds were unofficially estimated at 135 mph.  Heavy 
damage was reported…the storm was reported to be most destructive around Nassau, 
where ‘some roofs were torn off entirely’” (Neely).  Additional extensive 
descriptions of the damage at Nassau and other islands of the Bahamas can be 
found in Neely (2006), but no additional meteorological data.

July 27: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 25.8N,
78.9W.  HURDAT listed this as a 90 kt hurricane at 26.5N, 79.4W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 26N, 79W with a 984 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: 70 kt NE and 982 mb at 17 UTC at 28.4N, 79.6W (MWR); 
70 kt N and 989 mb at 28.4N, 79.6W (MWR).  Several other strong gales and several 
other low pressures.  Land highlights: 978 mb at 2130 UTC at Ft. Pierce, FL at 
27.5N, 80.4W (MWR).  No gales.  Several other low pressures.  Regarding the 
intensity: Miami, FL: "It is estimated that the wind reached a velocity of 50 mph 
on Biscayne Bay and Miami Beach.  The lowest pressure recorded was 29.49 inches 
(999 mb), at 5:30 am (0930 UTC).  The total damage from the storm in Miami was 
about $75,000" (OMR).

July 28: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 29.2N,
80.6W.  HURDAT listed this as a 60 kt tropical storm at 28.9N, 81.1W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 29N, 81W with a 992 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: 70 kt WSW and 982 mb at 00 UTC at
27.5N, 79.8W (COA); 70 kt SW and 996 mb at 00 UTC at 26.7N, 79.5W (COA); 70 kt
NE and 1004 mb at 00 UTC at 28.8N, 80.2W (COA); 60 kt SSW and 978 mb at 02 UTC
at 27.5N, 79.8W (COA).  Several other strong gales and several other low
pressures.  Land highlights: 47 kt SE at Charleston, SC at 32.9N, 80.1W (MWR);
975 mb at 0430 UTC at Merritt Island, FL at 28.3N, 80.3W (MWR).  Several other
gales and several other low pressures.  Regarding the intensity: Jacksonville:
Minimum pressure of 989 mb at 1845 UTC (OMR).  Titusville, FL: Pressure was
992 mb at 12 UTC (not minimum pressure) (OMR).  Savannah, GA: Max wind was 48
miles SE at 4:54 pm [2054 UTC] of the 28th (OMR).  Tampa, FL: "The barometer
fell slowly, reaching its lowest point 29.60 (1002 mb) sea-level 4 am of the
28th.  The maximum wind was 34 miles from the north at 4:02 am... extreme
velocity was 45" (OMR).  "The 'Eftihia,' a 36 foot, 7 ton fishing boat from
this port (Apalachicola) with a crew of 6 men was doubtless sunk with all on
board in the Gulf on the 28th" (OMR).  “July 28, 1926, 960 mb central pressure 
at landfall, 14 nmi RMW, 8 kt forward speed, 29.9N 81.3W landfall position” 
(Ho et al.).  “95 kt maximum sustained 1 min surface winds, 1010 mb environmental 
pressure” (Schwerdt et al.).  “967 mb central pressure estimate at landfall, 
Category 2 impact for NE Florida” (Jarrell et al.).  “Minimal Hurricane” 
(Dunn and Miller).  

July 29: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered over Georgia
near 32.5N, 83.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 31.6N,
84.3W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 31.9N,
83.7W with an 1002 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 45 kt SE and
1010 mb at 00 UTC at 31.0N, 79.1W (COA).  No other gales.  No low pressures.
Land highlights: 47 kt SE at 01 UTC and 02 UTC at Charleston, SC at 32.9N,
80.1W (OMR); 26 kt SW and 997 mb at 00 UTC at Jacksonville, FL at 30.4N, 81.7W
(OMR).  Several other gales.  One other low pressure.

July 30: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered over Alabama
near 33N, 87.4W  HURDAT listed this as a 20 kt tropical depression at 32.8N,
89.1W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 33N, 89W
and an 1010 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures associated 
with this system on this day.  Land highlights: No gales or low pressures.

July 31: HWM analyzes a very broad area of low pressure centered over
Mississippi and Arkansas near 34.9N, 91W.  HURDAT listed this as a 20 kt
tropical depressions at 35.0N, 91.0W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones
shows a center near 34.9N, 91W with an 1008 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 
No gales or low pressures.  Land highlights: No gales or low pressures.

August 1: HWM analyzes an elongated closed low embedded in a W-E occluded
front centered in extreme southern Illinois near 37N, 88.5W.  HURDAT listed
this as a 25 kt extratropical low at 39.5N, 85.5W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers
of Cyclones shows a center near 39.3N, 86W with an 1004 mb pressure.
No ship or land highlights.

August 2: HWM analyzes a closed low embedded in an occluded front centers near
43N, 80W.  HURDAT listed this as a 25 kt tropical depression at 44.0N, 78.8W.
No ship or land highlights.

No change is made to the genesis of this hurricane, though the lack of 
observations east of the Lesser Antilles makes knowing the actual date and 
location of genesis problematic.  Minor track changes were introduced for 
all days of the cyclone except for the 24th of July and the 2nd of August.  
Intensity boosted from 65 kt Category 1 to 90 kt Category 2 based upon impact 
in Puerto Rico on the 23rd and 24th, as documented by Perez (1971) and Boose 
et al. (2004).  (Unfortunately, the only instrumental record in Puerto Rico – 
San Juan – was too far from the landfall of the hurricane in SW Puerto Rico to 
measure such conditions.)  The changes to the intensity on the 23rd and 24th 
are the only major alterations to the intensity record for this cyclone.  After 
striking Puerto Rico, the hurricane likely weakened some as it brushed the 
mountainous coastline of the Dominican Republic.  Immediately afterwards, the 
hurricane re-intensified as it moved off toward the northwest.  The system 
certainly impacted the Bahamas as a major hurricane, based upon the impacts 
described in Monthly Weather Review and in Neely (2006).  However, there is 
insufficient evidence for making a change in intensity from the Category 4 
for the Bahamas, as there are virtually no observations available from the 
islands impacted directly.  Thus Category 4 intensity on the 25th and 26th 
with a peak of 120 kt on the 26th is retained.  

The hurricane apparently weakened some before making landfall in Northeast 
Florida.  Lowest observed pressure was 975 mb at Merritt Island, but the 
center made landfall north of that location (28.3N).  Ho et al. (1984)’s 
latitude of landfall was at 29.9N, which led them to estimate a central 
pressure of 960 mb.  Our analysis gives a landfall latitude closer to 29.0N, 
suggesting a slightly shallower central pressure of 967 mb, which agrees with 
that analyzed by Jarrell et al. (1992).  (Thus the 975 mb supposed central 
pressure value shown in HURDAT originally on the 28th is replaced by 967 mb.)  
967mb central pressure indicates a wind of 88 kt from the north of 25N 
pressure-wind relationship by Brown et al. and 84 kt for the subset of cyclones 
north of 25N that were weakening (which this likely was).  Ho et al. estimated 
a 14 nmi RMW for this hurricane at landfall based upon the wind records at 
Jacksonville, which the hurricane impacted a few hours after landfall.  Given 
the small (~15 nmi) RMW compared with about 22 nmi climatologically for this 
central pressure and latitude (Vickery et al. 2000), the maximum sustained 
surface winds at Florida landfall are estimated to be 90 kt.  This retains 
the Category 2 for Northeast Florida, though the last wind in HURDAT before 
landfall is boosted from 75 kt originally up to 90 kt. Southeast Florida 
(CFL) is added as a Category 1 impact, due to the close proximity of the 
hurricane to the coast south of Cape Canaveral.  After landfall the highest 
observed winds were (within two hours of synoptic time):  50 kt at 12Z on the 
28th, 45 kt at 18Z, and 47 kt at 00Z on the 29th.  Runs of the Kaplan and 
DeMaria (1995) inland decay model suggest winds of 75 kt, 54 kt, and 41 kt, 
respectively.  Winds are chosen to be 75 kt (up from 60 kt originally) at 12Z, 
55 kt (down from 60 kt) at 18Z, and 50 kt (retained) at 00Z.  There were no 
changes to the dissipation of this cyclone.

******************************************************************************

1926/02 - 2010 REVISION:

23720 07/31/1926 M= 9  2 SNBR= 533 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
23720 07/29/1926 M=11  2 SNBR= 533 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
         **        **

(The 29th and 30th are new to HURDAT.)
23722 07/29*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*160 460  25    0*161 470  25    0
23723 07/30*162 480  30    0*163 490  30    0*165 500  30    0*167 509  30    0

23725 07/31*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*190 540  40    0
23725 07/31*169 518  35    0*172 527  35    0*175 535  35    0*181 544  40    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***

23730 08/01*205 559  45    0*210 564  45    0*216 570  45    0*220 574  50    0
23730 08/01*190 553  45    0*200 562  50    0*210 570  60    0*221 576  70    0
            *** ***          *** ***  **      ***      **      *** ***  **

23735 08/02*225 579  55    0*229 583  55    0*233 587  60    0*237 591  65    0
23735 08/02*231 582  80    0*241 587  90    0*251 592 100    0*257 597 100    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** *** ***      *** *** ***

23740 08/03*240 594  70    0*244 598  75    0*248 602  80    0*253 607  85    0
23740 08/03*261 602 100    0*263 606 100    0*265 610 100    0*266 612 100    0
            *** *** ***      *** *** ***      *** *** ***      *** *** ***

23745 08/04*258 612  90    0*264 617  95    0*270 622 100    0*276 627 100    0
23745 08/04*267 613 100    0*268 614 100    0*270 615 100    0*273 618 100    0
            *** *** ***      *** *** ***          ***        *** ***  

23750 08/05*282 632 100    0*288 638 105    0*294 643 105    0*299 648 105    0
23750 08/05*277 622 100    0*281 626 105    0*285 630 105    0*289 635 105    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  


23755 08/06*304 652 105    0*308 655 105    0*314 659 100    0*324 663 100    0
23755 08/06*293 641 105    0*298 648 100    0*305 655  95    0*317 660  95    0
            *** ***          *** *** ***      *** *** ***      *** *** ***

23760 08/07*339 668  95    0*358 665  90    0*377 662  85    0*396 656  80    0
23760 08/07*335 661  90    0*355 662  90    0*377 662  85    0*396 656  85    0
            *** *** ***      *** ***                                    **

23765 08/08*416 645  75    0E436 629  70    0E458 610  65    0E480 590  55    0
23765 08/08*416 645  80    0E436 629  70    0E458 610  65    0E480 590  55    0
                     **                       
23770 HR                    

Major changes to both the track and intensity shown in McAdie et al. (2009).  
Evidence for these changes comes from the Historical Weather Map series, the 
COADS ship database, _Monthly Weather Review_, Tucker (1995), and observations 
from Bermuda provided by Mark Guishard of the Bermuda Weather Service.

July 29: HWM analyzes an open trough near 15N, 45W.  This day is new to
HURDAT.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

July 30: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 12.5N,
46.1W.  This day is new to HURDAT.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

July 31: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 16.7N,
51.3W.  HURDAT did not list this system until 18 UTC.  Ship
highlights: No gales or low pressures.

August 1: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near 21.6N,
57.6W.  HURDAT listed this as a 45 kt tropical storm at 21.6N, 57.0W.
Ship highlights: 50 kt N and 995 mb at 2050 UTC at 22.3N,
56.0W (MWR); 60 kt N at 22.3N, 56.0W (MWR).  A few other gales.  One other 
low pressure.  “In southern waters, however, a tropical disturbance was 
moving westward in mid-ocean…From reports now available it is apparent that 
a disturbance of slight intensity moving on a WNW course was about 500 miles 
northeast of Basseterre, St. Kitts, on the morning of the 1st” (MWR).

August 2: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 24.8N,
59.2W.  HURDAT listed this as a 60 kt tropical storm at 23.3N, 58.7W.
Ship highlights: 70 kt E and 969 mb at 12 UTC at 25.4N, 59.1W (COA); 
70 kt E at 12 UTC and 70 kt S at 16 UTC at 25.5N, 59.5W (COA); 968 mb at 
12 UTC at 25.5N, 59.5W (COA).  Several other strong gales.  A few other low
pressures.  

August 3: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 25N, 62W.
HURDAT listed this as an 80 kt hurricane at 24.8N, 60.2W.  Ship highlights: 
50 kt S and 1004 mb at 00 UTC at 26.5N, 58.5W (COA); 45 kt E and 1008 mb at 
1252 UTC at 29.5N, 61.9W (MWR).  A few other strong gales.  No other low pressures.

August 4: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 26.7N,
63.3W.  HURDAT listed this as an 100 kt hurricane at 27.0N, 62.2W.  
Ship highlights: 45 kt S at 04 UTC at 26.5N, 58.5W (COA).  No other gales.  No
observed low pressures.

August 5: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 980 mb centered near 29.1N,
64.7W.  HURDAT listed this as a 105 kt hurricane at 29.4N, 64.3W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 28.8N, 64.1W with a 980 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: 70 kt NNE and 985 mb at 2230 UTC
at 30.4N, 65.1W (MWR); 70 kt and 980 mb at 17 UTC at 28.7N, 63.4W (MWR).  
A few other strong gales.  One other low pressure.  “It then moved NW with 
increasing intensity to a point about 250 miles S by W of Bermuda by the 
evening of the 5th, when the first definite indications were received in 
the report of falling pressure and increasing NE winds at Bermuda” (MWR).

August 6: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 30.7N,
65.6W.  HURDAT listed this as an 100 kt hurricane at 31.4N, 65.9W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 31.1N, 66.7W with a 979 mb
pressure.  Station highlights:  1000 mb minimum pressure and 47 kt SE maximum 
winds at Prospect Hill, Bermuda (Guishard).  Ship highlights: 70 kt SE and 
978 mb at 08 UTC at 30.0N, 65.0W (COA); 70 kt NE and 978 mb at 08 UTC at 
31.5N, 66.9W (MWR); 70 kt N and 979 mb at 11 UTC at 31.5N, 67.6W (MWR).  
Several other strong gales and several other low pressures.  Note that Tucker 
(1995) – the Bermuda Hurricane History – has no mention of this system despite 
its supposed very close approach as a major hurricane (though the October 
hurricane that hit Bermuda was substantially described).

August 7: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 38.2N,
65.7W.  HURDAT listed this as an 85 kt hurricane at 37.7N, 66.2W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 37.8N, 64.8W. Ship
highlights: 70 kt SW and 975 mb at 23 UTC at 40.9N, 62.2W (MWR); 50 kt S and
993 mb at 12 UTC at 38.0N, 63.0W (COA/MWR); 50 kt NW and 1002 mb at 12 UTC at
36.6N, 67.7W (COA).  A few other gales.  No other low pressures.  Regarding
the intensity/damage: "It is reported to have caused a number of casualties in
the fishing fleets on the Grand Banks on the 7th and 8th…On the evening of the 
7th there seemed to be some chance of gales off the Maine coast and storm 
warnings were displayed from Portland to Eastport, but strong winds were not 
reported from Maine coast stations" (MWR).

August 8: HWM analyzes a closed low embedded in a frontal system of at most
995 mb centered near 46N, 61.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 65 kt extratropical
low at 45.8N, 61.0W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center
near 45.4N, 59.2W. Ship highlights: 60 kt SW and 40 kt S with 996 mb at 0430 
UTC at 41.5N, 60.8W (MWR); 55 kt SW and 40 kt SSE with 1005 mb at 15 UTC at 
44.5N, 57.5W (MWR).  A few other gales.  No other low pressures.  “The storm 
moved northward and passed over Newfoundland, attended by winds of hurricane 
force” (MWR).

Genesis is begun two days earlier than indicated in HURDAT based upon COADS 
and Historical Weather Map ship observations.  Changes to the track are 
otherwise minor alterations, except for no change introduced for the 8th.  
Late on the first, the steamship Bellatrix measured 995 mb with winds 50 kt 
at the time as well as a peak wind of 60 kt.  995 mb peripheral pressure 
suggests winds of at least 56 kt from the Brown et al. pressure-wind 
relationship.  Winds in HURDAT at 18Z on the 1st are boosted from 50 to 70 kt.  
A 968 mb observation concurrent with 70 kt of wind suggests winds of at least 
92 kt and 87 kt from the south of 25N and north of 25N Brown et al. 
pressure-wind relationships (the observation was at 25N).  However, given that 
the cyclone was intensifying, the intensifying pressure-wind relationships for 
968 mb suggest winds of at least 93 and 91 kt for south and north of 25N, 
respectively.  Intensity in HURDAT assessed at 100 kt at 12Z on the 2nd, up 
from 60 kt originally.  On the 3rd and 4th, no ship observations were 
available in the inner core, so 100 kt is maintained (revised upward from 80 kt 
on the 3rd) until the 4th, which was 100 kt at 12Z originally.  On the 5th, 
two ships reported peripheral pressures of 980 and 985 mb concurrent with 
hurricane force winds.  A peripheral pressure of 980 mb in the north of 25N 
Brown et al. pressure-wind relationship suggests winds of at least 73 kt.  
105 kt at 18Z on the 5th retained.  A 978 mb peripheral pressure 
simultaneously with hurricane force winds at 08Z on the 6th suggests winds of 
at least 75 kt from the north of 25N Brown et al. pressure-wind relationship.  
Late on the 6th, Bermuda experienced tropical storm conditions (1000 mb 
minimum pressure and 47 kt maximum winds), but no substantial impact as this 
system was not included in the Bermuda hurricane history.  The above mentioned 
ship report on the 6th, however, does indicate a track of the hurricane close 
to what was originally in HURDAT – coming about 70 nm west of Bermuda.  While 
the hurricane does appear to be rather compact on this date, a slight reduction 
in intensity is now indicated based upon the revised track, the ship and the 
Bermuda observations.  At its closest approach to Bermuda around 20Z on the 6th, 
the intensity is adjusted downward by 5 kt to 95 kt at 18Z and to 90 kt at 00Z 
on the 7th.  A 975 mb peripheral pressure concurrent with hurricane force winds 
late on the 7th suggests winds of at least 78 kt from the north of 35N Landsea 
et al. pressure-wind relationship.  As the system was undergoing extratropical 
transition, winds are boosted slightly from 75 to 80 kt at 00Z on the 8th.  The 
cyclone retained hurricane force as an extratropical storm into Newfoundland, 
based upon description in the Monthly Weather Review.  No change to the 
extratropical transition or dissipation.  

*******************************************************************************

1926/03 - 2010 REVISION:

23775 08/22/1926 M= 6  3 SNBR= 534 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=3
23775 08/20/1926 M= 8  3 SNBR= 534 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=3
         **         *

(The 20th and 21st are new to HURDAT.)
23777 08/20*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*125 755  25    0*135 770  25    0
23779 08/21*145 785  30    0*155 800  30    0*165 815  35    0*177 825  40    0

23780 08/22*198 823  60    0*209 840  60    0*215 850  60    0*222 863  60    0
23780 08/22*191 833  45    0*204 841  50    0*215 850  55    0*222 860  60    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **               **          ***    

23785 08/23*229 874  65    0*235 883  70    0*241 891  70    0*246 897  75    0
23785 08/23*227 870  65    0*230 880  65    0*235 888  70    0*241 895  75    0
            *** ***          *** ***  **      *** ***          *** ***    

23790 08/24*251 902  80    0*255 906  85    0*260 908  85    0*264 909  85    0
23790 08/24*248 901  80    0*254 906  85    0*260 908  85    0*264 908  95    0
            *** ***          ***                                   ***  **

23795 08/25*268 909  90    0*273 910  90    0*277 911  90    0*283 911  90    0
23795 08/25*268 908 100    0*272 908 100    0*277 908 100    0*285 908 100    0
                *** ***      *** *** ***          *** ***      *** *** ***

23800 08/26*289 912  85    0*296 913  80    0*302 914  65    0*307 917  55    0
23800 08/26*293 909  95  955*299 910  70  986*304 913  55    0*307 918  45    0
            *** ***  **  *** *** ***  **  *** *** ***  **          ***  **

23805 08/27*312 924  45    0*316 934  35    0*320 948  25    0*320 958  20    0
23805 08/27*308 928  35    0*310 940  30    0*315 955  25    0*320 970  20    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***              ***

23810 HR LA3                

U.S. Continental Hurricanes:
----------------------------
#/Date         Time  Lat    Lon    Max  Saffir RMW   Central   States
                                   Wind Simpson      Pressure  Affected
3-8/25/1926    2300Z 29.2N  90.9W  100kt  3  20nmi    955mb    LA3

Major changes to the track but minor alterations to the intensity shown in McAdie 
et al. (2009).  Additionally, two additional days were added to HURDAT at the 
beginning of this system.  Evidence for these changes comes from the Historical 
Weather Map series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather Review, the Original 
Monthly Records from NCDC, Dunn and Miller (1960), Ortiz (1975), Schwerdt et al. 
(1979), Ho et al. (1987), Jarrell et al. (1992), and Perez et al. (2000).

August 20: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day, however HWM analyzes
a broad area of low pressure over South America near 10N, 74W.  HURDAT did not
previously analyze the system on this day.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.  
“On the 20th and 21st between Jamaica and the Yucatan Channel conditions were 
somewhat unsettled” (MWR). “Taking in account Ortiz, this TC formed on 
August 20th, near 14N and 77W” (Perez et al.)

August 21: HWM analyzes an open trough of low pressure centered along 82W 
between 10 and 15N.  HURDAT did not previously analyze the system on this day.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

August 22: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 22.3N,
84.8W.  HURDAT listed this as a 60 kt tropical storm at 21.5N, 85.0W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 21.3N, 85.6W.  
Ship highlights: 25 kt NW and 1005 mb at 22 UTC at 22.0N, 86.0W (COA).
No gales.  No other low pressures.  “On the following day [the 22nd] there 
were indications of a circulation on the extreme western coast of Cuba” 
(MWR).  “Tropical Storms impacting Cuba – August 22nd, 1926” (Perez).

August 23: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 23.5N,
89.6W.  HURDAT listed this as a 70 kt hurricane at 24.1N, 89.1W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 24N, 89W.  
Ship highlights: 55 kt SE and 1002 mb at 06 UTC at 23.9N, 87.9W (MWR);
40 kt NE and 994 mb at 05 UTC at 23.7N, 88.1W (MWR).  994 mb at ~05 UTC at
22.7N, 88.0W (MWR).  No other gales.  A few other low pressures.

August 24: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near 26N,
91.6W.  HURDAT listed this as an 85 kt hurricane at 26.0N, 90.8W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 25.9N, 91W.  Ship
highlights: 35 kt SE and 1014 mb at 19 UTC at 26.8N, 88.2W (COA); 30 kt NW and
1005 mb at 12 UTC at 25.2N, 92.7W (COA); 30 kt SW and 1005 mb at 16 UTC at
25.4N, 92.1W (COA).  No other gales or low pressures.

August 25: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near 27.4N,
92.2W.  HURDAT listed this as a 90 kt hurricane at 27.7N, 91.1W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 28N, 91.1W with a 973 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: 90 kt NE at 27.0N, 90.5W (ROTH); EYE: 959 mb at 
21 UTC at 28.9N, 91.1W at the Ship Shoal Lighthouse (WBO NO); 70 kt N at 14 
UTC at 27.5N, 90.5W (COA).  Several other strong gales.  Several other low 
pressures.  Land highlights: 42 kt SW and 1000 mb at at 23 UTC Burrwood, LA 
at 29.0N, 98.4W (OMR); 985 mb at Grand Isle, LA at 29.1N, 89.6W (CONNOR); 
994 mb and 38 kt NE at 2220Z at Morgan City (OMR).  A few other gales.  A 
few other low pressures.  Storm tide 15' at Houma, LA at 29.6N, 90.7W (CONNOR).  
"Ship Shoal Lighthouse [noted above in ship highlights], latitude 28.9N, 
longitude 91.1W, was in the western part of the central calm area at 4 to 
5 p.m. [21-22 UTC] of the 25th, with the lowest barometer reading 
(uncorrected) of 28.30 inches [958 mb], the wind changing through north 
to west and increasing to hurricane force after the passage of the storm 
center” (MWR).

August 26: At 00 UTC, the MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones placed the storm
near 29.2N, 91W with a 959 mb pressure.  12 UTC: HWM analyzes a closed low of
at most 1005 mb centered inland near 30N, 91.2W.  HURDAT listed this as a 65
kt hurricane at 30.2N, 91.4W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a
center near 30.7N, 91.8W.  Ship highlights: 70 kt and 999 mb at
0630 UTC at 28.9N, 89.1W (MWR); 50 kt SE and 996 mb at 03 UTC at 29.9N, 89.9W
(MWR/WBO NO).  A few other gales.  A few other low pressures.  Land
highlights: 959 mb at 0230 UTC at Houma, LA at 29.6N, 90.7W (MWR/CONNOR); 
60 kt NE and 979 mb at 0430 UTC at Morgan City, LA at 29.7N, 91.2W 
(OMR/MWR/CONNOR); 975 mb (no wind available) at 0540 UTC at Morgan City; 
45 kt ~04 UTC and 994 mb at 0645 UTC at New Orleans, LA at 30.0N, 90.0W (MWR); 
986 mb minimum pressure 0930 UTC at Plaquemine, LA at 30.2N 91.2W (MWR/WBO NO).  
Several other gales.  A few other low pressures.  Category 3 hurricane for 
LA with 955 mb central pressure (Jarrell et al.).  “Major” hurricane for 
Louisiana (Dunn and Miller).  959 mb central pressure (observed in Houma) at 
landfall with RMW 27 nmi at 29.1N 90.8W (Ho et al.).  1012 mb outer closed 
isobar and 94 kt maximum sustained wind at landfall (Schwerdt et al.) "This 
disturbance was of limited extent but of great intensity…At 9:40 pm of the 
25th [0240 UTC of the 26th], when the pressure was lowest at Houma, 28.31 
inches [959 mb], the pressure at Morgan City was about 28.97 inches [981 mb], 
a difference of 0.66 inch [22 mb] in a distance of 29 miles, or a gradient 
of 0.0228 inch [0.76 mb] per mile. However the center passed west of Houma 
and east of Morgan City, thereby reducing the distance, as near as can be 
estimated, to 22 miles…After crossing the coast the disturbance rapidly 
decreased in intensity.  Within 24 hours the lowest pressure reported was 
29.72” and highest wind 16 miles per hour, and in the following 12 hours 
it had disappeared.  The rapidity with which intense tropical disturbances 
decrease in intensity after passing inland is truly remarkable" (MWR).

August 27: HWM analyzes a large closed low of at most 1010 mb near 27N, 100W.
HWM also analyzes a trough of low pressure near 30N, 91W.  HURDAT listed this
as a 25 kt tropical depression at 32.0N, 94.8W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of
Cyclones shows a center near 31.9N, 97W with a 1010 mb pressure.  Ship
highlights: No gales or low pressures.  Land highlights: 3 kt SW and 1004 mb
at 00 UTC at Lake Charles, LA at 30.1N, 93.2W (OMR).  No gales.  No other low
pressures.

Genesis on this hurricane is begun 36 hours earlier based upon available ship 
and land observations, which is consistent with the recommendation by Perez et 
al.  Aside for the introduction of the track on the 20th and 21st, no other 
major changes were introduced to the track of the cyclone.  Perez indicated a 
tropical storm impact on the 22nd from this system that moved northwestward 
just west of the western tip of Cuba.  Relatively few observations are available 
for this system.  Instead of HURDAT beginning this as an instantaneous 60 kt 
tropical storm at 00Z on the 22nd, it is estimated that it became a tropical 
storm around 12Z on the 21st and steadily increased in intensity.  A 994 mb 
peripheral pressure accompanied by 40 kt wind at 05Z on the 23rd suggests at 
least 58 kt from the south of 25N pressure-wind relationship of Brown et al. 
(2004).  65 kt chosen for HURDAT at 06Z, just slightly lower than the 70 kt 
originally.  No ships were in the inner core of the developing hurricane on 
the 24th and HURDAT’s winds of 85 kt at 12Z are unchanged.  A ship – the 
Cranford – went through the eye of the hurricane near 12Z on the 25th south 
of Louisiana, but without a central pressure measurement.  

The hurricane is estimated to have made landfall around 23Z on the 25th near 
29.2N 90.9W based upon a combination of the Ship Shoal Lighthouse, Houma, and 
Morgan City observations.  The Ship Shoal Lighthouse was inside the RMW and 
observed close to the central pressure with a 959 mb value at 21Z on the 25th.  
Houma, LA also measured a 959 mb pressure at 0230Z on the 26th, but this was 
recorded – according to the MWR – about 6 nm east of the center.  A somewhat 
lower value of 955 mb is estimated to be the central pressure at landfall, 
which matches that also analyzed by Connor and Jarrell et al.  This pressure 
is equivalent to 100 kt from the north of 25N pressure-wind all TC relationship 
of Brown et al and 103 kt from the north of 25N for intensifying TCs.  The 
hurricane was moving at a relatively slow – 7 kt – of speed.  Ho et al’s 
estimate of 27 nmi (slightly larger than climatology at that latitude and 
pressure – Vickery et al.) appears to be too large, given the descriptions of 
limited extent and very quick decay over land.  Our estimate is that the RMW 
was about 20 nmi, right at the climatological value.  Intensity is analyzed 
to be 100 kt at landfall in Louisiana.  This would retain the hurricane as a 
Category 3 major hurricane at landfall, but would necessitate boosting up of 
the winds in HURDAT on the 25th from 90 to 100 kt. There was a storm surge 
value of 15’ at Houma, Louisiana.  This was compared versus SLOSH MEOWs for 
both Category 3 and Category 4 hurricanes that were moving northward at 15 mph.  
The Category 3 MEOW captured 13.8 ft above the datum (NAVD88) while the 
Category 4 MEOW captured 17.0 ft above the datum (NAVD88).  Thus the 
assignment of Category 3 at landfall in Louisiana for this hurricane appears 
reasonable based upon this one observation and the SLOSH MEOWs.  After landfall, 
a run of the Kaplan and DeMaria inland decay model suggests winds of 85 kt at 
00Z 26th, 62 kt at 06Z, 48 kt at 12Z, and 37 kt at 18Z.  Highest observed winds 
(within 2 hr of synoptic time) were 50 kt at 00Z, 70 kt at 06Z, 50 kt at 12Z, 
and below gale force at 18Z.  At 0830Z, a 986 mb sea level pressure was measured 
in Plaquemine, LA, which may have been a central pressure value.  This suggests 
winds of 65 kt from the north of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  Winds are 
chosen to be 95, 70, 55, and 45 kt, accordingly, somewhat above the inland 
decay model to account for the swampy terrain that the hurricane traversed.  
The 95 kt value at 00Z (just one hour after landfall) is higher than the 
85 kt originally contained in HURDAT, but the values for 06Z, 12Z, and 18Z 
are lower than what was in HURDAT originally.  This downward revision is 
consistent with the description contained in HURDAT of a rather quick demise 
to the hurricane.  No change is made to the dissipation of this hurricane 
after 18Z on the 27th.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

1926/04 - 2010 REVISION:

23815 09/02/1926 M=23  4 SNBR= 535 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
23815 09/01/1926 M=24  4 SNBR= 535 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
         **        **

(The 1st is new to HURDAT.)
23818 09/01*138 412  30    0*139 419  30    0*140 425  30    0*141 431  30    0

23820 09/02*138 429  35    0*143 443  35    0*145 449  35    0*146 453  40    0
23820 09/02*142 437  35    0*143 443  35    0*145 449  40    0*146 454  40    0
            *** ***                                    **          ***

23825 09/03*148 458  40    0*149 462  45    0*150 467  45    0*151 471  50    0
23830 09/04*152 476  50    0*153 480  55    0*155 486  55    0*157 493  60    0
23835 09/05*159 500  65    0*161 507  70    0*164 515  70    0*167 522  75    0
23840 09/06*172 530  80    0*176 537  80    0*182 545  85    0*188 553  85    0
23845 09/07*195 562  85    0*202 571  90    0*208 580  90    0*214 588  90    0
23845 09/07*195 562  85    0*202 571  90    0*208 580  95    0*215 588 100    0
                                                       **      ***     ***

23850 09/08*219 595  95    0*224 602  95    0*229 608  95    0*233 614 100    0
23850 09/08*222 595 105    0*230 602 105  957*236 610 105    0*240 618 105    0
            ***     ***      ***     ***  *** *** *** ***      *** *** ***

23855 09/09*237 619 100    0*241 624 100    0*244 628 100    0*247 632 105    0
23855 09/09*242 626 105    0*243 634 105    0*244 640 105    0*247 645 105    0
                *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          ***  

23860 09/10*250 635 105    0*253 638 105    0*256 642 105    0*260 646 105    0
23860 09/10*250 650 105    0*253 655 105    0*256 660 105    0*260 662 105    0
                ***              ***              ***              ***  

23865 09/11*264 650 110    0*267 654 110    0*271 658 110    0*275 662 110    0
23865 09/11*266 663 110    0*273 664 110    0*280 665 110    0*286 667 110    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  

23870 09/12*278 665 110    0*282 669 110    0*286 672 115    0*290 675 115    0
23870 09/12*290 670 110    0*293 673 110    0*295 675 115    0*298 677 115    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  

23875 09/13*294 679 115    0*298 682 115    0*302 685 115    0*306 689 115    0
23875 09/13*300 678 110    0*303 679 110    0*305 680 105    0*307 681 105    0
            *** *** ***      *** *** ***      *** *** ***      *** *** ***

23880 09/14*311 693 115    0*315 696 115    0*320 700 120    0*324 703 120    0
23880 09/14*309 682 100    0*311 683 100    0*313 685  95    0*315 690  95    0
            *** *** ***      *** *** ***      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

23885 09/15*329 706 120    0*334 708 120    0*340 710 115    0*344 711 115    0
23885 09/15*317 697  95    0*320 704  95    0*325 710  95    0*332 712  95    0
            *** *** ***      *** *** ***      ***     ***      *** *** ***

23890 09/16*349 711 115    0*353 711 115    0*358 709 110    0*375 696 110    0
23890 09/16*340 713  90    0*349 712  90    0*358 709  90    0*368 696  90    0
            *** *** ***      *** *** ***              ***      ***     ***

23895 09/17*384 680 105    0*390 665 105    0*396 650 100    0*399 630 100    0
23895 09/17*378 680  90    0*388 663  90    0*396 645  90    0*399 630  90    0
            ***     ***      *** *** ***          *** ***              ***

23900 09/18*397 610  95    0*387 603  95    0*380 603  90    0*377 605  90    0
23900 09/18*397 617  85    0*394 607  85    0*390 603  85    0*388 600  85    0
                ***  **      *** ***  **      ***      **      *** ***  **

23905 09/19*376 608  85    0*375 611  85    0*375 615  80    0*376 617  80    0
23905 09/19*387 601  80    0*386 605  80    0*385 610  75    0*383 616  75    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

23910 09/20*377 619  80    0*378 621  75    0*380 624  75    0*385 623  75    0
23910 09/20*380 622  70    0*377 627  70    0*375 630  65    0*375 628  65    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

23915 09/21*391 616  70    0*395 608  70    0E400 600  70    0E407 589  65    0
23915 09/21*377 618  60    0*380 607  60    0*385 595  60    0*395 584  60    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **     **** ***  **     **** ***  **

23920 09/22E415 575  65    0E424 562  60    0E434 552  60    0E445 545  55    0
23920 09/22E407 573  65    0E420 562  70  976E434 552  70    0E447 545  70    0
            *** ***          ***      **  ***          **      ***      **

23925 09/23E457 541  55    0E472 538  50    0E488 532  50    0E507 524  50    0
23925 09/23E460 541  55    0E473 538  50    0E488 532  50    0E507 524  50    0
            ***              ***

23930 09/24E529 514  50    0E554 504  45    0E582 492  45    0*  0   0   0    0
23935 HR                    

Minor changes to the track but major alterations to the intensity shown in McAdie 
et al. (2009).  A major change for the cyclone’s genesis is also made with its 
formation one day earlier than originally indicated.  Evidence for these changes 
comes from the Historical Weather Map series, the COADS ship database, Monthly 
Weather Review, miscellaneous ship observations obtained at NCDC, and Bermuda 
observations provided by Mark Guishard of the Bermuda Weather Service.

September 1: HWM does not analyze any significant features in the region.  
HURDAT did not previously record the system on this day.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 2: HWM does not analyze a closed low.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt
tropical storm at 14.5N, 44.9W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low
pressures.

September 3: HWM does not analyze a closed low.  HURDAT listed this as a 45 kt
tropical storm at 15.0N, 46.7W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 4: HWM does not analyze a closed low.  HURDAT listed this as a 55 kt
tropical storm at 15.5N, 48.6W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.  
“The hurricane of the 4th-21st was notable both for its length of life and 
widespread influence on shipping and was also responsible, in all probability, 
for the loss of two ships, the American steamship Haleakala, on the 9th and the 
British steamship Loyal Citizen on the 14th.  The first telegraphic indications 
of this hurricane to reach the Weather Bureau were received on the 8th and 9th, 
but reports subsequently received by mail show that it was in existence as early 
as the 4th.  On this date the British steamship Stornest, bound from Newport News 
to Santos, came under its influence and on the early morning of the 5th experienced 
full hurricane force winds.  From the latter date it moved on a northwesterly 
course with diminishing speed and reached a position about 300 miles west of 
Bermuda on the 14th, whence it began to recurve” (MWR).

September 5: HWM does not analyze a closed low.  HURDAT listed this as a 70 kt
hurricane at 16.4N, 51.5W.  Ship highlights: 70 kt ESE and 990 mb at
17.2N, 50.8W (MWR).  No other gales or low pressures.

September 6: HWM does not analyze a closed low.  HURDAT listed this as an 85
kt hurricane at 18.2N, 54.5W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 7: HWM does not analyze a closed low.  HURDAT listed this as a 90 kt
hurricane at 20.8N, 58.0W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 8: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 20.5N,
63.7W.  HURDAT listed this as a 95 kt hurricane at 22.9N, 60.8W.  
Ship highlights: 957 mb (eye) at 06Z at ~23N 60W (NCDC).  “The following is a 
copy of extract from the Log Book of the R.N.S.P. S.S. NARENTA, covering the 
experience of that vessel in a tropical hurricane on Sept. 7-8, 1926…Sep. 7, 
1926.  Noon. Position (Acc) 24 07 N, 58 29 W.  Wind ESE., force 5, bar. 29.88…
Heavy rain commencing…5 p.m. Wind NNE., force 9, Bar. 29.72…11.45 p.m. Vessel 
shipping very heavy seas which lifted the Accident Boat on board, bent Nos. 2 
and 3 derrick crutches, stripped tarpaulins off Nos. 3 and 5 Hatches, water 
getting below decks. Stward’s pantry flooded and water reaching store rooms.  
Engineers’ and Officers’ accommodation flooded out. Lifeboard covers blew 
away and awnings on boat decks and Captains’ deck (six in all) became 
unfurled and blew away. Two lifebuoys washed overboard.  Mdt. Wind NE., 
force 11/12. Bar. 28.80. Hove to, ship’s head north. Wind of hurricane 
force with very high confused sea and swell.  Vessel labouring and rolling 
most violently.  Shipping heavy seas fore and aft with continuous blinding 
spray. P. Log carried away.  All hands on deck, securing hatches and derricks. 
Ash A. B. and Winch A. B. were washed across the aft deck, wilst securing No. 
5 hatch. Ash A.B. severlly [sp.] spraining or fracturing the right arm and 
Winch severely bruised across the chest and ribs…1 a. m., wind NE., force 12, 
Bar. 28.50…2 a.m. wind lt. and varl, force 1; Bar. 28.27. Wind fell light.  
Ship labouring violently in high confused sea and swell…4 a.m. Wind W’ly, 
force 10. Bar. 28.92. Heavily overcast with continuous driving rain and spray.  
Ship pitching and rolling most violently to high WSW. Sea and swell. Shipping 
water fore and aft…8 a.m. Wind SSW., force 8. Bar. 29.55. Weather slightly 
moderating; high confused heavy sea. Vessel pitching and rolling most violently. 
Shipping water fore and aft.” (NCDC).

September 9: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 24.5N,
63.7W.  HURDAT listed this as an 100 kt hurricane at 24.4N, 62.8W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 10: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near
23.8N, 66.9W.  HURDAT listed this as an 105 kt hurricane at 25.6N, 64.2W.
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 11: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near
25.8N, 64.4W.  HURDAT listed this as an 110 kt hurricane at 27.1N, 65.8W.  The
MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 25.1N, 65.2W.
Ship highlights: 70 kt SSE and 1005 mb at 08 UTC at 29.1N, 65.1W
(MWR); 60 kt SE and 1006 mb at 12 UTC at 30.0N, 64.5W (COA).  One other gale.
One other low pressure.

September 12: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near
29.9N, 67.5W.  HURDAT listed this as an 115 kt hurricane at 28.6N, 67.2W.  The
MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 27N, 67W.  
Ship highlights: 60 kt SSW at 16 UTC at 27.0N, 66.0W (COA); 50 kt SSW at 12
UTC at 28.0N, 65.0W (COA).  Several other gales.  No low pressures.

September 13: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 30N,
68.3W.  HURDAT listed this as an 115 kt hurricane at 30.2N, 68.5W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 29N, 68W.  Station highlights:  
1006 mb at Prospect Hill, Bermuda (Guishard). Ship highlights: 70 kt at 29.3N 
67.3W (MWR); 50 kt NNE and 999 mb at 30.5N, 70W (MWR); 45 kt N and 1007 mb at 
12 UTC at 31.8N, 69.1W (COA).  A few other gales.  A few other low pressures.

September 14: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 985 mb centered near 30.4N,
68.5W.  HURDAT listed this as an 120 kt hurricane at 32.0N, 70.0W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 30.8N, 69W with a 972 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: 60 kt S and 975 mb at 12 UTC at 31.8N, 69.2W 
(S.S. Mayaro - MWR); 70 kt NE (no time) at 31.8N, 69.2W (S.S. Mayaro - MWR).  
No other gales or low pressures.  “On the 14th the British steamship Mayaro 
was in the calm center of the hurricane from 10.15 a.m. to 4 p.m. in a 
special report to the Weather Bureau.  Capt. A. Y. Drysdale states that he 
was surprised to find the sea within the center so moderate that a small 
boat could have been used with perfect safety.  The atmosphere was `clammy 
and stuffy’ and the weather cleared so that blue sky appeared in patches.  
Captain Drysdale was able to obtain sights to determine the position of his 
vessel – 31 49N, 69 11W” (MWR).

September 15: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 985 mb centered near 30.8N,
71.8W.  HURDAT listed this as an 115 kt hurricane at 34.0N, 71.0W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 32.6N, 70W.  
Ship highlights: 35 kt E and 1007 mb at 12 UTC at 33.9N, 69.6W (COA).  A few
other gales.  No low pressures.  Land highlights: 35 kt N at Cape Hatteras, NC
at 35.1N, 75.4W (MWR).  “After recurving, this storm moved rapidly 
east-northeastward, its center passing about 300 miles south of Sable 
Island on the 18th” (MWR).

September 16: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 985 mb centered near 35.2N,
70.9W.  HURDAT listed this as an 110 kt hurricane at 35.8N, 70.9W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 35.2N, 70.6W.  
Ship highlights: 30 kt ESE and 992 mb at 03 UTC at 33.8N, 67.0W (MWR); 
70 kt NNE at 33.8N, 70.9W (MWR); 70 kt SW and 983 mb at 22 UTC at 36.5N, 
69.2W (MWR).  Several other strong gales.  One other low pressure.

September 17: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 990 mb centered near 39.4N,
65.4W.  HURDAT listed this as an 100 kt hurricane at 39.6N, 65.0W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 37.9N, 68.8W.  
Ship highlights: 70 kt SW and 988 mb at 36.5N, 69.1W (COA); 70 kt NE at 12 UTC
at 40.6N, 66.2W (COA); 70 kt and 995 mb at 23 UTC at 40.7N, 61.9W (MWR).  
Station highlights:  37 kt N at Nantucket (MWR).  Several other strong gales 
and several other low pressures.

September 18: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 985 mb centered near 38.3N,
60.3W.  HURDAT listed this as a 90 kt hurricane at 38.0N, 60.3W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 39.8N, 60W.  
Ship highlights: 70 kt NNE and 988 mb at 17 UTC at 41.0N, 61.7W (MWR); 70 kt
NE and 998 mb at 12 UTC at 40.1N, 62.8W (COA).  Several other hurricane force
winds.  A few other low pressures.

September 19: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 38.5N,
61W.  HURDAT listed this as an 80 kt hurricane at 37.5N, 61.5W.  
Ship highlights: 60 kt SW and 992 mb at 05 UTC at 37.5N, 60.1W (MWR); 60 kt
NNW and 1006 mb at 16 UTC at 37.0N, 66.0W (COA).  Several other strong gales.
A few other low pressures.

September 20: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near 39N,
63.6W.  HURDAT listed this as a 75 kt hurricane at 38.0N, 62.4W.  Ship highlights: 
50 kt NNW and 1002 mb at 00 UTC and 04 UTC at 37.0N, 65.0W (COA); 35 kt NNW and 
999 mb at 12 UTC at 37.0N, 64.5W.  Several other gales.  Several other 
low pressures.

September 21: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb, now embedded in a
weak occluded front centered near 39.6N, 60.6W.  HURDAT listed this as a 70 kt
extratropical low at 40.0N, 60.0W.  Ship highlights: 50 kt NNE and 995 mb 
at 12 UTC at 39.0N, 60.0W (COA); 50 kt NNW and 996 mb at 16 UTC at 39.0N, 
60.0W (COA); 50 kt NE and 997 mb at 20 UTC at 41.5N, 58.5W (COA). A few other 
gales.  Several other low pressures.

September 22: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb embedded in an
occluded front centered near 43.4N, 64.8W.  HURDAT listed this as a 60 kt
extratropical low at 43.4N, 55.2W.  Ship highlights: 70 kt (no direction and 
no time) and 976 mb with calm winds at 06 UTC at 41.8N, 56.0W (MWR); 
70 kt NW and 979 mb at 04 UTC at 41.5N, 56.5W (COA); 70 kt N and 989 mb 
at 04 UTC at 42.2N, 57.3W (MWR).  Several other strong gales.  
Several other low pressures below 1000 mb.

September 23: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb embedded in an
occluded front centered near 49N, 52W.  HURDAT listed this as a 50 kt
extratropical low at 48.8N, 53.2W.  Ship highlights: 45 kt SE and 1008 mb
at 11 UTC at 52.5N, 49.5W (COA); 30 kt NNW and 993 mb at 20 UTC at 52.5N,
53.5W (COA); 35 kt SE and 998 mb at 15 UTC at 52.5N, 50.5W (COA).  A few other
gales.  A few other low pressures.

September 24: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 embedded in an occluded
front, and the center has jumped north and east to near 58N, 45W.  HURDAT
listed this as a 45 kt extratropical low at 58.2N, 49.2W.  Ship
highlights: 35 kt S at 03 UTC at 53.5N, 46.5W (COA); 35 kt SSW at 07 UTC at
54.5N, 45.5W (COA).  No other gales.  No low pressures.

Genesis is begun one day earlier – on the 1st – based upon observations from 
COADS and Historical Weather Maps.  Otherwise, minor track changes were 
introduced for the cyclone except for no alterations on the 3rd to the 7th 
and the 24th.  Few observations were available from the 2nd to the 4th and 
but those that were available were not inconsistent with the recorded track 
and intensity.  A peripheral pressure reading of 990 mb with hurricane force 
winds on the 5th suggests winds of at least 64 kt from the south of 25N Brown 
et al. pressure-wind relationship.  70 kt is retained in HURDAT for 12Z on the 
5th.  Ship observations from the Narenta obtained at NCDC document an eye 
pressure of 957 mb at 06Z on the 8th.  This suggests winds of 104 kt from the 
south of 25N pressure-wind relationship from Brown et al.  Winds in HURDAT are 
boosted from 95 to 105 kt at that time.  No observations were available in the 
inner core on the 9th and 10th, so intensity retained as a Category 3 hurricane 
as originally depicted in HURDAT.  On the 11th, ship observations from MWR and 
COADS both document 60 kt and hurricane force winds at rather high pressures, 
suggesting a rather small circulation was present at that time.  110 kt 
retained on the 11th.  No ships encountered the inner core during the next two 
days.  On the 14th, the ship Mayaro steamed into the calm eye of the hurricane 
from local time 10:15 am to 4 pm (suggesting either slow motion and/or large 
size of the eye).  A pressure reading of 975 mb was obtained, but it does not 
appear this was taken in the eye as the MWR Ocean Gales and Storms table 
records that the winds were S Beaufort 11 (60 kt) for this pressure measured 
at 7 am local – before reaching the eye.  975 mb suggests winds of 79 kt from 
the Brown et al. pressure-wind relationship for systems north of 25N.  It is 
assumed that the central pressure was lower – perhaps significantly so – than 
this value.  However, given the apparent large size of the eye, the report of 
smooth seas in the eye, and the likelihood that the central pressure was not 
940 mb or lower, the intensity is lowered from the 120 kt originally indicated 
in HURDAT to 95 kt.  A peak of 115 kt is now suggested to have occurred on the 
12th, which retains what was originally in HURDAT on that date.  But winds are 
now decreased substantially on the 13th and 14th.  On the 16th through the 
18th, numerous ships encountered hurricane force winds, but none sampled the 
central pressure nor had peripheral pressure lower than 984 mb. Intensity is 
assessed as a Category 2 hurricane through the 18th, reduced some from HURDAT 
originally.  Highest observed winds on the 19th and 20th were 60 and 50 kt, 
respectively, in a fairly data rich region off the US mid-Atlantic states.  
Winds reduced from 80 kt down to 75 kt on the 19th and 75 kt down to 65 kt on 
the 20th.  Despite a fronts being depicted as extending through this system on 
the 21st, the temperature gradient near the center was minimal and the 
winds/pressure field was still quite symmetric.  The cyclone is retained as a 
tropical cyclone an additional 12 hours through 18Z on the 21st.  After 
extratropical transition, the cyclone reintensified with a few hurricane force 
wind reports and a central pressure reading of 976 mb.  Winds are boosted from 
60 to 70 kt on the 22nd.  Final weakening of the cyclone occurred on the 23rd 
with dissipation over the far north Atlantic on the 24th.  The tropical storm 
force winds observed late on the 15th at Cape Hatteras (and again on the 17th 
in Massachusetts) were likely due to the direct effect of the hurricane, but 
with some enhancement from the substantial cold air advection behind the front.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

1926/05 - 2010 REVISION:

23940 09/10/1926 M= 6  5 SNBR= 536 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
23940 09/10/1926 M= 5  5 SNBR= 536 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
                    *

23945 09/10*  0   0   0    0*247 535  60    0*253 540  65    0*259 544  70    0
23945 09/10*  0   0   0    0*256 543  60    0*260 545  65    0*264 547  70    0
                             *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  

23950 09/11*265 547  70    0*272 549  75    0*278 551  75    0*284 553  80    0
23950 09/11*268 549  70    0*273 550  75    0*278 551  75    0*283 552  80    0
            *** ***          *** ***                           *** *** 

23955 09/12*290 554  85    0*297 554  90    0*303 553  90    0*310 551  90    0
23955 09/12*289 553  85    0*295 553  90    0*310 553  90    0*314 552  90    0
            *** ***          *** ***          ***              *** ***  

23960 09/13*318 548  90    0*325 544  80    0*330 541  80    0*335 536  75    0
23960 09/13*318 550  90    0*322 548  80    0*325 545  80    0*327 541  70    0
                ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  **

23965 09/14*332 530  70    0*326 528  60    0*321 527  60    0*317 525  60    0
23965 09/14*327 537  60    0*325 532  50    0*321 527  40    0*317 522  30    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **               **          ***  **

(The 15th is removed from HURDAT.)
23970 09/15*314 522  50    0*311 520  40    0*308 516  35    0*306 496  30    0

23975 HR              
      
Major changes to both the track and intensity shown in McAdie et al. (2009).  
Evidence for these changes comes from the Historical Weather Map series, 
the COADS ship database, and _Monthly Weather Review_.

September 10: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near
25.3N, 55.8W.  HURDAT listed this as a 65 kt hurricane at 25.3N, 54.0W.
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 11: HWM does not analyze a closed low associated with this system.
HURDAT listed this as a 75 kt hurricane at 27.8N, 55.1W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 12: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near
30.3N, 54.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 90 kt hurricane at 30.3N, 55.3W.
Ship highlights: 70 kt ESE and 1000 mb at 12 UTC at 30.8N, 54.0W
(MWR); 50 kt S and 1000 mb at 12 UTC at 30.8N, 54.0W (HWM).  Several other
gales.  No other low pressures.  "On the 12th, a storm of full hurricane 
intensity appeared east of Bermuda, moving in a northeasterly direction" (MWR).

September 13: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near
32.5N, 54.1W.  HURDAT listed this as an 80 kt hurricane at 33.0N, 54.1W.
Ship highlights: 50 kt SE and 1008 mb at 12 UTC at 33.4N, 52.6W
(COA); 45 kt SE and 1008 mb at 12 UTC at 33.4N, 53.0W (HWM).  A few other
gales.  No low pressures.  “This storm was short lived, reports showing 
little evidence of its existence after the 13th” (MWR).

September 14: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near
31.7N, 53.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 60 kt tropical storm at 32.1N, 52.7W.
Ship highlights: 35 kt WSW at 03 UTC at 31.5N, 51.5W (COA); 35
kt SSW at 03 UTC at 29.5N, 51.5W (COA); 0 kt and 1005 mb at 12 UTC at 27.8N,
54.4W (COA).  No other gales or low pressures.

September 15: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near
31.2N, 51.4W with a frontal boundary extending from 37N47W west-southwestward 
to 32N62W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 30.8N, 51.6W.
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

Genesis is unchanged for this hurricane, though data are sparse over the 
eastern subtropical North Atlantic before the 10th of September.  (Certainly 
the system did not actually originate as a 60 kt tropical storm initially, but 
data preclude a more realistic assessment.)  Except for the 15th (which is 
removed from HURDAT), the track changes introduced are all minor and are made 
on every date.  Lack of observations do not allow for a confident assessment 
of intensity on the 10th and 11th, so intensity is not altered on those dates.  
A ship with 70 kt ESE wind accompanied by 1000 mb peripheral pressure was 
observed on the 12th.  Intensity of 90 kt not altered.  HURDAT winds also 
retained on the 13th, due to lack of inner core observations.  Ship data on 
the 14th suggest weakening of the system occurred, both with the reduction of 
peak winds observed (35 kt maximum) and that winds appear to show little to 
no inflow on the northern semi-circle.  The reduction in intensity on the 14th 
is the only major modification to the system’s winds.  Winds reduced at 12 UTC 
on the 14th from 60 down to 40 kt.  Observations on the 15th indicate that 
this system no longer maintained a closed low, as it had opened up into a 
trough as indicated by numerous observations.  (However, the frontal structure 
shown in HWM on the 15th does look suspect given the rather warm, isothermal 
field.)  Dissipation of the cyclone is indicated on 00 UTC of the 15th, 24 
hours earlier than originally indicated.  It is also noted that this hurricane 
was in relatively close proximity (~12 degrees longitude) from the 10th to 
the 13th with Storm #4, a major hurricane during those dates
 
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

1926/06 - 2010 REVISION:

24050 09/11/1926 M= 7  7 SNBR= 538 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
24050 09/11/1926 M= 7  6 SNBR= 537 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
                       *      
24055 09/11*155 791  35    0*160 811  35    0*162 818  35    0*169 827  35    0
24055 09/11*166 817  25    0*168 818  25    0*170 820  30    0*172 825  30    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24060 09/12*173 832  35    0*178 835  35    0*187 835  35    0*192 833  40    0
24060 09/12*174 830  30    0*177 835  30    0*180 840  30    0*185 841  30    0
            *** ***  **      ***      **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24065 09/13*196 830  40    0*200 827  40    0*205 822  40    0*210 817  40    0
24065 09/13*190 840  30    0*195 838  30    0*200 835  30    0*204 831  30    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24070 09/14*215 811  40    0*220 806  35    0*225 800  35    0*233 792  35    0
24070 09/14*208 826  30    0*212 819  30    0*215 810  30    0*221 800  30    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24075 09/15*243 781  35    0*253 773  35    0*258 769  35    0*265 771  35    0
24075 09/15*229 790  35    0*237 780  35    0*245 776  35    0*251 776  35    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  

24080 09/16*264 783  35    0*259 790  35    0*252 799  35    0*248 805  30    0
24080 09/16*254 780  35    0*254 785  35    0*252 790  35    0*248 795  30    0
            *** ***          *** ***              ***              ***

24085 09/17*244 811  30    0*241 816  25    0*237 821  25    0*  0   0   0    0
24085 09/17*244 800  30    0*241 805  25    0*237 810  25    0*  0   0   0    0
                ***              ***              ***
24090 TS                    

Major alterations to the track and minor changes to the intensity shown in 
McAdie et al. (2009).  Evidence for these changes comes from the Historical 
Weather Map series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather Review, and 
Perez et al. (2000).

September 10: HWM analyzes an open trough just northeast of the northeast
coast of Honduras.  HURDAT did not previously analyze the system on this day.
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures associated with this system.

September 11: HWM analyzes a large closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near
18.8N, 83.4W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 16.2N, 81.8W.
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 12: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near
18.6N, 83.4W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 18.7N, 83.5W.
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.  Regarding the track and 
intensity: "On the 12th... a disturbance appeared near Swan Island, in the 
western Caribbean Sea, and moved northeastward over Cuba.  After pursuing an 
irregular course and without attaining great intensity it dissipated over 
the southeastern Gulf of Mexico" (MWR).

September 13: HWM analyzes a large closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near
20N, 83W.  HURDAT listed this as a 40 kt tropical storm at 20.5N, 82.2W.  The
MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 19.6N, 79.4W.
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.  “The disturbance, still of 
slight intensity, passed northeastward over west-central Cuba the evening 
of the 13th” (MWR).

September 14: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near
20.2N, 80.2W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 22.5N, 80.0W.
At 00 UTC, the MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones showed a center near 21.3N,
78.4W with an 1007 mb pressure.  At 12 UTC, the MWR Tracks for Centers of
Cyclones shows a center near 22N, 77.4W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low 
pressures.  Perez et al. – “We classified this one like a tropical 
depression over Cuba”.

September 15: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near
23.4N, 77.4W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 25.8N, 76.9W.
The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 24.6N, 76.9W with
an 1004 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.  
Land highlights: 37 kt NE and 1004 mb at 12 UTC at Nassau, Bahamas at 
25.1N, 77.4W (MWR).  "After leaving Cuba there was a considerable increase 
in intensity as shown by the a.m. report of the 15th from Nassau, Bahamas, 
which showed a barometer reading of 29.64 inches and a wind velocity of 
42 miles an hour from the northeast.  The northeastward progress of the 
disturbance was blocked about this time and it was forced to the west.  
It passed through the Florida Straits the night of the 16th-17th and 
dissipated the next day over the extreme southeastern Gulf of Mexico" (MWR).

September 16: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near
24.1N, 79.1W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 25.2N, 79.9W.
The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 24.5N, 80W with an
1008 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.  

September 17: HWM does not analyze a closed low associated with this system.
HURDAT listed this as a 25 kt tropical depression at 23.7N, 82.1W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures associated with this system. 
Station highlights:  23 kt NW at 01 UTC at Key West (OMR).


Genesis is unchanged from that originally shown in HURDAT.  The only major 
change in the track was at the first position, to provide a realistic initial 
motion.  No gales were observed for this system until the 15th of September.  
The Monthly Weather Review characterized the system to be of “slight intensity” 
up until its crossing Cuba on the 14th.  (Such nomenclature in this era meant 
without gale force winds.)  Likewise, Perez et al. (2000) analyzed the system 
to be of tropical depression at landfall in Cuba.  Thus winds are slightly 
lowered from the 11th to the 14th from minimal tropical storm intensity to 
tropical depression intensity.  After the system emerged into the Atlantic 
Ocean, some intensification occurred as documented by the 37 kt winds and 
1004 mb peripheral observed in the Bahamas on the 15th.  1004 mb pressure 
suggests winds of at least 39 kt and 36 kt from the south of 25N and north 
of 25N pressure-winds relationships from Brown et al. (2004).  Winds are 
chosen to be 35 kt in HURDAT at 12Z on the 15th, partly because of the low 
environmental pressures present with two hurricanes northeast (storm #4) 
and east-southeast (storm #7) of this system.  This tropical cyclone was at 
its peak on the 15th and 16th only a minimal tropical storm.  The system 
then turned back toward the southeast and weakened on the 16th and 17th.  
Decay of the system is unchanged.  It does not appear that this system 
caused tropical storm conditions over southeast Florida.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

1926/07 - 2010 REVISION:

23980 09/11/1926 M=12  6 SNBR= 537 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=4
23980 09/11/1926 M=12  7 SNBR= 538 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=4
                       *            

23985 09/11*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*154 460  55    0*157 471  60    0
23990 09/12*161 482  60    0*164 494  60    0*167 506  65    0*170 519  70    0
23995 09/13*173 533  70    0*175 547  75    0*178 560  75    0*181 573  80    0
24000 09/14*184 586  85    0*188 599  85    0*191 611  90    0*194 622  90    0
24005 09/15*196 631  95    0*198 640 100    0*200 650 100    0*202 661 105    0
24005 09/15*196 630  95    0*198 636 100    0*201 642 100    0*205 650 105    0
                ***              ***          *** ***          *** ***  

24010 09/16*205 672 110    0*209 684 120    0*213 697 125    0*218 712 130    0
24010 09/16*207 660 110    0*209 670 120    0*210 680 125    0*213 693 130    0
            *** ***              ***          *** ***          *** ***  

24015 09/17*224 728 130    0*230 744 130    0*236 758 125    0*241 770 125    0
24015 09/17*217 710 130    0*221 727 130    0*225 743 125    0*232 758 125    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

24020 09/18*246 781 120    0*252 793 120    0*256 803 115  935*262 815 110  950
24020 09/18*242 773 125    0*250 788 125    0*256 803 125  930*262 816  90  950
            *** *** ***      *** *** ***              ***  ***     *** ***  

24025 09/19*268 827 105    0*274 839 105    0*280 850 105    0*286 858 105    0
24025 09/19*268 825 100    0*273 833 105    0*278 841 105    0*284 848 105    0
                *** ***      *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

24030 09/20*291 861 110    0*295 863 110    0*298 867 110    0*300 872 105    0
24030 09/20*290 855 110    0*296 862 110    0*301 868 105    0*303 873 100    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** *** ***      *** *** ***

24035 09/21*302 878  95  955*303 884  60    0*304 891  60  983*306 899  50    0
24035 09/21*303 877  80  955*303 881  65    0*303 886  60  983*304 894  50    0
            *** ***  **          ***  **      *** ***          *** ***   

24040 09/22*307 908  35    0*308 918  25    0*310 929  20    0*  0   0   0    0
24040 09/22*305 905  40    0*306 917  30    0*307 929  25    0*  0   0   0    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      ***      **

24045 HRCFL4BFL3AFL3 AL3    
24045 HRCFL4BFL3AFL3 AL3 MS1    
                         ***

U.S. Continental Hurricanes:
----------------------------
#/Date         Time  Lat    Lon    Max  Saffir RMW   Central   States
                                   Wind Simpson      Pressure  Affected
7-9/18/1926    1200Z 25.6N  80.3W  125kt  4  20nmi    930mb    CFL4,BFL3
7-9/20/1926    2200Z 30.3N  87.5W  100kt  3  15nmi    955mb    AFL3,AL3,MS1
7-9/21/1926    1600Z 30.4N  89.1W   50kt                       MS

Minor alterations to the track and major changes to the intensity shown in 
McAdie et al. (2009).  Evidence for these changes comes from the Historical 
Weather Map series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather Review, the Original 
Monthly Records from NCDC, Connor (1956), Dunn and Miller (1960), Schwerdt et 
al. (1979), Ho et al. (1987), Jarrell et al. (1992), and Barnes (1998).

September 11: HWM does not analyze a closed low.  HURDAT listed this as a 55
kt tropical storm at 15.4N, 46.0W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 12: HWM does not analyze a closed low.  HURDAT listed this as a 65
kt hurricane at 16.7N, 50.6W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 13: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 18N,
57.6W.  HURDAT listed this as a 75 kt hurricane at 17.8N, 56.0W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 14: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near
19.4N, 61.8W.  HURDAT listed this as a 90 kt hurricane at 19.1N, 61.1W.
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.  “The tropical cyclone of 
September 14-22 was first observed on the morning of the 14th northeast 
of St. Kitts” (MWR).

September 15: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 990 mb centered near 19.1N,
64.2W.  HURDAT listed this as an 100 kt hurricane at 20.0N, 65.0W.  
Ship highlights: 70 kt S and 976 mb at 11 UTC at 19.9N, 63.9W (MWR); 60 kt S
and 989 mb at 12 UTC at 19.0N, 63.8W (COA).  A few other gales.  No other ship
observations of low pressures.  Land highlights: 20 kt W and 1001 mb at 12 UTC
at San Juan, Puerto Rico at 18.5N, 66.0W (HWM).

September 16: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near
20.9N, 69.8W.  HURDAT listed this as a 125 kt hurricane at 21.3N, 69.7W.  The
MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 21N, 68.5W.  
Ship highlights: 48 kt W and 1000 mb at 23 UTC at 19.5N, 75.0W (MWR).  No
other ship gales or low pressures.  Land highlights: 87 kt NW and 991 mb at 18
UTC at Turks Island at 21.5N, 71.1W (MWR); 33 kt NW and 1003 mb at 16 UTC at
Turks Island at 21.5N, 71.1W.  No other gales or low pressures.  “At 1 p. m. 
the velocity of the wind had increased to 100 m. p. h. NW., with a very heavy 
sea swell, the intensity of the storm gradually increasing…At this hour the 
office was flooded and the sea breaking over the top, carrying all before it.  
Huge blocks of cement weighing a ton being washed around as if mere pebbles.  
At 1:55 the storm had reached such intensity as to indicate that everything 
would be demolished.  Wind then about 150 m. p. h. [estimated], unroofing the 
office buildings, the roof of corrugated iron being carried about one mile 
inland…the sea reaching inland for about three-quarters of a mile...At 9:30 
p. m., the storm having abated somewhat, the wind suddenly veered round to SE., 
still of a velocity of about 80 m. p. h… The island is a perfect wreck and 
will take a large amount of money and time to put in any state of order” (MWR).

September 17: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 22.7N,
75W.  HURDAT listed this as a 125 kt hurricane centered at 23.6N, 75.8W.  The
MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 22.5N, 74.1W.
Ship highlights: 50 kt SE and 1009 mb at 12 UTC at 24.8N, 72.7W
(COA); 35 kt WSW and 1000 mb at 12 UTC at 21.0N, 74.0W (HWM).  Several other
gales.  A few other low pressures.  Land highlights: 46 kt N and 1001 mb at 18
UTC at Nassau, Bahamas at 25.1N, 77.4W (MWR).  No other gales.  A few other
low pressures.

September 18: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 985 mb centered near 25.3N,
80.8W.  HURDAT listed this as a 115 kt hurricane at 25.6N, 80.3W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 25.8N, 80.5W with a 935 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: 70 kt E and 1008 mb at 09 UTC at
29.3N, 80.5W (MWR); 55 kt W and 988 mb at 10 UTC at 24.5N, 81.5W (MWR).
Several other gales and low pressures.  Land highlights: 10 kt NE and 
935 mb at 1145 UTC at Miami at 25.8N, 80.3W (OMR/MWR); 100 kt NE at 10 UTC 
at Miami, FL at 25.8N, 80.3W (MWR); 111 kt SE at 1230 UTC at Miami Beach, 
FL at 25.8N, 80.3W (MWR); EYE at Bonita Springs at 17 UTC at 26.3N, 81.8W 
(BARNES); EYE and 950 mb at 2015 and 2030 UTC at Punta Rasa, FL at 26.5N, 
82.0W (MWR); 70 kt E and 953 mb at Ft. Myers, FL at 26.5N, 81.9W (MWR); 
14-15' storm tide at Coconut Grove, FL at 25.8N, 80.3W (BARNES).  "It is 
shown that the strong northeast winds diminished and at 6:10 am became 
variable, at first shifting to the southeast and for the next 35 minutes 
momentary winds from all directions were recorded but in the main they 
were from the southeast at velocities of 10 to 12 miles per hour. At this 
time the people of Miami, thinking the storm was over, ventured into the 
streets, as told herein later by Mr. Gray, some of whom doubtless lost
their lives by so doing.  At the time of the passage of the 'eye' of the
storm, Miami was doubtless in or near the northern edge thereof since
Homestead 28 miles to the south, the lull was of but 5 minutes duration"
(MWR).  "From midnight to 6:45 am, at which time the center of the storm
passed over Miami, there was a precipitate fall at the rate of 0.28 inch per
hour.  At 6:45 am a reading of the mercurial barometer showed a pressure of
27.61 inches.  By noon it had rose to 29.30 inches.  At the Weather Bureau
office the wind fell to 10 mph at 6:30 am and at the same time in the northern
part of Miami Beach the wind was 80 mph.  Ten minutes before, the velocity was
108 mph" (MWR).  "At 1:50 am the anemometer reported a velocity of 41 miles,
indicating a true velocity of about 57 miles per hour.  By 2:35 am the true
velocity had increased to 60 mph, and by 3 am telephone service in Miami had
ended.  At 5:00 am true velocity wind was measured of at least 115 miles per
hour" (MWR).  "A velocity of 50 miles was recorded at 7:55 am and a velocity
of 60 miles at 8:55 am.  These recorded velocities are nearly 50 percent less
than the actual velocities.  A Robinson anemometer on the roof of the Allison
Hospital Miami Beach, connected with a Weather Bureau type triple register,
recorded a velocity of 128 miles per hour at 7:30 am.  The anemometer blew
away at 8:12 am at which time it was recording 120 miles per hour.  The storm
tide on the Miami side of Biscayne Bay was approximately eight feet, and
reports indicate a similar tide at Miami Beach" (MWR).  "The known loss of
life in the Miami district was 114.  Many more are missing.  Several thousand
persons were injured, and 25,000 were without shelter after the storm.
Property loss in the greater Miami area has been estimated at $76,000,000.
This does not include damage to house, office, and store furnishings.
Approximately 4,725 homes were destroyed and 9,100 damaged in the area
extending from Fort Lauderdale to Miami" (MWR).  "Nearing the west coast of
extreme southern Florida, the center passed over Bonita Springs, about 20
miles south of Fort Myers, shortly after noon.  it passed into the Gulf of
Mexico during the afternoon, the displayman at Punta Rassa, Fla., reporting a
calm at 3:15 pm and lowest pressure 28.05 inches at 3:30 pm" (MWR).  Miami and
Miami Beach: "The tide ranged from 7.5 feet along the northern part of the
Miami water-front to 11.7 feet along the lower water-front south of Miami
River.  At Miami Beach, the tide was 10.6 feet on the ocean side and 6.4 feet
on the bay side" (MWR).  "Ft. Myers reported barometer 29.04 (983 mb), wind
fifty-two miles north at 1:30 pm [1730 UTC]" (MWR).  Regarding an
interpretation of the wind velocity recorded at Miami Beach, FL: "The hospital
is three-fourths of a mile north of the northern limit of the center of the
hurricane.  The anemometer, a 3-cup Robinson anemometer, cups 5 inches in
diameter or arms 6.29 inches long, factor 2.50, was exposed 19 feet above the
roof and 40 feet above the ground, the ground being 5 feet above mean sea
level.  It was on the eastern ocean side of the hospital roof, about 1,200
feet from the ocean, and freely exposed to wind from all directions.  The
record shows that the wind increased gradually from 29 miles per hour at 9 pm
of the 17th [01 UTC of the 18th], reaching 100 by 4:30 am [0830 UTC], and
continuing above 100 to a peak of 114 at 6:10 am [1010 UTC], after which there
was a slight decrease to a minimum rate of 78 at 6:25 am [1025 UTC]; the wind
increasing again to above   100 and reaching a 5-minute maximum of 128 by 7:30
am, after which the rate continued above 120 until the anemometer blew away at
8:12 am." (MWR).  Read MWR October 1926 page 415 for more information.
Regarding this same topic in OMR: "It was probably between 140 and 150 miles
per hour [at the Allison Hospital] (OMR).  Regarding a destructive gust at
Jupiter, FL following the Miami Hurricane: "Blowing with hurricane force from
the northeast and east throughout most of Friday night, the wind veered to
southeast and south on Saturday, gradually diminishing in velocity to a whole
gale (this happened after the center of the hurricane had passed over the west
FL coast and into the Gulf of Mexico) (MWR).  Coconut Grove, FL: "The lull
came about 5:45 AM and I should judge the wind started the other way about
7:30" (1926 account of the hurricane by a citizen living in Coconut Grove).
Key West: Minimum pressure was 998 mb at [17 UTC] and winds did not exceed a
strong gale (45 kt) (OMR).  Tampa: Minimum pressure was 994 mb at 2130 UTC
(OMR).  Central pressure at landfall – 931 mb, RMW – 19 nm, speed of motion 
– 17 kt, landfall position – 25.6N 80.3W (Ho et al.).  Estimated maximum 
sustained wind at landfall – 116 kt, environmental pressure of 1006 mb 
(Schwerdt et al.).  Central pressure at landfall – 935 mb, Category 4 
(Jarrell et al.)  Tropical cyclones of Florida – Extreme hurricane 
(“Extreme” has central pressure 948 mb or less and/or maximum winds of at 
least 117 kt - Dunn and Miller).  Central pressure at oceanfall – 950 mb, 
RMW – 24 nmi (Ho et al.)

September 19: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 26.9N,
85.3W.  HURDAT listed this as an 105 kt hurricane at 28.0N, 85.0W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 28N, 84.4W.  
Ship highlights: 50 kt E and 1010 mb at 00 UTC at 29.0N, 80.1W (COA); 45 kt SW
and 995 mb at 12 UTC at 25.4N, 83.3W (COA).  A few other gales.  Several other
low pressures.  Land highlights: 56 kt NE and 1001 mb at 10 UTC at
Apalachicola, FL at 29.7N, 85.0W (OMR); 56 kt NE at 18 UTC at Apalachicola, FL
at 29.7N, 85.0W (OMR); 37 kt E and 995 mb at 00 UTC at Tampa, FL at 28.0N,
82.5W (OMR).  Several other strong gales.  Several other low pressures.
Regarding the tide: Tampa: "High tide on September 19 about 2 pm [18 UTC]
reached 4.5 feet above mean low tide.  It was high again on the 20th, being
3.9 feet above mean low tide" (MWR).  Fort Myers: "High water... reaching 4 to
6 feet above normal and flooding certain sections of the city" (MWR).  

September 20: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 985 mb centered near 29.1N,
87.6W.  HURDAT listed this as a 110 kt hurricane at 29.8N, 86.7W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 29.5N, 86.7W.  
Ship highlights: 45 kt WNW and 1003 mb at 00 UTC at 26.3N, 87.0W (COA); 35 kt
SW and 1002 mb at 00 UTC at 26.0N, 86.0W (COA).  A few other gales.  A few
other low pressures.  Land highlights: 96 kt SE and 967 mb at 21Z at Pensacola;  
955 mb at 2130 UTC at Perdido Beach, AL at 30.4N, 87.5W (MWR).  Several other 
observations of winds of at least 90 kts.  Several other low pressures between 
955 and 980 mb.  Regarding the intensity: "The center closely approached, but 
did not reach Pensacola, September 20, where the pressure fell to 28.56 inches.  
The center was definitely located as passing over Perdido Beach, Baldwin Co., 
Ala., where a minimum reading of 28.20 inches was observed between 3 and 4 pm.  
It passed a short distance south of Mobile at 9:30 pm [0230 UTC of the 21st] 
when the barometer at that station reached its minimum of 28.76 inches [974 mb]" 
(MWR).  Regarding the tide at Pensacola: "The high stage of 9.4 feet above mean 
sea level has been accurately determined.  At Bagdad, Fla. there were reports of 
a tide of 14 feet.  Valparaiso reports a tide of about 4 feet above normal; 
St. Andrews 6 feet; and Port St. Joe about 4.5 feet" (MWR).  Pensacola, FL: 
"Winds of hurricane force began at 4:55 am [0955 UTC] of the 20th and 
continued for about 17 hours, and winds of 100 mph prevailed continuously 
for over 4 hours and that rate was recorded at intervals after that time.  
The maximum velocity was 116 miles.  An extreme velocity of 152 miles was 
recorded... the highest stage 9.4 feet occurred about noon of the 20th. 
Estimated damage to shipping in Pensacola was about $880,000 and to other 
property about $200,000" (OMR).  Mobile, Alabama: An approximate of all 
losses in the two counties (Mobile and Baldwin) is $1,500,000.  At least 
3 people died in these two counties (OMR).  Central pressure of 955 mb, 
landfall point of 30.3N 87.5W, RMW of 17 nm, forward speed of 7 kt (Ho et al.).  
Estimated maximum sustained surface winds – 96 kt, environmental pressure 
– 1008 mb (Schwerdt et al.)  Tropical cyclones of Florida – “Major” hurricane 
(which means having winds of 88 to 117 kt – Dunn and Miller). 

September 21: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near
30.3N, 88.7W.  HURDAT listed this as a 60 kt tropical storm at 30.4N, 89.1W.
The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 30.3N, 89W with a
985 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 30 kt WSW and 1001 mb at 00 UTC at 28.4N, 
88.9W (COA).  No gales.  Several other low pressures between 1001-1005
mb.  Land highlights: 87 kt S and 980 mb at 00 UTC at Pensacola, FL at 30.5N,
87.2W (OMR); 974 mb at 0330 UTC at Mobile, Alabama at 30.7N, 88.3W (OMR); EYE
and 985 mb at 15 UTC at Gulfport, Mississippi at 30.3N, 89.2W (MWR/CONNOR).
Several other hurricane force winds between 64-87 kt.  Several other low
pressures between 974-980 mb.  Regarding the intensity: "The center passed a
very short distance south of Pascagoula, Miss., at 5:25 am [1025 UTC] with
lowest pressure 28.99 inches [982 mb].  The northern edge of the eye of the
storm passed over Biloxi about 8 am [13 UTC] with a pressure of 29.03 inches
[983 mb]; at 9 am the center reached Gulfport and there was a calm of 10
minutes during which the barometer read 29.08 inches [985 mb]" (MWR).
Regarding the tide at Apalachicola, FL: "The tide ... along the water front
with highest waves running possibly to 5.0 feet (height of surge after 0930
UTC on the 21st)" (MWR).  Gulfport: "Wind was from the southwest by 6:15 pm
[2315 UTC] having reached a velocity of about 55 miles from the SSE at 2:30 pm
[1930 UTC]" (MWR).  Bay St. Louis: "...9:15 am September 21 the tide began to
rise and it reached 3 feet above normal" (MWR).  New Orleans: 998 mb was
lowest pressure at 20 UTC (OMR).  Shreveport, LA: Lowest pressure was 1006 mb
at 2130 UTC (OMR).

September 22: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 31N,
93W.  HURDAT listed this as a 20 kt tropical depression at 31.0N, 92.9W.  The
MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center at 31N 93W with 1009 mb pressure.  
“By 8 p. m. [on the 21st] the center was some distance northwest of New Orleans 
and during the ensuing 24 hours in moved more rapidly westward over Louisiana and 
dissipated in eastern Texas” (MWR).

(The following are details of analyses conducted by Brian Jarvinen, former 
Storm Surge lead at the National Hurricane Center:
“Hi Chris and Jack,

Over the years I did a fair amount of research on the 1926 hurricane,
especially its impact on south Florida, which includes Miami, Lake
Okeechobee and the west coast of Florida.  At one point, the storm surge
group created the Biscayne Bay basin as it existed in 1926.  Of interest
is that Miami Beach was just being developed and was mostly sand. 
Sea-level spoil areas existed where Dodge Island (i.e.the cruise port)
exists today.  The MacArthur Causeway, with an elevation of about 5-feet
above sea level, was the most significant east-west barrier with
openings at each end.  The Miami Weather Bureau Office obs initially
suggested that the hurricane passed directly over that location, but
closer inspection of the original record obtained from NCDC shows that
the strongest measured gust of 80 mph from the northeast occurred at
4:59 AM as the northwestern part of the eyewall passed over.  The next
highest gust of 60 mph from the southeast was measured at 8:56 AM when
the southeastern portion of the eyewall passed over.  One question, are
these gust maxima at or near the RMW in that particular quadrant?  If
so, this suggests the Miami office was in the eye for about 3-4 hours. 
The wind data from an anemometer on top of the Allison Hospital on Miami
Beach suggested that that site was at or near the RMW.  When we made a
SLOSH model run with the track directly over the Miami office and an RMW
of 6 nm and 935 mb central pressure we did not even come close to the
observed storm tide elevations along Miami Beach, Miami and Ft.
Lauderdale.  Further investigation suggested that the southern portion
of the eyewall passed south of Homestead and Florida City.  I estimated
that the northern RMW passed just north of the Allison Hospital on Miami
Beach and south of Homestead or a distance of approximately 38 nm.  The
half-way point is just south of the Charles Deering Estate.  A SLOSH
model run was made with the track just south of the Charles Deering
(25.6N, 80.3W) with an RMW of 19 nm and a central pressure of 930 mb. 
The SLOSH model results were much closer to the observed high water
marks at all locations, including the 7.4 foot value that we measured at
the Charles Deering location based upon photos of the debris line near
the house, that were taken right after the hurricane.  Note:  The
animation of this SLOSH run, but with the modern day elevations, is
available in the SLOSH display program that Will Shaffer's group
produces.  In the modern basin, the Miami Beach barriers are higher than
in 1926 and the Port of Miami is a major east-west barrier with
elevations of 13 feet at the east end and 10 feet at the west end.

There was a really great eye-witness account by a gentleman who was
walking with his friend to view the damage and get some breakfast in
downtown Miami when the rain stopped at 7 AM.  They were walking in the
eye along Biscayne Boulevard.  They had difficulty standing because of
the strong wind, and had to walk at a 45 degree angle, but made it to a
dinner that was open.  They did not observe any flooding at Bayfront
Park, where many ships were docked, during their walk.  They would not
have been very far from the Miami Weather Bureau Office. Thus, they were
likely walking into the wind which was blowing from the  east or
southeast. While eating, "the second storm started, was worse than the
first storm and was accompanied by a tidal wave, which washed boats up
two blocks from the waterfront".    The Charles Deering track SLOSH
model run confirms, during the first phase of the hurricane, that while
Miami Beach was being over topped by the storm tide with a wind from the
northeast, the water inside of northern Biscayne Bay was being driven
south and not piling up near Bayfront Park.  An eye-witness account at
Dinner Key also confirms this.  The flooding at Biscayne Park and Dinner
Key, which pushed and floated the ships inland, occurred when the
southeastern part of the eyewall passed over and the water was driven
toward the northwest and north.  Water piling up in northern Biscayne
Bay over-topped Miami Beach from the bay side and created channels
across the island.  I used 930 mb because of the likely pressure
gradient between the center and the Miami office (935 mb).  It could
have been a little lower.  I have tried over the years to find
eye-witness accounts south of the track without success.  Obviously,
wind speeds would have been considerably less on the south side and
damage also less.

As the hurricane crossed southern Florida the RMW likely expanded and
the pressure began rising such that it was 950 mb when the center passed
over the "Barracks" on the west coast at Punta Rassa.  The Barracks was
an old Army Signal Corps Station.  Since it took approximately 9 hours
to cross the state, the average filling rate was about 2 mb/hr.  Using
the Lake Okeechobee SLOSH model and inputting the levee locations and
elevations that existed in 1926, plus the lake elevation at the time, we
were able to replicated the flooding that took place as a result of the
levee being over-topped.  As you know there were many drowning
fatalities in and around Moore Haven due to the over-topping.  I think
we estimated the maximum sustained wind speed on the lake at 95 to 100
mph.  The Miami WFO made a copy of a DVD that we made showing an
animated loop of the flooding on Lake Okeechobee for the 1926 and 1928
hurricanes and what would happen with the current levee systems if those
hurricanes were to repeat.  I believe we labeled the SLOSH input values,
at the closest point of approach, in the headers before each animation.

I don't remember exactly what we did for our estimates for SLOSH input
for Pensacola Bay, but I think your values are reasonable for the
Pensacola landfall.  The track direction, RMW and 955 mb would likely
have produced the 7.2 foot storm tide that was observed at the Pensacola
tide gage.

Regards,

Brian”)

No changes are made to the genesis of this major hurricane, though the 
exact location of formation is quite uncertain – and could easily have 
been farther east – given the sparseness of the ship observations.  
Few observations are available for this tropical cyclone from the 11th 
through the 14th.  Because of this, no changes are made on these dates.  
On the 15th, the S.S. Matura measured 976 mb and 60 kt SW wind (with 
peak winds of hurricane force from the S).  This pressure suggests wind 
of at least 83 kt from the Brown et al. south of 25N pressure-wind 
relationship.  100 kt is retained in HURDAT at 12Z on the 15th.  Late 
on the 16th, the hurricane struck Turks Island.  Unfortunately, the 
impact of the cyclone was such that no pressure readings, nor any 
reliable wind observations were available after 18Z (when 87 kt and 
991 mb were observed).  The 87 kt converts to 71 kt after correcting 
for the high bias of the anemometers of the era (Fergusson and Covert 
1924) and adjusting from 5 to 1 min winds (Powell et al. 1996).  The 
described impact of the cyclone in Turks Island is consistent with an 
extreme hurricane and no change is made to 130 kt recorded in HURDAT at 
18Z on the 16th at time of closest approach to Turks Island.  No inner 
core observations were available on the 17th, as the major hurricane 
progressed through the southern Bahamas toward the west-northwest.

The major hurricane made landfall just before 12Z on the 18th of September 
at 25.6N 80.3W.  The eye of the hurricane went over the Miami Weather 
Bureau office and they recorded a 935 mb pressure as the wind lulled to 
10 kt from the northeast.  The center of the hurricane was slightly 
south of the Miami Weather Bureau office and a central pressure at 
landfall is analyzed to be slightly deeper at 930 mb, in accordance 
with the analysis conducted by Brian Jarvinen utilizing the SLOSH 
model in the context of the observed track and storm surge heights.  
This is slightly more intense than that estimated by Jarrell et al. 
(which used the 935 mb value), and about the same as analyzed (931 mb) 
by Ho et al.  The 930 mb value replaces the 935 mb indicated 
previously in HURDAT at 12Z on the 18th.   Highest observed winds 
were 100 kt 5 min from the Miami Weather Bureau using the earlier 
standard 4 cup anemometer and 111 kt 5 min from a new Patterson 3 
cup anemometer at the Allison Hospital at Miami Beach.  The first 
adjusts to 81 kt, while the latter instrument has a much smaller 
bias (only 4% too high – Kadel 1926) and gives 113 kt 1 min 
equivalent.  From the MWR:  “The disparity between the wind velocities 
at the two exposures mentioned is therefore greater than the figures 
would indicate; this is due to the blanketing effect of recently 
erected high buildings which almost completely surround the three-story 
Federal office building in which the Weather Bureau office is housed.”  
930 mb central pressure suggests wind of 130 and 124 kt from the 
north of 25N and south of 25N, respectively, pressure-wind 
relationships from Brown et al.  The outer closed isobar is 1009 mb 
(analyzed to be higher than indicated in Schwerdt et al.) and the 
translational velocity is a fairly quick 14 kt.  The RMW analysis of 
about 20 nmi from both Jarvinen and Ho et al. appears reasonable and 
is slightly larger from climatology for that central pressure and 
latitude (Vickery et al.)  The somewhat low environmental pressure and 
larger RMW may offset the impact of the quick forward speed.  Thus the 
maximum sustained wind at landfall in SE Florida is estimated to be 
125 kt.  This makes the cyclone a Category 4 hurricane for SE Florida, 
which is the same as initially indicated in HURDAT and Jarrell et al.  
Winds at 12Z are boosted from 115 kt shown originally to 125 kt.  
(All of the Weather Bureau stations were still using the old style 4 
cup anemometer until 1 January 1928 (MWR 1927).  The Miami Beach reading 
during the hurricane was with a new 3-cup Robinson anemometer was from 
Allison Hospital.)

The hurricane quickly moved across the state and the eye was observed at 
Bonita Springs at 17Z and at Punta Rasa at 2030Z along with a central 
pressure of 950 mb at the latter.  A run of the Kaplan and DeMaria inland 
wind decay model suggests winds of 76 kt at 18Z.  Highest observed wind 
within 2 hr of 18Z were 47 kt at Ft. Myers.  The 950 mb central pressure 
suggests winds of 105 kt from the north of 25N pressure-wind wind 
relationship.  However, the maximum winds at this time were still 
overland.  Adjustment from marine exposure to open terrain over land is 
a 15% reduction (Vickery et al. 2009), or down to about 89 kt.  Winds at 
18Z are thus estimated to be 90 kt, given that the hurricane was close 
to the west coast after passing the Everglades (so, higher than Kaplan 
and DeMaria’s model) but still overland (so, substantially less indicated 
by the pressure-wind relationship).  Adjusting HURDAT from 110 kt down 
to 90 kt at 18Z on the 18th is a major intensity change, the only one 
introduced for this cyclone.  Southwest Florida (“BFL”) is estimated to 
have been impacted by Category 3 winds, which is the same as initially 
indicated in HURDAT and Jarrell et al.

After re-emerging in the Gulf of Mexico, the hurricane turned toward the 
northwest.  It is likely that moving back over to marine exposure allowed the 
hurricane’s winds to increase somewhat, given that the system still had 950 mb 
central pressure right before making oceanfall.  No inner core observations 
were available on the 19th.  The hurricane made a second landfall at 30.3N 
87.5W near Perdido Beach, AL just before 2200Z on the 20th.  There was a 
central pressure measurement at that location of 955 mb.  This suggests winds 
of 100 kt from the north of 25N Brown et al. pressure-wind relationship.  
Maximum 5 min winds were 96 kt at Pensacola at 21Z, which adjusts down to 81 kt 
1 min true winds.  The hurricane made landfall with an RMW of about 15-20 nmi 
(slightly smaller than climatology of 21 nmi), an outer closed isobar of 
1008 mb, and a slow forward motion of 4 kt.  Overall, this would suggest a 
small downward adjustment of the winds from that indicated by the pressure-wind 
relationship.  100 kt is chosen at 18Z on the 20th (reduced from 105 kt 
originally) and at landfall, which makes the hurricane a Category 3 for Alabama 
and NW Florida.  (These are the same categorizations as originally indicated 
in HURDAT.)  The hurricane’s center went back over the Gulf of Mexico near 
Mobile and moved westward between the barrier islands and the Alabama and 
Mississippi coast for just over 12 hours.  The third landfall occurred around 
16Z on the 21st in Mississippi near 30.4N 89.1W with maximum winds around 
60 kt. A run of the Kaplan and DeMaria inland wind-decay model gives winds of 
80, 65, 55, 45, and 41 kt at 00Z, 06Z, 12Z, 18Z (21st), and 00Z (22nd), 
respectively.  Highest observed winds (within two hours of the synoptic time) 
were:  87, 64, 43, 57, and 36 kt, but these correct down to 70, 52, 36, 48, 
and 30 kt, respectively.  Winds are chosen for HURDAT near the Kaplan and 
DeMaria model for the first three time periods, but above it based upon 
available observations.  Also, based upon the track, intensity and size of the 
cyclone, Category 1 conditions were likely observed in Mississippi as well 
(along the barrier islands), which is new to HURDAT.  No changes are made to 
the decay of this major hurricane.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++


1926/08 - 2010 REVISION:

24095 09/21/1926 M=11  8 SNBR= 539 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
24100 09/21*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*280 516  45    0*285 498  50    0
24100 09/21*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*290 490  45    0*291 484  50    0
                                              *** ***          *** ***

24105 09/22*289 482  55    0*293 468  60    0*297 457  65    0*299 449  70    0
24105 09/22*292 478  55    0*293 472  60    0*295 465  65    0*297 456  70    0
            *** ***              ***          *** ***          *** ***

24110 09/23*301 442  75    0*303 435  75    0*306 427  80    0*311 419  80    0
24110 09/23*300 447  75    0*303 437  75    0*306 427  80    0*308 418  80    0
            *** ***              ***                           *** ***

24115 09/24*316 411  85    0*321 402  85    0*326 392  90    0*330 380  90    0
24115 09/24*310 410  85    0*312 401  85    0*315 392  90    0*323 382  90    0
            *** ***          *** ***          ***              *** ***

24120 09/25*335 365  95    0*339 350 100    0*343 335 105    0*347 319 105    0
24120 09/25*348 370  90    0*360 356  90    0*365 340  90    0*366 322  90    0
            *** ***  **      *** *** ***      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24125 09/26*352 303 105    0*357 286 100    0*362 271  95    0*372 257  90    0
24125 09/26*365 303  90    0*365 284  90    0*367 265  90    0*372 257  90    0
            ***      **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24130 09/27*384 248  90    0*395 250  85    0*404 265  80    0*405 273  80    0
24130 09/27*382 255  90    0*395 258  85    0*404 265  80    0*405 275  75    0
            *** ***              ***                               ***  **

24135 09/28*404 285  75    0*395 297  75    0*385 300  70    0*381 299  70    0
24135 09/28*404 285  70    0*395 292  65    0*385 295  60    0*381 295  60    0
                     **          ***  **          ***  **          ***  **

24140 09/29*377 297  70    0*373 294  65    0*369 291  60    0*362 288  60    0
24140 09/29*377 293  55    0*373 290  55    0*369 285  50    0*364 282  50    0
                ***  **          ***  **          ***  **      *** ***  **

24145 09/30*353 284  60    0*343 280  55    0*336 276  50    0*332 270  45    0
24145 09/30*358 280  45    0*352 278  45    0*345 276  40    0*340 270  40    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      ***      **      ***      **

24150 10/01*330 263  40    0*330 255  35    0*332 246  35    0*340 232  30    0
24150 10/01*336 263  40    0*334 255  35    0*332 246  35    0*330 235  30    0
            ***              ***                               *** ***
24155 HR                    

Major changes to the track and minor alterations to the intensity shown in 
McAdie et al. (2009).  Evidence for these changes comes from the Historical 
Weather Map series, the COADS ship database, and Monthly Weather Review.

September 21: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near
28.5N, 52.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 45 kt tropical storm at 28.0N, 51.6W.
Ship highlights: 35 kt SW and 1003 mb at 23 UTC at 29.5N, 47.5W (COA).  
No other gales or low pressures.

September 22: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near
29.4N, 46.2W.  HURDAT listed this as a 65 kt hurricane at 29.7N, 45.7W.
Ship highlights: 50 kt W and 1001 mb at 03 UTC at 29.5N, 47.5W (COA);
45 kt N and 990 mb at 12 UTC at 29.8N, 47.3W (HWM/COA).  A few other gales.
One other low pressure.

September 23: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb near 29.9N, 41.1W.
HURDAT listed this as an 80 kt hurricane at 30.6N, 42.7W.  Ship
highlights: 35 kt WSW and 1008 mb at 19 UTC at 28.5N, 43.5W (COA); 35 kt WSW
and 1010 mb at 23 UTC at 28.5N, 43.5W (COA).  No other gales.  No low
pressures.

September 24: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near
30.6N, 39.3W with a weak SW-NE cold front just to the northwest of the low.
HURDAT listed this as a 90 kt hurricane at 32.6N, 39.2W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 25: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near
34.4N, 32.8W.  HURDAT listed this as an 105 kt hurricane at 34.3N, 33.5W.
Ship highlights: 70 kt NNE and 985 mb at 08 UTC at 36.3N 35.4W (MWR);  
50 kt SE at 02 UTC at 35.4N, 36.4W (COA); 20 kt S and 996 mb at 12 UTC at 
36.0N, 33.3W (COA); 45 kt N at 10 UTC at 34.4N, 37.4W (COA); 35 kt NW and 
1004 mb at 12 UTC at 34.7N, 36.3W (COA).  A few other gales.  No other 
low pressures.  “On the 25th a fifth disturbance of tropical origin 
appeared southwest of the Azores, moving on a northeasterly course” (MWR).

September 26: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 990 mb centered near 35.7N,
26.8W.  HURDAT listed this as a 95 kt hurricane at 36.2N, 27.1W.  Ship highlights: 
70 kt NE at 02 UTC at 36.5N, 30.5W (COA); 40 kt NNE and 996 mb at 19Z at 
38.4N 28W (MWR);  45 kt NNW and 998 mb at 12 UTC at 35.3N, 29.7W (COA).  
Several other strong gales.  A few other low pressures between 995-1005 mb.  
Station highlights:  66 kt N (no time) and 997 mb (no time) at Horta, Azores 
Islands (MWR).  "On the 26th the station at Horta (Azores) reported northerly 
winds reaching a maximum velocity of 76 mph (66 kts).  By 4 pm of that day the 
center appeared to be somewhat north of the islands, the pressure at Horta 
having risen from 29.45 [997 mb] to 29.54 [1000 mb] inches and the wind 
shifted to northwest.  During the following 24 hours the center appears to 
have moved westward or possibly southwestward, and to have increased in 
intensity.  At 4 pm on the 27th the pressure at Horta had fallen to 29.18 
inches [988 mb], wind southeast ~35 kt. At 6 am on the 28th, the pressure 
at Horta was 29.08 inches [985 mb], wind east-southeast at 20 kt" (MWR).

September 27: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 990 mb centered near 41.3N,
26.4W.  HURDAT listed this as an 80 kt hurricane at 40.4N, 26.5W.  Ship
highlights: 50 kt ESE and 980 mb at 02 UTC at 39.5N, 23.5W (COA); 35 kt NNW
and 978 mb at 14 UTC at 40.5N, 27.5W (COA); 50 kt NNW and 980 mb at 21Z at 
38.4N, 30.4W (MWR).  Several other strong gales. Several other low pressures 
between 978-1000 mb.  Station highlights:  1000 mb at 00Z at Horta (MWR).

September 28: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 37.9N,
30.6W.  HURDAT listed this as a 70 kt hurricane at 38.5N, 30.0W.  
Ship highlights: 50 kt E and 994 mb at 02 UTC at 39.5N, 29.5W (COA);
25 kt S and 990 mb at 12 UTC at 38.3N, 28.8W (COA).  Several other strong
gales.  Several other low pressures between 990-1000 mb.  Station highlights:  
35 kt SE and 988 mb at 00Z and 20 kt ESE and 985 mb at 08Z at Horta (MWR).

September 29: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near
37.1N, 28.2W.  HURDAT listed this as a 60 kt tropical storm at 36.9N, 29.1W.
Ship highlights: 35 kt NW at 02 UTC at 36.5N, 31.5W (COA); 30 kt NNW and 
1004 mb at 02 UTC at 37.4N, 33.4W (COA).  No other gales.  One other low pressure.

September 30: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near
33.5N, 26.8W.  HURDAT listed this as a 50 kt tropical storm at 33.6N, 27.6W.
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

October 1: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 33N,
24.7W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 33.2N, 24.6W.
Ship highlights: 35 kt S at 10 UTC at 34.0N, 23.0W (COA).  No other gales.  No
low pressures.

No changes were made to the genesis of this hurricane.  Large alterations were 
made to its track on the 21st and 25th based upon available observations, but 
otherwise small changes were introduced for the remaining portion of the track.  
A 990 mb peripheral pressure was observed on the 22nd, which suggests at least 
59 kt from the north of 25N pressure-wind relationship from Brown et al.  This 
is consistent with the original HURDAT making the cyclone a hurricane on this 
date and no changes are made to the intensity for the 22nd.  No observations 
were available on the 23rd and 24th near the center, so no changes were made 
to the intensity on those dates.  On the 25th, a ship observed 985 mb with NNE 
70 kt, simultaneously.  This suggests winds of at least 66 kt from the north 
of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  The combination of this ship at 08Z and a 
second ship at 12Z with S 20 kt wind/996 mb allows for a fairly accurate 
positioning of the hurricane.  The first ship is estimated to have been about 
30 nm from the center of the hurricane, supporting – along with the data from 
the second ship – a reduction in the intensity.  Winds are thus reduced from 
105 kt (peak for the system) down to 90 kt (revised peak for the system).  
Late on the 26th, the hurricane struck the Azores Islands.  Observations from 
Horta indicated that a maximum velocity (5 min) of 66 kt occurred.  This 
reduces down to 54 kt after correcting for the high bias of the anemometers 
of the era (Fergusson and Covert 1924) and adjusting from 5 to 1 min winds 
(Powell et al. 1996).  No change made to the 90 kt recorded in HURDAT at the 
likely time of these winds in Horta (~18Z 26th).  On the 27th and 28th as the 
cyclone was executing a counter-clockwise loop around the Azores, the size of 
the system became quite large with cool surface temperatures, but little to no 
temperature gradient and no obvious frontal boundaries.  The cyclone in the 
satellite era might have been characterized as a subtropical storm at this 
point in its lifecycle.  Pressures as low as 985 mb were recorded on the 28th 
from Horta, which would normally suggest winds of at least 68 kt from the 
northern pressure-wind relationship.  Given the expanded size and reduced 
pressure gradient, intensity is analyzed at 12Z on the 28th to be 60 kt, 
revised downward from 70 kt originally.  Winds are reduced slightly on the 
29th and 30th based upon ship observations suggesting a gradually spinning down 
cyclone as it drifted southward and then eastward.  No change is made to the 
dissipation of the system.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

1926/09 - 2010 REVISION:

24470 10/03/1926 M= 3  9 SNBR= 546 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0                     
24475 10/03*  0   0   0    0*166 800  35    0*166 813  35    0*166 822  35    0*
24475 10/03*145 790  30    0*145 794  35    0*145 800  35    0*146 810  35    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

24480 10/04*165 832  35    0*164 841  35    0*164 850  35    0*163 861  35    0*
24480 10/04*150 822  35    0*155 836  35    0*160 850  35    0*163 864  35    0*
            *** ***          *** ***          ***                  ***

24485 10/05*150 826  30    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*
24485 10/05*164 877  30    0*165 889  30    0*165 900  25    0*  0   0   0    0*
            *** ***          *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24490 TS   
                 
Major changes to the track but with no alterations to intensity shown in McAdie 
et al. (2009).  Evidence for these changes comes from the Historical Weather Map 
series, the COADS ship database, and _Monthly Weather Review_.

October 3: HWM analyzes an open trough in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of
Honduras.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 16.6N, 81.3W.
Ship highlights: 35 kt E and 1012 mb at 07Z at 18.2N 82.6W (MWR, COA); 
35 kt E and 1012 mb at 12 UTC at 18.2N, 82.5W (HWM); 20 kt ESE and 
1005 mb at 21 UTC at 13.5N, 78.5W (COA).  No other gales or low pressures.  
"A disturbance of slight intensity was located south of Swan Island on the 
morning of the 3rd.  It advanced slowly northwestward and was last 
susceptible of identification on the evening of the 4th off the coast of 
British Honduras.  The highest wind velocity reported in connection with 
this disturbance was 42 miles per hour, by the S. S. Toloa at 1 a. m. of the 
3d in latitude 18 degrees 10’, longitude 82 degrees 40’, approximately" (MWR).  

October 4: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1008 mb centered near 16.5N,
85W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 16.4N, 85.0W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

October 5: HWM analyzes an open trough of low pressure over the southwestern
Caribbean Sea.  HURDAT last listed this at 00 UTC as a 30 kt tropical
depression at 15.0N, 82.6W.  Ship highlights: None.

Genesis for this tropical storm is begun six hours earlier at 00Z on the 3rd 
based upon observations of gale force around 07Z.  A major southward change to 
the track of the cyclone is introduced on the 3rd because of easterly ship 
observations south of the original HURDAT position.  Data are somewhat 
inconclusive, however, whether a closed low was actually present on this 
date.  A major alteration on the position of the cyclone is also made on the 
5th.  (A portion of this major change, however, is in correcting a typo in the 
original HURDAT, which gave a longitude of 82.6W at 00Z on the 5th, whereas the 
McAdie et al. track map show a position of 87.6W.)  The decay of the cyclone is 
delayed by 12 hours to a final position inland over Guatemala.  The peak 
intensity of this tropical storm – 35 kt – is unchanged.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

1926/10 - 2010 REVISION:

24185 10/14/1926 M=11 10 SNBR= 541 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0
24185 10/14/1926 M=15 10 SNBR= 541 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=1
                   **                               *     *

24190 10/14*  0   0   0    0* 95 807  35    0*107 808  35    0*109 809  35    0
24190 10/14*  0   0   0    0*115 812  25    0*115 810  25    0*116 809  30    0
                             *** ***  **      *** ***  **      ***      **

24195 10/15*111 809  35    0*114 810  35    0*116 811  35    0*119 812  40    0
24195 10/15*117 808  35    0*118 807  35    0*120 807  35    0*121 806  40    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

24200 10/16*121 813  40    0*123 814  45    0*126 814  45    0*129 815  50    0
24200 10/16*122 806  40    0*124 805  45    0*126 805  45    0*129 805  50    0
            *** ***          *** ***              ***              ***

24205 10/17*132 816  50    0*135 816  55    0*139 817  55    0*144 818  60    0
24205 10/17*132 805  50    0*135 806  55    0*139 807  55    0*143 809  60  993
                ***              ***              ***          *** ***      ***

24210 10/18*150 820  65    0*156 822  70    0*163 824  75    0*170 826  75    0
24210 10/18*148 812  65    0*153 815  70    0*158 818  75    0*165 823  80  974
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  **  ***

24215 10/19*177 827  80    0*184 828  85    0*191 829  85    0*198 829  90    0
24215 10/19*173 827  95    0*182 830 115    0*191 829 120    0*198 829 120    0
            ***      **      *** *** ***              ***              ***

24220 10/20*205 829  95    0*213 828 100    0*222 824 105    0*231 819 100    0
24220 10/20*205 829 125    0*213 828 125  939*223 827 130  934*234 821 120    0
                    ***              ***  *** *** *** ***  *** *** *** ***

24225 10/21*243 807  95    0*256 797  95    0*269 780 100    0*280 753 105    0
24225 10/21*245 810 110  949*256 797 110    0*269 780 110    0*280 755 110    0
            *** *** ***  ***         ***              ***          *** ***

24230 10/22*291 725 110    0*303 696 115    0*314 667 115    0*327 637 100    0
24230 10/22*291 730 110    0*301 703 110    0*312 675 105    0*324 647 105  962 
                ***          *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** *** ***  ***

24235 10/23E342 607  90    0E356 577  70    0E370 548  65    0E382 522  60    0
24235 10/23*338 622  95    0*351 597  85    0*360 572  75    0*364 547  70    0
           **** ***  **     **** ***  **     **** ***  **     **** ***  **

24240 10/24E392 501  60    0E402 483  60    0E410 467  60    0E454 410  55    0
24240 10/24*366 522  70    0*368 500  70    0*370 480  70    0*372 465  70    0
           **** ***  **     **** ***  **     **** ***  **     **** ***  **

(The 25th to the 28th are new to HURDAT.)
24241 10/25*373 455  75    0*374 448  75    0*373 445  80    0*368 442  80    0
24242 10/26*356 446  75    0*340 456  65    0*325 470  55    0*313 485  50    0
24243 10/27*303 500  50    0*295 515  50    0*290 530  50    0*288 542  50    0
24244 10/28*290 550  45    0E297 555  40    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0

24245 HR                    
24245 HRBFL1CFL1  
        ********                  

U.S. Continental Hurricanes:
----------------------------
#/Date         Time  Lat    Lon    Max  Saffir RMW   Central   States
                                   Wind Simpson      Pressure  Affected
10-10/21/1926 0300Z 25.0N  80.3W   75kt  1  20nmi    949mb    DFL2,CFL1

Major changes to the track and to the intensity shown in McAdie et al. (2009).  
Evidence for these changes comes from the Historical Weather Map series, the 
COADS ship database, Monthly Weather Review, the Original Monthly Records from 
NCDC, Ho et al. (1987), and Perez et al. (2000).  Track changes while over Cuba 
and near the Florida Keys are provided by Daniel Gladstein.

October 14: HWM analyzes an open trough of low pressure in the western
Caribbean Sea.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 10.7N, 80.8W.
Ship highlights: 10 kt VAR and 1005 mb at 12 UTC at 11.4N, 77.4W (COA).  
No gales.  No other low pressures.  “Beginning on the 14th and continuing for 
several days pressure fell slowly over the southwestern Caribbean and 
Canal Zone region” (MWR).

October 15: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1008 mb centered near 18N,
80.7W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 11.6N, 81.1W.
Ship highlights: 5 kt E and 1005 mb at 21 UTC at 13.0N, 79.0W (COA).  
No gales.  No other low pressures associated with this system.

October 16: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 14.3N,
80.4W.  HURDAT listed this as a 45 kt tropical storm at 12.6N, 81.4W.
Ship highlights: 35 kt NW and 1004 mb at 12 UTC at 12.0N, 80.8W (HWM); 
35 kt NW and 1004 mb at 13 UTC at 11.4N, 82.9W (COA); 10 kt SSE and 
1003 mb at 12 UTC at 18.0N, 78.7W (COA); 20 kt SW and 1000 mb at ~20 UTC 
(MWR/NCDC). No other gales.  Several other low pressures between 1000-1005 mb.  
Land highlights: 1005 mb at 00 UTC and 12 UTC at Swan Island at 17.5N, 84.2W (OMR).  
“From reports now available it would appear that a cyclonic circulation existed as 
early as the 16th” (MWR).

October 17: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near 15.7N,
81.8W.  HURDAT listed this as a 55 kt tropical storm at 13.9N, 81.7W.
Ship highlights: 35 kt NW and 1003 mb at 12 UTC at 13.0N, 83.3W
(COA); 25 kt N and 996 mb at 20 UTC at 14.3N, 81.5W (COA/MWR).  No other
gales.  Several other low pressures between 996-1005 mb.  Land highlights: 10
kt N and 1004 mb at 12 UTC at Swan Island at 17.5N, 84.2W (OMR).  35 kt NW and
1003 mb at 12 UTC 13.0N, 83.3W.  One other low pressure.

October 18: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 15.5N,
82.4W.  HURDAT listed this as a 75 kt hurricane at 16.3N, 82.4W.  
Ship highlights: calm and 974 mb at 17 UTC and 70 kt S (no time) at 16.5N, 
82.3W (MWR); 973 mb at 18 UTC at 16.5N, 82.3W (COA).  A few other strong gales.  
Several other low pressures between 973-996 mb.  Land highlights: 28 kt NE and 
999 mb at 2340 UTC at Swan Island at 17.5N, 84.2W (OMR).  No gales.  A few other 
low pressures.  “On the morning of the 18th the tropical disturbance previously 
referred to was in the vicinity of Swan Island” (MWR).

October 19: HWM analyzes a closed low of 970 mb centered near 18.3N, 83.8W.  
HURDAT listed this as an 85 kt hurricane at 19.1N, 82.9W.  Ship highlights: 
ENE 70 kt and 950 mb at 06 UTC at 18.5N, 82.9W (MWR); NE 70 kt and 987 mb at 
21 UTC at 20.5N, 84.3W (MWR).  A few other gales.  Several other low pressures 
between 950-1005 mb.  Land highlights: 23 kt NE and 1000 mb at 00 UTC at Swan 
Island at 17.5N, 84.2W (OMR); 26 kt W and 1001 mb at 12 UTC at Swan Island at 
17.5N, 84.2W (OMR).  "The disturbance moved north-northwestward with rapidly 
increasing intensity, passing near and to the east of Swan Island during the 
night of the 18th-19th…During the daylight hours of the 19th the center 
moved almost due north and during the next 12 hours northeast, passing over 
Nueva Gerona, on the Isle of Pines at 3 am of the 20th, when a calm lasting 
30 minutes was noted" (MWR).

October 20: HWM analyzes a closed low of 950 mb centered near 22.5N,
82.6W.  HURDAT listed this as an 105 kt hurricane at 22.2N, 82.4W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 22.5N, 82.2W with a
pressure somewhere between 948 and 950 mb.  Ship highlights: NE 70 kt and 
958 mb at 22 UTC, NW 10 kt and 954 mb at 2220 UTC, NW 70 kt and 956 mb at 
2245 UTC at 24.4N, 80.9W (NCDC/MWR); 70 kt N and 984 mb at 07 UTC at 24.1N, 
82.2W (MWR); E 70 kt at at ~24.5N 80.7W; calm and 949 mb at 2230Z at ~24.3N 
80.8W; NW 70 kt at at ~24.3N 80.8 (S.S. Munplace).  Several other strong 
gales and hurricane force winds.  Several other low pressures.  Land 
highlights: 86 kt and 951 mb at 1610 UTC at Habana, Cuba at 23.2N, 82.5W 
(MWR); 939 mb (eye) at Neuva Gerona (Perez); 939 mb (in edge of eye) at 
Guira De Melena, Cuba at 22.8N, 82.5W; 939 mb (in edge of eye) at Cojimar 
(Perez).  Several other strong gales. “Central pressure estimate of 932 mb 
at point of closest approach to the Keys, based upon 988 mb observed in 
Key West, 21 nmi RMW, 16 kt forward speed” (Ho et al.) "The barometer at 
Habana, Cuba was 951 mb at 11:10 am on the 20th.  The lowest swing during 
a furious gust was 933 mb.  The barometer fell about 34 millibars in about 
30 minutes.  Rainfall at Habana during the 20th was 20.08 inches.  Damage 
was enormous in the Isle of Pines and in the Province of Habana" (MWR).  
"On 20 October 1926 from 1:00 pm to 10:30 pm between latitude 24.6N, 
longitude 80.7W and latitude 24.0N, longitude 81.0W, this vessel was 
in a hurricane.  The wind began from the east and blew with a force of 
11-12 (approximately 125 miles an hour); heavy rain and lightning.  
From 5:00 pm to 5:45 pm, the vessel was in the center, with clear sky 
and calm; barometer registering as low as 28.03 [949 mb].  The wind then 
came back out of the northwest, force 12" (Report from the American S.S. 
MUNPLACE).  Miami, FL:  "The most serious result of the storm (Great 
Miami Hurricane of 1926) was the effect upon the morale of the residents 
of the lower east coast of Florida. Alarming and persistent rumors of 
hurricanes, tidal waves... had kept a large percentage of the population 
in a state bordering panic since the day following the September storm.  
The occurrence of another hurricane greatly intensified this condition, 
and caused many thousands of persons to leave Miami and the neighboring 
towns.  About 5,000 persons left Miami on October 20, after the 
hurricane warnings were displayed" (OMR).  

October 21: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 950 mb centered near 26.9N,
77.4W.  HURDAT listed this as an 100 kt hurricane at 26.9N, 78.0W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 26.5N, 76.7W with a
pressure somewhere between 948 and 950 mb.  Ship highlights: 70 kt and 
951 mb at 27.3N, 73.8W (MWR); 70 kt S and 963 mb at 18 UTC at 26.8N, 76.5W 
(MWR); 70 kt SSW at 13 UTC at 26.5N, 76.5W (COA).  Several other gales.  
Several other low pressures.  Land highlights: 45 kt NW and 989 mb at 05 
UTC at Miami, FL at 25.8N, 80.3W (OMR).  Several other gales.  A few other 
low pressures.  "A maximum velocity of 62 (5 minute) or 74 (one minute) 
miles per hour from the north was recorded at Key West, with gusts 80-85 mph 
(the center passing 40 miles to the southeastward of Key West).  At Miami 
winds reached gale force with an estimated velocity of 70 miles per hour 
from the north-northeast.  While there was some damage on the southeast and 
extreme southern Florida coast, it was not severe, as the storm center 
passed some 30 miles off the coast.  The lowest barometer at Key West was 
29.18 inches [988 mb] at 4:14 pm [2114 UTC] of the 20th.  At Miami it was 
29.22 inches [989 mb] at 12:40 am [0540 UTC] of the 21st" (MWR).  Miami, FL: 
"A storm tide was about 4 feet at Miami and Miami Beach" (OMR).  Miami had 
minor damage mostly to crops, structures damaged by several inches of rain 
from this storm because of no roof as a result of the September storm, and 
some boats washed ashore (OMR).

October 22: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 985 mb centered near 30.7N,
65.8W with the southwest end of a SW-NE warm front north of the center.
HURDAT listed this as an 115 kt hurricane at 31.4N, 66.7W.  The MWR Tracks for
Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 31.3N, 67W with a 968 mb pressure.
Ship highlights: 70 kt NE at 16Z, 965 mb at 17Z, 70 NW at 18Z at 32.3N 64.8W 
(NCDC); 70 kt NNE and 987 mb at 1730Z at 33.1N 64.3W (NCDC); 60 kt NE and 
991 mb at 13 UTC at 30.5N, 68.5W (COA); 50 kt E and 986 mb at 08 UTC at 
30.5N, 67.5W (COA).  Several other gales and several other low pressures.  
Land highlights: 111 kt NW at Bermuda at 32.4N, 64.7W (MWR); EYE: 7 kt and 
963 mb at 1645 UTC at Bermuda at 32.4N, 64.7W (MWR); 99 kt NW and 968 mb at 
1730 UTC at Bermuda at 32.4N, 64.7W (MWR). A few other gales.  Several 
other low pressures.  "The roofs of probably 40 percent to the houses were 
more or less damaged.  No one was killed and one slightly injured, and 
there was no damage to speak of to the small boats in the harbor.  The 
telephone was hit hard, but the electric lights were back on in Hamilton 
by the evening of the 22nd and 23rd" (MWR).  

October 23: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near 37N,
58W embedded in an occluded front.  HURDAT listed this as a 65 kt
extratropical low centered at 37.0N, 54.8W.  Ship highlights: 70 kt NNW and 
991 mb at 02 UTC at 35.3N, 62.7W (MWR).  Several other gales.  Several other 
low pressures between 991-1000 mb.  

October 24: HWM analyzed an extratropical low of at most 1005 mb in a SSW-NNE
occluded front centered at 41N, 49W.  The MWR Weather Map of the North Atlantic
Ocean, October 24, 1926, shows a center near 41N, 49.5W.  Ship highlights: 
70 kt SW at 12 UTC at 38.7N 49.2W (NCDC); 50 kt NNE and 1004 mb at 12 UTC at 
41.7N, 51.5W (COA); 50 kt N at 19 UTC at 38.5N, 50.5W (COA); 50 kt NNW at 23 
UTC at 38.5N, 50.5W (COA).

October 25: HWM analyzed a deepening low of a most 1000 mb, with a weakening
SSW-NNE occluded front.  The low now had a minimal temperature gradient and
several strong gales near the center at near 36.5N, 44W.  The MWR Weather Map
of the North Atlantic Ocean, October 25, 1926, shows a center near 38N, 42.5W.
Ship highlights: 979 mb (no time) and 50 kt SW (no time) at 37N 43.5W (NCDC); 
WSW 60 kt and 999 mb at 21 UTC at 34N 44W (NCDC); 60 kt NW and 1009 mb at 12 
UTC at 35.4N, 45.3W (COA); 50 kt NNE and 992 mb at 12 UTC at 38.6N, 45.8W (COA).  

October 26: HWM analyzed a low of a most 1000 mb, now not attached to a front,
but with a weak WSW-ENE cold front to the north, centered at 29.5N, 47W.
Ship highlights: 35 kt ESE and 1013 mb at 12 UTC at 33.0N, 46.1W (COA); 
35 kt SE and 1008 mb at 12 UTC at 33N 46W (HWM).

October 27: HWM analyzed a low of at most 1005 mb centered near 27N, 54W.
Ship highlights: 35 kt E and 1007 mb at 20 UTC at 30.5N, 54.5W
(COA).

October 28:  HWM analyzed a low, no longer closed at 12 UTC, was swept away by
06 UTC by a cold front that approached from the west.  Ship highlights: 
50 kt SW (no time, no position – NCDC); 45 kt SE and 1007 mb at 0 UTC at 
30.5N 53.5W (COA); 45 kt SSE and 1012 mb at 4 UTC at 30.5N, 53.5W (COA); 
45 kt S and 1013 mb at 12 UTC at 31.2N, 55.0W (COA).


Genesis of this major hurricane is not significantly adjusted.  Large track 
changes were introduced on the 23rd and 24th (adjusted to the west) and the 
track is extended an additional four days from the 25th to the 28th.  All 
other days (except no track changes on the 20th) had minor adjustments to the 
position.  Intensification to tropical storm is delayed by 18 hours to 00Z on 
the 15th, based upon a very weak broad low on the 14th and moderately deeper 
(~2 mb) pressures recorded in the western Caribbean on the 15th.  A 996 mb 
pressure and 25 kt N wind observations suggest a central pressure of about 
993 mb at 20Z on the 17th.  This pressure would indicate a maximum wind of 
about 59 kt from the Brown et al. south of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  
60 kt at 18Z on the 17th is retained in HURDAT and no changes to the intensity 
were made for the 15th to the 17th.  The S.S. Atenas went through the eye 
and measured a central pressure of 974 mb at 17Z on the 18th.  This suggests 
winds of 85 kt from the south of 25N Brown et al. pressure-wind relationship 
(86 kt from the intensifying subset south of 25N).  Given the slow motion of 
the hurricane and the low environmental pressures, 80 kt at 18Z is chosen 
for HURDAT on the 18th, up slightly from 75 kt previously.  The S.S. Mojave 
measured 950 mb pressure accompanied by ENE hurricane force winds at 06Z on 
the 19th.  950 mb peripheral pressure suggests winds of at least 111 kt from 
the south of 25N Brown et al. pressure-wind relationship (at least 113 kt 
from the subset of intensifying systems).  Winds are chosen to be 115 kt at 
06Z on the 19th (up from 85 kt originally), as the hurricane had begun 
accelerating (10 kt speed) though it remained in relatively low environmental 
pressure (1009 mb outer closed isobar).  It appears that the hurricane 
underwent rapid intensification between the 18th and 19th.  The hurricane 
then struck Cuba on the 20th, with a 939 mb eye pressure observation from 
Nueva Gerona (on the Isle of Pines) at 08Z and two 939 mb readings on the 
Cuban mainland, which were at the edge of the eye.  Landfall pressure was 
assessed by Perez et al. to be 939 mb in Isle of Pines and 934 mb on the 
Cuban mainland.  These pressures suggest winds of 122 kt (124 kt for 
intensifiers) and 126 kt (129 kt for intensifiers), respectively, from the 
Brown et al. south of 25N pressure-wind relationships.  Winds are chosen 
to be 125 and 130 kt for 06Z and 12Z on the 20th, as the translational 
speed of the hurricane was now near average (~10 kt) and environmental 
pressures had risen (1011 mb outer closed isobar).  These values indicate 
a Category 4 impact in Cuba (up from the Category 3 winds shown in HURDAT 
originally), in agreement with Perez et al.’s assessment.  (Note that the 
933 mb report mentioned in the Monthly Weather Review writeup for Havana – 
which was not in the eye of the hurricane - was not considered to be 
reliable as it was a momentary value associated with “wind-pumping” of the 
barometer.)  (Changes in track provided by Daniel Gladstein:  On October 20, 
the 12 UTC and 18 UTC positions are shifted closer to Guira de Melena, based 
on the peripheral reading of 939 mb in the town. The 18 UTC position was also 
adjusted westward, based on the peripheral reading of 951 mb in Havana. 
Positions are also adjusted on October 21 to account for the location and 
timing of the ship report from the Munscape. The ship reported a central 
pressure of 949 mb, which is chosen for 00 UTC.)


After the hurricane passed over Cuba, two ships – the Munplace and the Zacapa – 
were in the eye at nearly the same time late on the 20th just south of the 
Florida Keys.  The Munplace observed 949 mb in calm conditions, while the Zacapa 
had 954 mb pressure with 10 kt NW wind.  Assuming that the 949 mb represents 
the central pressure, this suggests winds of 112 kt and 106 kt, respectively, 
from the Brown et al. south of 25N and north of 25N pressure-wind relationships.  
110 kt chosen for HURDAT at 00Z, up from 95 kt originally.  While hurricane 
force winds were not observed at either the official Weather Bureau stations 
in Key West or Miami, both of these locations were on the weak side of the 
hurricane and were located about 50-60 nmi from the center of the hurricane 
during the cyclone’s closest approach to each.  It is likely that Category 1 
hurricane conditions occurred in the Middle and Upper Florida Keys and Key 
Biscayne as the hurricane passed about 20-30 miles offshore (thus “BFL1” and 
“CFL1”).  This is consistent with the description of moderate damages as 
described in the MWR.  (Ho et al.’s estimate of 932 mb central pressure as 
the hurricane made a close approach to the Florida Keys is an overestimate of 
the intensity, as observed pressures in the eye at that time were substantially 
shallower.)  

The hurricane then rapidly accelerated off to the northeast and made a direct 
strike on Bermuda on the 22nd.  A pressure reading of 963 mb accompanied by 
7 kt of wind was measured at Hamilton, Bermuda with a central calm lasting 
about an hour.  The central pressure was likely slightly deeper at 962 mb.  
Given the quick forward speed of about 25 kt, the eye may have had a 25 nmi 
diameter (with an implied RMW of about 15-20 nmi).  This 962 mb pressure 
suggests maximum sustained surface winds of 93 kt from the north of 25N 
pressure-wind relationship from Brown et al.  Climatological RMW for this 
central pressure and latitude is about 25 nmi (Vickery et al. 2000).  Both 
the smaller size and the fast forward speed suggest increasing the winds 
above the pressure-wind relationship to about 105 kt.  111 kt from the 
northwest were observed from the same station after the passing of the eye.  
This reduces down to 89 kt after correcting for the high bias of the anemometers 
of the era (Fergusson and Covert 1924) and adjusting from 5 to 1 min winds 
(Powell et al. 1996).  It is estimated that the hurricane has winds of 105 kt 
at landfall in Bermuda, making this a Category 3 impact for Bermuda.  The winds 
in HURDAT are slightly increased from 100 to 105 kt at 18Z on the 22nd.

After impacting Bermuda, the hurricane continued off toward the east-northeast 
and - in the original HURDAT – became extratropical early on the 23rd, weakened 
quickly, and dissipated late on the 24th.  However, observations indicate that 
the system instead continued for an additional four days to the 28th.  Moreover, 
the extratropical transition did not occur (until it was absorbed by a large
extratropical cyclone on the 28th).  Hurricane force winds were observed on the 
23rd and 24th, so the intensity is boosted to Category 1 winds on those dates.  
A 979 mb pressure (may been a central pressure) on the 25th suggests winds of at 
least 74 kt from the Brown et al. pressure-wind relationship for north of 25N.  
Intensity assessed at 80 kt on the 25th.  The system slow weakened through the 
28th before absorption by a large extratropical cyclone.
 
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

1926/11 - 2010 REVISION:

24560 11/12/1926 M= 5 11 SNBR= 548 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0                    L
24565 11/12*  0   0   0    0*112 786  35    0*121 792  35    0*122 795  35    0*
24565 11/12*  0   0   0    0*112 792  30    0*115 795  30    0*118 798  30    0*
                                 ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24570 11/13*126 800  35    0*131 805  35    0*137 811  35    0*145 819  35    0*
24570 11/13*121 802  35    0*125 806  35    0*132 811  35    0*142 819  35    0*
            *** ***          *** ***          ***              ***  

24575 11/14*154 829  35    0*164 840  35    0*172 848  35    0*180 853  35    0*
24575 11/14*154 829  35    0*166 840  35    0*175 848  35    0*182 853  35    0*
                             ***              ***              ***

24580 11/15*187 856  35    0*194 856  35    0*201 855  35    0*215 843  35    0*
24580 11/15*188 854  35    0*194 853  35    0*201 850  35    0*208 843  35    0*
            *** ***              ***              ***          ***         

24585 11/16*224 828  35    0*240 792  30    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*
24585 11/16*216 833  30    0*224 818  30    0E232 802  25    0*  0   0   0    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***         **** ***  **

24590 TS                    

Major changes to the track and minor alterations to intensity shown in McAdie et al. 
(2009).  Evidence for these changes comes from the Historical Weather Map series, 
the COADS ship database, _Monthly Weather Review_, and Perez et al. (2000).

November 12: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 11.9N
76.7W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 12.1N 79.2W.
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

November 13: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 12.3N
80W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 13.7N 81.1W.  
Ship highlights: 30 kt N and 1013 mb at 06Z at 15.5N 83.5W (COA); 30 kt E 
and 1012 mb at 12Z at 15.1N 81.3W (COA, HWM).

November 14: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 16.7N
84.8W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 17.2N 84.8W.
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

November 15: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 19N,
85W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 20.1N 85.5W.  
No gales or low pressures.  "Advisory warnings were issued from the 14th to the 16th, 
inclusive, in connections with a tropical disturbance of minor intensity that 
developed about 200 miles north of Colon, Canal Zone.  This disturbance moved 
northwestward past Swan Island and later recurved toward the northeast.  It 
passed over western Cuba the night of the 15th - 16th and merged the following 
day with a trough of low pressure that extended southward from a disturbance 
of wide extent over the eastern half of the United States" (MWR).

November 16: The HWM shows a strong cold front extending from North Carolina 
southward to Cuba and southwestward to Central America.  There is no indication 
of a closed low existing at 12Z.  HURDAT's last position was given at 06 UTC.  
At 00 UTC, the MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a final center near 
21.3N, 84.1W with an 1007 mb pressure.  At 06 UTC, HURDAT listed this as a 
30 kt tropical depression at 24.0N, 79.2W.  Ship highlights: No gales or 
low pressures in association with the system. Land highlights: 41 kt NW at 
Key West (MWR).  No other gales.  “We classified this one like a tropical 
depression over Cuba” (Perez).

No changes are made to the genesis of this tropical storm.  Generally, minor 
track alterations are made on all days, except the 16th which had a large 
change to the track.  While no definitive evidence of gale force winds were 
recorded in conjunction with this system, two separate 30 kt reports on the 
13th are supportive of minimal tropical storm status.  The lowest believable 
pressure was a ship on the 13th with 1007 mb and 20 kt E winds, which may also 
support minimal tropical storm intensity.  (The 41 kt NW wind a Key West was 
in association with the strong cold front, which passed through the island and 
also absorbed the tropical cyclone.)  As per the analysis by Perez et al., the 
track on the 16th is adjusted westward and intensity downgraded slightly to a 
tropical depression at landfall in Cuba.  Dissipation of the system is extended 
6 hours on the 16th and the final position is indicated as extratropical as the 
circulation was absorbed by a strong frontal boundary.

******************************************************************************
***

1926 - Additional Notes:

1) HWM, MWR and COADS indicate that a closed low associated with an occluded 
front formed in the Atlantic off of the southeast coast of the US and moved 
northeast.  Ship data indicate that this system evolved into a tropical 
depression from the 23rd to the 24th.  On these days there was a minimal 
temperature gradient across the low and a closed circulation.  There were 
only two observations of gale force winds during the lifetime of this system - 
35 kt ESE 22nd at 12 UTC at 36.7N, 74.8W; and 35 kt ESE 23rd at 00 UTC at 
36.5N, 71.9W - both of which occurred while the system was still extratropical.
During the tropical depression stage there were no gale force wind reports
or the equivalent in pressure to support tropical storm intensity
classification.  Thus, this system will not be added to HURDAT.

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Aug 22 33N 73W Extratropical
Aug 23 33N 72W Tropical Depression
Aug 24 36N 69W Tropical Depression
Aug 25         Dissipated

2) HWM, MWR, and COADS indicate that a low, associated with an occluded 
front in the NE Atlantic Ocean, broke off from the front around September 
18th at O0 UTC and maintained itself in the vicinity of the Azores until late 
on September 23rd when another front swept it away.  There were gales around 
the center most days and the minimum pressure was at most 995 mb from the 
19th to 21st.  Although there were some gales associated with this system, it 
is not added to HURDAT because the system lacked a tight inner core and is 
considered to be an occluded low.

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Sep 17 46N 27W Extratropical
Sep 18 50N 34w Extratropical
Sep 19 46N 29W Extratropical
Sep 20 40N 25W Extratropical
Sep 21 38N 23W Extratropical
Sep 22 40N 26W Extratropical
Sep 23 40N 26W Extratropical

3) HWM, MWR and COADS indicate that a low with a closed circulation developed 
on September 26 north  of the Virgin Islands and moved west-northwest until 
the 29, when it took a sharp east-northeast turn.  Early on October 1, 
the system merged with a front and became extratropical.  Although there are 
not many ship observations to indicate a closed low on the 29th, this is 
actually the day in which the low HWM analyzes is the deepest - at most 
1005 mb.  There is only one recorded gale with this system on the 28th at 
12 UTC - S at 35 kt at 27.3N, 72.7W (HWM).  This same observation recorded 
a pressure of 1005 mb.  With only one recorded gale, there is not enough 
evidence that this system was a tropical storm and thus it is not added to 
HURDAT.

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Sep 26 22N 63W Tropical Depression
Sep 27 25N 65W Tropical Depression
Sep 28 26N 68W Tropical Depression
Sep 29 26N 72W Tropical Depression
Sep 30 27N 68W Tropical Depression
Oct 01 31N 60W Extratropical


4) HWM, MWR and COADS indicate that a tropical depression formed from a 
SSW-NNE trough located near of the Turks and Caicos Islands.  The system moved
toward the northeast first as a trough on the 14th to the 16th, then as
a closed low on the 17th and 18th.  Although HWM analyzed the low on the 
17th and 18th as part of an occluded frontal system, there is sufficient 
evidence that the system was no longer baroclinic and likely had developed 
into a tropical depression.  While observed pressures were quite low - as deep
as 1000 mb at 32.8N, 57.5W with a SW wind on the 17th at 12 UTC, environmental 
pressures were also low and the resulting winds were quite weak.  There were 
two gales with the system, both of which occurred when the system was not yet 
a closed low.  Thus because of the lack of observed gales during the time the
system was a tropical cyclone, this system is not judged to have become
a tropical storm and will not be added to HURDAT.

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Oct 14         Open trough
Oct 15         Open trough
Oct 16         Open trough
Oct 17 33N 57W Tropical Depression
Oct 18 34N 51W Tropical Depression
Oct 19         Open trough



5) HWM, MWR and COADS data indicate that an elongated area of low pressure 
broke off the tail end of an stationary front east of the northernmost Leeward 
Islands on the 17th.  On the 18th, the low was compact with minimal 
temperature gradient, and the winds and pressure near the center indicate that 
it was a tropical depression on this date.  On the 19th the center once again 
became elongated, ending the possibility of becoming better organized and on 
the 20th it merged with a frontal system.  There was one recorded gale on 
the 20th at 16 UTC - 45 kt ESE at 41.0N, 50.0W (COA).  The lowest observed 
pressure was 1004 mb on the 20th at 12 UTC at 37.2N, 56.9W (COA).  Since 
there were no gales observed when the system had tropical characteristics, 
this system is not added to HURDAT.

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Nov 16 18N 50W Extratropical
Nov 17 18N 54W Extratropical
Nov 18 27N 57W Possible Tropical Depression
Nov 19 30N 57w Extratropical 
Nov 20 35N 55W Extratropical

******************************************************************************

1927/01 - 2010 REVISION:

24285 08/19/1927 M= 8  1 SNBR= 543 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
24285 08/18/1927 M=12  1 SNBR= 543 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
         **        **

(The 18th is new to HURDAT.)
24287 08/18*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*140 400  35    0*145 415  40    0

24290 08/19*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*152 450  60    0*156 475  65    0
24290 08/19*150 430  45    0*155 445  50    0*160 460  60    0*166 475  65    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***          ***      

24295 08/20*161 498  70    0*166 519  75    0*172 537  80    0*178 552  85    0
24295 08/20*173 490  70    0*182 505  75    0*190 520  80    0*196 536  85    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  

24300 08/21*183 565  90    0*191 579  90    0*202 594  95    0*215 611 100    0
24300 08/21*200 553  90    0*203 571 100    0*207 590 105    0*214 611 110    0
            *** ***          *** *** ***      *** *** ***      ***     ***

24305 08/22*229 628 100    0*242 645 100    0*256 662 105    0*270 678 105    0
24305 08/22*223 633 105    0*233 657 110  950*245 677 110    0*259 695 110    0
            *** *** ***      *** *** ***  *** *** *** ***      *** *** ***

24310 08/23*283 692 105    0*297 706 105    0*311 720 105    0*326 728 100    0
24310 08/23*275 710 110    0*291 723 110    0*308 730 110    0*325 732 110    0
            *** *** ***      *** *** ***      *** *** ***      *** *** ***

24315 08/24*342 731 100    0E360 730  95    0E380 724  95    0E408 700  90    0
24315 08/24*342 729 105    0*360 723 100    0*380 715  95    0*408 690  90    0
                *** ***     *    *** ***     *    ***         *    ***    

24320 08/25E445 655  90    0E485 597  90    0E518 548  90    0E544 502  90    0
24320 08/25E445 650  85    0E485 603  85    0E518 548  80    0E544 490  80    0
                ***  **          ***  **               **          ***  **

24325 08/26E568 442  90    0E586 390  85    0E610 323  80    0*  0   0   0    0
24325 08/26E568 435  80    0E586 380  75    0E610 323  70    0E625 250  70    0
                ***  **          ***  **               **     **** ***  **

(The 27th through the 29th are new to HURDAT.)
23427 08/27E640 175  65    0E653 120  65     E665 100  60    0E677 105  60    0
23428 08/28E689 110  55    0E700 120  50     E710 130  45    0E715 135  40    0
23429 08/29E718 130  35    0E719 118  35     E720 100  30    0*  0   0   0    0

24330 HR                    

Minor changes to the track and minor alterations to the intensity shown in  McAdie et al. 
(2009).  A major change was introduced to the decay phase of this system as an additional 
three days were added to the extratropical storm stage.  Evidence for these alterations 
comes from the Historical Weather Maps series, the COADS ship database, Original Monthly 
Records, Monthly Weather Review, Environment Canada archives, and personal communication 
from Chris Fogarty (Canadian Hurricane Center).

August 18: HWM analyzed an open wave near 12N, 41W.  This system did not exist in 
HURDAT on the 18th.  No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

August 19: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 12N, 46.5W.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 15.2N, 45W at 12 UTC. Ship
highlights: 45 kt NNE at 17.5N, 48.5W at 19 UTC (COA).  

August 20: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 17.5N, 50W. HURDAT
listed this as a Category 1 hurricane at 17.2N, 53.7W at 12 UTC. Ship
highlights: 45 kt E and 1021 mb at 21.5N, 51.5W at 23 UTC (COA).

August 21: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1005 mb near 19N, 59.5W.
HURDAT listed this as a Category 2 hurricane at 20.2N, 59.4W at 12 UTC. The MWR
Tracks of Cyclones indicate the center near 22N, 64.8W at 8 a.m.  Ship
highlights: 70 kt NE and 961 mb at 22.7N, 63W at 2140 UTC (MWR). "The first
tropical disturbance of the season made its appearance on the morning of the
21st, about 300 miles northeast of St. Kitts. At that time it was of
considerable intensity, as indicated by the heavy northeast swells reported by
the S.S. Inanda in approximately 19N, 60W" (MWR).

August 22: HWM analyzed a closed low of 980 mb near 24.7N, 67.5W. HURDAT listed
this as a Category 3 hurricane at 25.6N, 66.2W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of
Cyclones indicate the center near 25N, 68W at 8 a.m. Ship highlights: 70 kt N
at 25N, 65.8W at 05 UTC (MWR); calm winds and 950 mb central pressure at 22.8N,
65.8W at 05 UTC (MWR); 70 kt E at 27N, 68W at 20 UTC (COA). "A delayed report
from the S. S. Maraval at 1 a.m., August 22, in 22.8N, 65.8W, gives lowest
barometer 28.06 inches [950 mb] and wind calm" (MWR).

August 23: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 985 mb near 30.5N, 73.5W.
HURDAT listed this as a Category 3 hurricane at 31.1N, 72W at 12 UTC. The MWR
Tracks of Cyclones indicate the center near 30N, 72W at 8 a.m.  Ship
highlights: 70 kt ESE at 00 UTC at 27N, 69W (COA); 60 kt ESE and 1004 mb at 01
UTC at 28.5N, 68.5W (COA); 50 kt NE and 983 mb at 12 UTC at 30N, 69.5W (COA);
25 kt E and 970 mb at 20 UTC at 36.3N, 72.7W (MWR). "On the morning of the 23rd
its center was at 31.5N, 73W. During the preceding 12 hours it had begun to
recurve to the northward. By the evening of the 23rd it was central about 100
miles east of Cape Hatteras, being attended by winds of hurricane force near
its center" (MWR).

August 24: HWM analyzed an extratropical low of at most 980 mb near 38N, 70.5W. 
HURDAT listed this as an extratropical storm at 38N, 72.4W at 12 UTC. The MWR 
Tracks of Cyclones indicate the center near 38.5N, 71.5W at 8 a.m.  Station 
highlights:  58 kt N and 992 mb at Nantucket, MA at 17 UTC (OMR); 38 kt N at 
13Z UTC and 999 mb at 16 UTC at Block Island, RI (OMR); 38 kt N at 15 UTC and 
1006 mb at 1320 UTC at New York City (OMR).  Ship highlights: 70 kt SE and 
996 mb at 00 UTC at 34N, 70.5W (COA); 60 kt NW and 976 mb at 12 UTC at 36.7N, 
71.3W (COA); 70 kt ENE and 981 mb at 14 UTC at 40.2N, 70.5W (MWR); north wind 
and 966 mb at 20 UTC at 42.3N, 67.5W (MWR). "It continued to move 
north-northeast, passing 100 miles or less to the east of Nantucket during the 
daylight hours of the 24th to the Straits of Belle Isle…Although advices were 
timely and accurate, considerable damage resulted to shipping off the New 
England coast and in the region of the Canadian Maritime Provinces…Reports 
in the table give an idea of the violence of this storm, which was responsible 
for an immense amount of damage and large loss of life, especially in the 
Maritime Provinces of Canada and on the fishing banks. The coast of New 
England also suffered considerable damage, but New York escaped with winds 
of moderate gale force." (MWR).

August 25: HWM indicates an extratropical storm centered near 52N, 55W of 
at most 985 mb. HURDAT listed this as an extratropical storm at 51.8N, 54.8W 
at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of Cyclones indicate the center near 52N, 56W at 
8 a.m.  Land highlights: 42 kt and 976 mb at Halifax (Fogarty).  
Ship highlights: 70 kt S and 976 mb at 02 UTC at 44.3N, 63.3W (MWR); 
70 kt W at 08 UTC at 47.5N, 59.5W (COA). "By the morning of the 25th, 
[the storm] attended by gales over the Canadian Maritime Provinces 
approximately hurricane force near the center" (MWR).  “Rainfall data I 
gathered from our archive, which can indicate the asymmetric and thus 
tropical nature of the storm:
Yarmouth (NS): 115 mm (near track)
Liverpool (NS): 28 mm (~50 km right-of-track - about 2 hours
after landfall)
Digby (NS): 120 mm (near track)
Springfield (NS): 107 mm (~20 km right-of-track)
Truro (NS): 61 mm (~50 km right-of-track)
Halifax: 42 mm (~90 km right-of-track)
Mahone Bay (NS): 33 mm (~80 km right-of-track)
Saint John: 84 mm (~80 km left-of-track)
Moncton: 10 mm (~50 km left-of-track) - Seems low however
Fredericton: 28 mm (~200 km left-of-track)
Charlottetown: 63 mm (near track)
Sydney: 22 mm (~150 km right-of-track)
Antigonish (NS) (~100 km right-of-track)
- based on that rainfall distribution...the storm appeared to drop a
4-5" rainfall very near the track and skewed a bit heavier to the left,
but not skewed enough that would lead me to believe it was very far into
the ET process.  Based on my experience with ET rainfalls, the maximum
being centered near the track itself leads me to believe this one likely
did make landfall as more tropical than extratropical in nature” (Fogarty). 
“- Rainfall data I gathered from our archive, which can indicate the
asymmetric and thus tropical nature of the storm:
Yarmouth (NS): 115 mm (near track)
Liverpool (NS): 28 mm (~50 km right-of-track - about 2 hours
after landfall)
Digby (NS): 120 mm (near track)
Springfield (NS): 107 mm (~20 km right-of-track)
Truro (NS): 61 mm (~50 km right-of-track)
Halifax: 42 mm (~90 km right-of-track)
Mahone Bay (NS): 33 mm (~80 km right-of-track)
Saint John: 84 mm (~80 km left-of-track)
Moncton: 10 mm (~50 km left-of-track) - Seems low however
Fredericton: 28 mm (~200 km left-of-track)
Charlottetown: 63 mm (near track)
Sydney: 22 mm (~150 km right-of-track)
Antigonish (NS) (~100 km right-of-track)
- based on that rainfall distribution...the storm appeared to drop a
4-5" rainfall very near the track and skewed a bit heavier to the left,
but not skewed enough that would lead me to believe it was very far into
the ET process.  Based on my experience with ET rainfalls, the maximum
being centered near the track itself leads me to believe this one likely
did make landfall as more tropical than extratropical in nature” (Fogarty).  
“New Brunswick reported 6 deaths, Nova Scotia reported 11–15 deaths, and 
Newfoundland reported 156–171+ deaths. Newfoundland deaths mostly resulted 
from ships damaged or lost at sea in the storm. In Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, 
and Prince Edward Island damage included power failures, flooding, structural 
damage, damage to crops, and dozens of sunken vessels” – total damages of a 
few million dollars (Environment Canada).

August 26: HWM analyzed an extratropical storm centered near 60N, 30W with at 
most 980 mb. HURDAT listed this as an extratropical storm at 61 N, 32.3W at 
12 UTC. Ship highlights: 976 mb and 35 kt W at 52.8N 46.3W at 01Z (MWR); 
1010 mb and 50 kt W at 52.1N 35.8W at 12Z (COA); 1002 mb and 
50 kt S at 53.5N 21.5W at 13Z (COA).

August 27: HWM analyzed an extratropical storm centered near 66N 10W with at 
most 970 mb.  HURDAT did not analyze the system on this date. Station highlights:  
974 mb and 35 kt WSW at Faroe Islands at 12 UTC (HWM); 973 mb and 35 kt NNW at 
Vik, Iceland at 12 UTC (HWM).  Ship highlights:  988 mb and 50 kt SSW at 64.5W 
4.5E at 20 UTC (COA); 975 mb and 30 kt N at 64.5N 22.5W at 09 UTC (COA).  
“It then moved rapidly northeast, being central over Iceland on the morning of 
the 27th with air pressure 28.44 inches [963 mb] and attended by gales (MWR).

August 28:  HWM analyzed an occluding extratropical storm centered near 
71W 14W with at most 975 mb.  Station highlights:  15 kt SE and 975 mb at 
Jan Mayen, Norway at 12 UTC (HWM).  Ship highlights:  45 kt SSW and 
987 mb at 65.5N 5.5E at 00 UTC (COA); 15 kt SW and 992 mb at 64.5N 22.5W 
at 17 UTC (COA).

August 29:  HWM analyzed a fully occluded extratropical cyclone centered near 
70N 12W with at most 995 mb with a second, more prominent low centered at 60N 
34W with at most 990 mb.  Station highlight:  15 kt SW and 992 mb at Jan Mayen, 
Norway at 12 UTC (HWM).  

Genesis for storm 1 began on August 18th at 12 UTC as a 35 kt tropical storm,
one day and 25 kt less than original HURDAT. The storm progressed on a
west-northwestward track from the 20th through the 22nd. Late on the 21st, the
ship S.S. Seekonk observed a minimum pressure of 961 mb (accompanied by 70 kt 
winds) implying maximum winds of at least 100 kt from the Brown et al. south of 
25N pressure-wind relationship. 110 kt is chosen for HURDAT at 18 UTC on the 
21st, a 10 kt increase from previous HURDAT. Early on the 22nd, a central 
pressure of 950 mb was observed implying winds of 111 kt and 105 kt from 
the Brown et al. south of 25N and north of 25N pressure-wind relationships,
respectively. 110 kt is chosen for HURDAT at 12 UTC, a 5 kt increase from
original HURDAT. A new central pressure of 950 mb was also added to HURDAT at
06 UTC. A 970 mb pressure was observed late on the 23rd, though it does not 
fit with adjacent observations implying that it is incorrect in pressure, 
position, and/or date/time.  110 kt is chosen for HURDAT on the 23rd, based 
upon maintaining the intensity derived from the day before. Original HURDAT 
suggests storm 1 to have transitioned to extratropical status by 06 UTC on 
the 24th. Available observations indicate the system did not transition to 
an extratropical cyclone until around 00 UTC on the 25th. A peripheral 
pressure of 966 mb was observed late on the 24th, implying winds of at least 
85 kt from the Landsea et al. north of 35N pressure-wind relationship. 90 kt 
are maintained in HURDAT for 18 UTC on the 24th.  Also of note were the 
tropical storm force winds that impacted New York and parts of New England, 
primarily between 12 and 18 UTC on the 24th.  The highest observed winds at 
the coast were 58 kt (5 min) at Nantucket, MA.  These adjust to 61 kt 1 min 
using the Powell et al. (1996) conversion.  Thus it is possible that 
sustained hurricane force winds were observed in New England (Massachusetts) 
as the hurricane made a close bypass of the coast, but 60 kt maximum winds 
is analyzed – high end tropical storm conditions – as the peak in the U.S. 
from this hurricane.  The hurricane transitioned to an extratropical cyclone 
early on the 25th as it raced off towards the Canadian Maritime Provinces.  
Observations indicate a vigorous, but not as intense extratropical system on 
the 25th and 26th and the intensity is reduced slightly on these dates based 
upon available ship and coastal observations.  The peripheral pressure of 
976 mb observed in Halifax suggests winds of at least 77 kt from the north of 
35N pressure-wind relationship.  While the system certainly had begun its 
extratropical transition by late on the 24th, it is judged that the system 
made landfall as an 85 kt Category 2 hurricane around 23 UTC near 43.9N 66.3W.  
This agrees with the assessment of Fogarty and the Canadian Hurricane Center 
as well. Storm 1 dissipated by 12 UTC on the 26th. Peak observations with 
storm 1 maintain its original classification as a Category 3 hurricane.

******************************************************************************

1927/02 - 2010 REVISION:

24335 09/01/1927 M=11  2 SNBR= 544 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
24335 09/02/1927 M=10  2 SNBR= 544 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
         **        **

(The 1st is removed from HURDAT.)
24340 09/01*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*168 193  35    0*165 199  35    0

24345 09/02*163 205  35    0*161 211  35    0*160 217  35    0*159 223  35    0
24345 09/02*  0   0   0    0*167 200  30    0*165 210  35    0*163 219  35    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***          *** ***  

24350 09/03*159 230  35    0*159 238  35    0*159 246  35    0*159 256  35    0
24350 09/03*161 228  40    0*160 237  40    0*159 246  45    0*159 256  45    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **               **               **

24355 09/04*160 266  35    0*161 277  35    0*162 288  40    0*163 299  40    0
24355 09/04*160 266  45    0*161 277  45    0*162 288  45    0*163 300  45    0
                     **               **               **          ***  **

24360 09/05*165 310  40    0*166 321  45    0*168 334  45    0*170 348  50    0
24360 09/05*165 313  45    0*166 326  45    0*168 340  45    0*170 353  50    0
                ***  **          ***              ***              ***

24365 09/06*172 362  50    0*174 376  55    0*176 390  55    0*178 404  60    0
24365 09/06*172 365  50    0*174 377  55    0*176 390  55    0*178 404  55    0
                ***              ***                                    **

24370 09/07*181 418  65    0*184 433  65    0*187 447  70    0*191 463  70    0
24370 09/07*181 418  60    0*184 432  60    0*187 447  60    0*191 463  60    0
                     **          ***  **               **               **

24375 09/08*195 481  75    0*199 499  75    0*204 517  80    0*212 536  85    0
24375 09/08*196 481  65    0*202 500  65    0*210 517  70    0*220 532  70    0
            ***      **      *** ***  **      ***      **      *** ***  **

24380 09/09*218 549  85    0*225 560  90    0*231 569  90    0*247 580  90    0
24380 09/09*232 544  75    0*245 553  75    0*260 560  80    0*275 562  75    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24385 09/10*272 580  85    0E298 565  80    0E317 538  70    0E324 531  60    0
24385 09/10*290 558  70    0*304 550  65    0*317 538  55    0*326 526  50    0
            *** ***  **     **** ***  **     *         **     **** ***  **

24390 09/11E330 523  50    0E335 517  45    0E339 510  40    0E343 498  35    0
24390 09/11*332 518  45    0*336 515  40    0*339 510  35    0*341 498  30    0
           **** ***  **     **** ***  **     *         **     ****      **

24395 HR                    

Major changes to the track and minor alterations to the intensity shown in McAdie 
et al. (2009).  Another major chance was the delay in extratropical transition 
by 36 hours.  Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather 
Maps series, the COADS ship database, and Monthly Weather Review.

September 1:  HWM analysis indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb at 17N 20W.  
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 16.8N 19.3W at 12 UTC.  No gale force 
winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 2: HWM isobaric analysis indicates a closed low of at most 1012.5 mb
near 16.5N, 23W. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 16N, 21.7W at 12
UTC. No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 3: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 17N, 24W.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 15.9N, 24.6W at 12 UTC. 
Station highlights: 35 kt SW and 1015 mb at 12 UTC at Sao Tiago 
at 15N, 23.3W (HWM).

September 4: HWM analyzed no significant features in the eastern Atlantic
Ocean. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 16.2N, 28.8W at 12 UTC.
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 5: HWM indicates no significant features in the central Atlantic
Ocean. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 16.8N, 33.4W at 12 UTC.
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 6: HWM analyzed no significant features in the central Atlantic
Ocean. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 17.6N, 39W at 12 UTC.
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 7: HWM indicates no significant features in the central Atlantic
Ocean. HURDAT listed this as a Category 1 hurricane at 18.7N, 44.7W at 12 UTC.
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 8: HWM analyzed no significant features in the central Atlantic
Ocean. HURDAT listed this as a Category 1 hurricane at 20.4N, 51.7W at 12 UTC.
Ship highlights: 50 kt SE and 1007 mb at 12 UTC at 21.7N, 51W (MWR). “The S.S.
Matador received a radiogram from the British S.S. Socrates stating that on the
morning of the 8th, in 21.6N, 51W, the barometer reading 29.73 inches [1007 mb]
and falling, with winds SE force 10 [50 kt]. Storm center moving toward the NW”
(MWR).

September 9: HWM indicates an inverted trough near 25N, 57W with a stationary
front stretching southwest to northeast across Bermuda. HURDAT listed this as a
Category 2 hurricane at 23.1N, 56.9W at 12 UTC. Ship highlights: 35 kt SW and 
1014 mb at 12 UTC at 25.5N, 55.5W (COA).

September 10: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1010 mb embedded within a
cold front near 31.5N, 53W. HURDAT listed this as an extratropical storm at
31.7N, 53.8W at 12 UTC. No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) 
were observed.

September 11: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 34N, 52W with 
a cold front extended from the low southward and a warm front extending northward.
HURDAT listed this as an extratropical storm at 33.9N, 51.0W at 12 UTC.
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 12:  HWM indicates a dissipating frontal boundary in the vicinity of 
30-37N and 45-55W with no closed low.  HURDAT no longer classified this system on 
this date.  No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

Storm number 2 is listed in HURDAT as originating as a tropical cyclone (at 35 kt 
tropical storm intensity) at 12 UTC on the 1st of September.  However, observations 
suggest that the disturbance that developed into the cyclone was still over West 
African on the 1st.  Genesis is delayed 18 hours until 06 UTC on the 2nd.]  
The only major change for the track was a repositioning of the system the north 
on the 9th.  A peak wind of 35 kt was observed at 12 UTC on the 3rd indicating 
the system had attained tropical storm strength. As the observation was on the 
left side of the cyclone and about 60 nm from the center, the intensity is 
boosted to 45 kt – a 10 kt increase from that indicated originally in HURDAT.  
From September 4th through 7th no gale force winds or low pressures were 
observed, mainly due to scant weather observations. Based upon continuity, 
intensity estimates for the 4th and 5th are continued at 45 kt, slightly 
above the existing HURDAT on the 4th and early on the 5th.  The peak 
observation measured during the lifetime of this system was 50 kt on the 8th. 
Based upon the revised track, the 50 kt observation on the 8th is about 
45 nm to the northeast of the cyclone, though the position of the system is 
somewhat uncertain.  Fair coverage with observations on the 9th and more 
extensive data on the 10th suggest that the system did not reach as strong a 
cyclone as originally indicated.  There are no explicit observations that 
support hurricane force, though the data are sparse enough on the 8th and 9th 
that such an intensity could have been attained.  The intensity is moderately 
adjusted downward by 10-15 kt on the 8th to the 10th.  It is of note that the 
frontal structures shown in the Historical Weather Maps on the 10th and 11th 
are not supported by available observations.  Instead, the system is now 
reanalyzed to have remained a tropical cyclone until dissipation after 18 UTC 
on the 11th.  Original HURDAT suggested storm 2 was a 90 kt Category 2 hurricane 
at peak intensity, however the reanalysis indicates that the system may have only 
attained Category 1 (80 kt) intensity, though this has substantial uncertainty.

******************************************************************************

1927/03 - 2010 REVISION:

24400 09/22/1927 M= 8  3 SNBR= 545 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
24405 09/22*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*103 352  35    0*108 360  35    0
24405 09/22*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*103 360  30    0*108 365  30    0
                                                  ***  **          ***  **

24410 09/23*113 368  35    0*118 374  35    0*122 380  35    0*126 385  35    0
24410 09/23*113 370  35    0*118 375  35    0*122 380  35    0*126 385  35    0
                ***              ***                                   

24415 09/24*130 390  35    0*134 395  35    0*138 400  35    0*142 405  35    0
24415 09/24*130 390  40    0*134 395  40    0*138 400  40    0*142 406  40    0
                     **               **               **          ***  **

24420 09/25*145 410  35    0*149 415  35    0*153 420  35    0*157 425  35    0
24420 09/25*145 413  40    0*149 421  40    0*153 430  40    0*157 438  40    0
                ***  **          ***  **          ***  **          ***  **

24425 09/26*162 430  35    0*168 436  35    0*174 441  35    0*180 446  35    0
24425 09/26*162 446  40    0*168 454  40    0*174 460  40    0*182 463  40    0
                ***  **          ***  **          ***  **      *** ***  **

24430 09/27*187 450  35    0*193 455  40    0*200 458  45    0*207 460  45    0
24430 09/27*192 464  40    0*203 465  40    0*215 465  45    0*230 466  45    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

24435 09/28*216 461  50    0*225 462  55    0*236 463  60    0*252 467  60    0
24435 09/28*245 469  50    0*260 473  60    0*275 475  70    0*295 475  70    0
            *** ***          *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24440 09/29*278 472  65    0*310 473  70    0*346 476  70    0E410 460  70    0
24440 09/29*317 472  60    0E340 468  50    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0
            ***      **     **** ***  **      *** ***  **     **** ***  **

24445 HR                    

Major changes to both the track and intensity shown in McAdie et al. (2009). 
Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather Maps series, 
the COADS ship database, and Monthly Weather Review.

September 22: HWM analyzed no significant features in the central Atlantic
Ocean. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 10.3N, 35.2W at 12 UTC.
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 23: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 12.5N, 37W.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 12.2N, 38W at 12 UTC. 
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 24: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 13N, 38W.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 13.8N, 40W at 12 UTC. 
Ship highlights: 20 kt ENE and 1005 mb at 12 UTC at 14.3N, 40.4W
(COA).

September 25: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 16N, 43W.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 15.3N, 42W at 12 UTC. No gale force
winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 26: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 16N, 46W.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 17.4N, 44.1W at 12 UTC. No gale force
winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 27: HWM indicates no significant features in the central Atlantic
Ocean in the vicinity of the tropical cyclone. HURDAT listed this as a 
tropical storm at 20N, 45.8W at 12 UTC. No gale force winds (or equivalent 
in pressure) were observed.

September 28: HWM analyzed no significant features in the central Atlantic
Ocean ini the vicinity of the tropical cyclone. HURDAT listed this as a 
tropical storm at 23.6N, 46.3W at 12 UTC. Ship highlights: 60 kt SSW at 
15 UTC at 28.5N, 47.5W (COA).

September 29: HWM indicates no significant features in the central Atlantic
Ocean in the vicinity of the tropical cyclone indicated originally by HURDAT. 
HURDAT listed this as a Category 1 hurricane at 34.6N, 47.6W at 12 UTC.  
Ship highlights: 50 kt S at 12 UTC at 34.9N, 46.2W (COA); 45 kt S and 
1016 mb at 12 UTC at 36.2N, 43.5W (COA); 15 kt W and 1005 mb at 15 UTC 
at 37N, 49.7W (COA).

Genesis for storm 3 is begun at 12 UTC on September 22nd as a tropical
depression rather than a tropical storm. The storm progressed on a
northwestward track through the 26th before recurving on the 28th. The 
1005 mb peripheral pressure along with 20 kt winds about 45 nm from the 
center of the cyclone suggest winds of at least 37 kt from the Brown et 
al. south of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  40 kt reanalyzed for the 
intensity at 12 UTC on the 24th – up from 35 kt originally.  Gale force 
observations were not observed from the 22nd through the 27th due in part 
to a lack of available data near the system.  The 40 kt is maintained by 
continuity from the 24th through early on the 27th – slightly higher than 
originally shown in HURDAT.  There is a major change in the track for the 
28th and 29th, as the system was substantially farther north than originally 
indicated.  A 60 kt ship report (but with no pressure reported) on the 28th 
is suggestive that hurricane intensity was obtained a day earlier than 
originally indicated.  However, no observations of hurricane force winds 
(or equivalent in pressure) were obtained for this system.  Nonetheless, 
the cyclone is maintained as reaching Category 1 hurricane status given 
the uncertainty.  On the date that HURDAT originally had this system as a 
hurricane (the 29th only), the system instead is reanalyzed as being absorbed 
by storm 4, which by then was a large extratropical storm.  The only major 
change to the intensity of this system is indicated at 06 UTC on the 29th 
from 70 kt down to 50 kt, as it was undergoing extratropical transition and 
absorption.  Peak intensity for storm 3 as a Category 1 hurricane is 
unchanged though the timing of its peak was pushed ahead by a day to the 28th.

******************************************************************************

1927/04 - 2010 REVISION:

24450 09/23/1927 M= 9  4 SNBR= 546 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
24455 09/23*182 482  35    0*199 498  40    0*213 512  45    0*221 523  50    0
24455 09/23*190 492  35    0*201 502  40    0*213 512  45    0*225 522  50    0
            *** ***          *** ***                           *** ***  

24460 09/24*224 534  55    0*237 544  60    0*245 554  65    0*254 563  70    0
24460 09/24*237 532  55    0*249 541  60    0*260 550  65    0*267 558  70    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***   

24465 09/25*263 572  75    0*272 580  80    0*281 588  85    0*287 594  90    0
24465 09/25*271 566  75    0*275 573  80    0*281 580  80    0*288 587  85    0
            *** ***          *** ***              ***  **      *** ***  **

24470 09/26*292 598  95    0*297 602 100    0*302 605 105    0*316 613 105    0
24470 09/26*297 594  85    0*308 601  90  967*320 608  95    0*333 613  95    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **  *** *** ***  **      ***      **

24475 09/27*337 615 105    0*357 609 100    0*370 596  95    0*377 589  90    0
24475 09/27*346 615  90    0*358 609  85    0*370 596  80    0*381 589  80    0
            ***      **      ***      **               **      ***      **

24480 09/28*384 579  90    0*391 571  85    0*398 560  85    0*405 548  80    0
24480 09/28*389 581  80    0E396 573  75    0E403 565  75    0E410 556  75    0
            *** ***  **     **** ***  **     **** ***  **     **** ***  **

24485 09/29*413 535  80    0E421 521  80    0E428 508  75    0E436 494  70    0
24485 09/29E415 546  75  981E420 535  75    0E428 520  75    0E439 494  70    0
           **** ***  **  *** *** ***  **          ***          ***

24490 09/30E444 479  65    0E452 463  60    0E460 445  55    0E469 421  50    0
24490 09/30E453 460  70    0E468 415  70    0E480 370  70    0E487 335  65    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24495 10/01E479 388  50    0E489 346  45    0E500 300  40    0E520 200  40    0
24495 10/01E489 310  60    0E490 298  55    0E490 290  50    0E490 285  40    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***

24500 HR                    

Minor changes to both the track and intensity shown in McAdie et al. (2009) 
though there are major track changes during the extratropical stage.  
Additionally, a major change was introduced in that the extratropical 
transition occurred a day earlier than previously indicated.  Evidence 
for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather Maps series, the 
COADS ship database, and Monthly Weather Review.

September 23: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 20N, 51.5W.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 21.3N, 51.2W at 12 UTC. 
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 24: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 22N, 55W.
HURDAT listed this as a Category 1 hurricane at 24.5N, 55.4W at 12 UTC.
Ship highlights: 50 kt NE at 27.4N, 56W at 12 UTC (COA); 35 kt NNE and 999 mb at
26.5N, 55.5W at 12 UTC (COA). "The center on that date (24th) was in
approximately latitude 25N, longitude 54 W, with a direction of movement almost
due northwest" (MWR).

September 25: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1005 mb near 28N, 60W.
HURDAT listed this as a Category 2 hurricane at 28.1N, 58.8W at 12 UTC.
Ship highlights: 35 kt ESE and 1006 mb at 27.5N, 54.5W at 00 UTC (COA); 50 kt
ESE and 998 mb at 27.5N, 55.9W at 04 UTC (MWR). "The system began to recurve on
the 25th with the westernmost point of its path being the 61st meridian,
reached midday on the 26th" (MWR).

September 26: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1000 mb near 30N, 61W.
HURDAT listed this as a Category 3 hurricane at 30.2N, 60.5W at 12 UTC.
Ship highlights: 35 kt SE and 971 mb at 31.5N, 60.3W at 08 UTC (MWR); 70 kt N
and 984 mb 31.1N, 61W at 11 UTC (MWR); 70 kt ENE and 985 mb at 31.5N, 60 W at
12 UTC (COA).

September 27: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1000 mb near 37N, 60W.
HURDAT listed this as a Category 2 hurricane at 37N, 59.6W at 12 UTC. 
Ship highlights: 50 kt NE at 39.3N, 61.9W at 12 UTC (COA); 50 kt N and 994
mb at 37.6N, 60.7W at 14 UTC (MWR); 60 kt ENE and 996 mb at 16 UTC (MWR). 

September 28: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 39N, 61W with
a warm front extending east-northeast from the center. HURDAT listed this as a
Category 2 hurricane at 39.8N, 56W at 12 UTC. Ship highlights: 70 kt WNW and
983 mb at 37.8N, 59W at 03 UTC (MWR); 70 kt NE at 40N, 58W at 12 UTC (COA); 30
kt NE and 981 mb at 42.7N, 52.8W at 22 UTC (MWR).

September 29: HWM analyzed an extratropical cyclone with a low of at most 995
mb near 43N, 50W. HURDAT listed this as an extratropical storm at 42.8N, 50.8W
at 12 UTC. Ship highlights: 70 kt NE and 976 mb at 42.5N, 54.5W at 08 UTC
(COA); 70 kt NNE and 984 mb at 42.5N, 54.5W at 12 UTC (COA); 70 kt N and 1000
mb at 43.5N, 55.5W at 16 UTC (COA).

September 30: HWM indicates an extratropical cyclone near 46N, 43W. HURDAT
listed this as an extratropical storm at 46N, 44.5W at 12 UTC. Ship
highlights: 40 kt SW and 989 mb at 47.4N, 35.2W at 12 UTC (HWM); 15 kt SE and
994 mb at 45.4N, 44.3W at 12 UTC (COA); 60 kt WSW and 985 mb at 47.7N, 34.6W at
15 UTC (MWR); 70 kt SSE at 47.7N, 34.6W (MWR).

October 1: HWM analyzed an occluded low near 50N, 30W. HURDAT listed this as an
extratropical storm at 50N, 30W at 12 UTC. Ship highlights: 25 kt SW and 993 mb 
at 47.5N, 34.5W at 10 UTC (COA); 45 kt SW at 45.9N, 28.4W at 12 UTC (COA); 
45 kt N and 996 mb at 49N, 27W at 18 UTC (COA).

Genesis is retained for storm 4 at 00 UTC on September 23rd as a minimal
tropical storm. The storm progressed northwestward before recurving just east
of Bermuda on the 26th. Minor track changes were introduced during the lifetime 
of this system while a tropical cyclone, though large changes to its position 
were introduced on the 30th and 1st while the system was an extratropical storm.  
No gale force winds or low pressures were observed on the 23rd.  A peripheral 
pressure of 998 mb and peak wind of 50 kt were observed on the 25th.  The 
998 mb pressure suggest winds of at least 47 kt from the Brown et al. north 
of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  As the ship position is at least 60 nm 
from the center of the cyclone, 80 kt is retained for HURDAT at 06 UTC on 
the 25th.  A 971 mb pressure and concurrent 35 kt SE wind at 08 UTC on the 
26th is likely a core measurement and the revised track takes the center of 
the hurricane ~15-20 nm from the ship at the time of the observation.  The 
971 mb pressure measurement likely taken inside the RMW suggests a central 
pressure of 967 mb, utilizing the ~1 mb for each 10 kt wind increment 
guideline.  A 967 mb central pressure suggests winds of 88 kt from the 
Brown et al. north of 25N pressure-wind relationship and 91 kt from the 
intensifying subset.  The 967 mb value is added into HURDAT.  Winds are 
reanalyzed to be 90 kt at 06 UTC and 95 kt at 12 UTC on the 26th, which 
may have been the peak intensity for this system.  Available observations 
on the 28th indicate an asymmetric wind field and frontal boundary structures 
had formed, suggesting that the system transitioned to an extratropical 
cyclone around 06 UTC – a day earlier than previously indicated. Peak 
observed winds on the 28th were 70 kt. 75 kt is chosen for HURDAT at 12 UTC, 
a 10 kt downgrade. At 22 UTC on the 28th a (possible) central pressure of 
981 mb was observed, suggesting winds of 72 kt from the Landsea et al. north 
of 35N pressure-wind relationship.  Winds are reduced from 80 to 75 kt at 
00 UTC on the 29th.  Later at 08 UTC on the 29th, a peripheral pressure of 
976 mb was observed, implying winds of at least 77 kt from the north of 35N 
pressure-wind relationship. Given that the system is baroclinic, the 
pressure-wind relationship can be utilized with slightly weaker winds. 
Therefore, 75 kt is maintained for HURDAT at 12 UTC on the 29th. It should 
also be noted that Storm 4 absorbed storm number 3 on the 29th. A peak wind 
of 70 kt was observed on the 30th. 70 kt is chosen for HURDAT at 12 UTC on 
the 30th, 15 kt greater than previous HURDAT. Available observations on 
October 1st indicate that the system had occluded with peak observed winds 
of 45 kt. 50 kt is chosen for HURDAT at 12 UTC on the 1st, a 10 kt upgrade 
and also the last record for storm 4 in HURDAT. Available observations 
indicate the peak intensity with this hurricane were about 95 kt, 10 kt 
less than originally suggested in HURDAT. This reclassifies storm 4 from 
a Category 3 down to a Category 2 (though upper end Category 2) hurricane.

******************************************************************************


1927/05 – 2010 REVISION:

24505 10/01/1927 M= 4  5 SNBR= 547 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0
24505 09/30/1927 M= 5  5 SNBR= 547 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0
      ** **         *          

(The 30th is new to HURDAT.)
24507 09/30*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*230 690  30    0*236 704  30    0

24510 10/01*232 730  35    0*240 740  35    0*248 748  35    0*252 754  35    0
24510 10/01*243 718  30    0*249 730  30    0*255 740  30    0*261 749  30    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24515 10/02*257 761  35    0*265 772  40    0*275 782  45    0*287 792  50    0
24515 10/02*267 757  35    0*273 764  40    0*280 770  45    0*290 778  50    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  

24520 10/03*301 801  50    0*316 807  50    0*334 810  40    0*350 807  35    0
24520 10/03*303 789  50    0*318 800  50    0*334 807  40    0*350 808  35    0
            *** ***          *** ***              ***              ***  

24525 10/04*370 795  30    0*390 775  25    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0
24525 10/04*370 803  30    0*390 790  25    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0
                ***              ***

24530 TS                    

U.S. Landfall
10/03 09Z  32.5N 80.4W 50 kt SC

Minor changes to the track and intensity shown in McAdie et al. (2009).  
Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather Maps series, 
the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather Review, the Original Monthly Record 
station data, Dunn and Miller (1960), and newspaper accounts provided by Prof. 
Cary Mock of the University of South Carolina.

September 30: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 23N, 69W.
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

October 1: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 24N, 76W. HURDAT
listed this as a tropical storm at 24.8N, 74.8W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of
Cyclones indicate the center near 23N, 72W at 8 a.m. No gale force winds (or
equivalent in pressure) were observed.

October 2: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 29N, 77W. HURDAT
listed this as a tropical storm at 27.5N, 78.2W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of
Cyclones indicate the center near 27.5N, 77.5W at 8 a.m. Ship highlights: 
35 kt ENE and 1016 mb at 12 UTC at 29N, 73W (HWM).

October 3: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 33N, 80W, with a
cold front approaching from the west. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at
33.4N, 81W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of Cyclones indicate the center near
33.7N, 81W at 8 a.m. Ship highlights: 35 kt and 1008 mb at 04 UTC at 32.3N, 79W
(MWR). Station highlights: 43 kt SE at Charleston at 09 and 10 UTC (OMR); 
21 kt SW and 1009 mb at Charleston at 12 UTC (OMR); 38 kt at Wilmington (MWR);
37 kt at Raleigh (MWR).  "Tropical Cyclones in the South Atlantic States - 
Carolinas and Georgia - 1927 - Oct 3 - All sections - Minor [less than 
hurricane intensity]" (Dunn and Miller).  “…a disturbance that apparently 
developed off the northeast Florida coast and moved north-northwest, 
crossing the coast line between Savannah and Charleston.  The only strong 
winds were reported near Charleston.  The disturbance was of very small 
extent and short duration, but was seemingly quite severe at the time it 
crossed the coast line” (MWR).  The Beaufort Gazette.  Thursday, Oct. 6, 
1927, p. 1 “LITTLE DAMAGE IN BEAUFORT___By Gale Sunday Night - Slight 
Trouble With Electric Wires.  Few Trees
Down___
   Very unexpected Beaufort was visited by a fifty-mile gale Sunday
night and early Monday morning, that swept in from the Atlantic Ocean.
It had rained the greater part of Sunday and early that evening;  but
none expected to be aroused from sleep by such a gale as that which
swept over this section early Monday morning.  It was one of those
autumn storms, unannounced and unexpected.
   Many boats were anchored out in the bay but none were damaged as a
consequence of the stiff blow.
   There is no weather bureau here, but reports from Charleston state
that the gale reached the velocity of fifty miles per hour.  The
rainfall in that area was 1.17.  It could hardly have been more than
that here as this section has just been through a very dry period.
   Many persons were aroused from their sleep, some unable to return to
dreamland.  We have heard of one lad who slept through it all with a
heavy downpour of rain coming in his open window.  The howling of the
wind was very audible early in the early morning hours Monday.  No
severe damage was done to property in the Beaufort section.  Many
branches were torn from trees in different sections of the city.  The
fire alarm called forth about 4 o'clock Monday morning due to an
electrical disturbance on the wires leading to the house of the
northwest intersection of North and Harrington streets.  Transformers
about the city flared forth but there was no serious damage.  The
electrical power was cut off for several hours Monday morning crippling
those industries dependent upon it for power.  The Gazette was delayed a
good many hours in the use of its linotype machine.
   The farmers suffered no ill effect as a result of the blow.  Corn was
blown down in a few fields.  Beaufort weathered the blow better than
some of the neighboring cities.” (Prof. Mock).

October 4: HWM analyzed a cold front nearly paralleling the United States East
Coast. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 39N, 77.5W at 12 UTC. The MWR
Tracks of Cyclones indicate the center near 43.5N, 71W at 8 a.m. No gale force
winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

Genesis for storm #5 began at 12 UTC on September 30th as a tropical depression 
rather than a tropical storm, 12 hours earlier than previously suggested in 
HURDAT. First gales were observed on October 2nd as the system progressed 
northwestward towards the United States East Coast. A peak wind of 35 kt on 
the 2nd indicates that the system did attain tropical storm intensity. This 
observation, however, is problematic. It is the strongest wind observation 
uncovered on the 2nd, but it may be in error.  As plotted, the ENE wind 
direction looks suspicious, as well as the fact that there are three other 
observations closer to the TC center which are substantially weaker (15 kt 
each).  It is possible that the observation was incorrectly plotted at 73W 
and instead was supposed to be at 78W.  Such a position would be a better fit 
for both the wind speed and direction, though it is unfortunate that this 
observation was not to be found in the COADS database.  While the observation 
likely cannot be correct as shown, it is agreed to retain the 45 kt intensity 
on the 2nd, as there are numerous 25 kt winds observed in the western (weaker) 
semicircle of the TC.  The tropical storm made landfall around 09 UTC on the 
3rd just southwest of Charleston, South Carolina. Peak observations at 
landfall occurred at Charleston where maximum winds were 43 kt. This reduces 
down to 37 kt after correcting for the high bias of the anemometers of the era 
(Fergusson and Covert 1924) and adjusting from 5 to 1 min winds 
(Powell et al. 1996).  A direct conversion of the peak “extreme winds” 
(1 min) to the directly to the equivalent from a reliable 3-cup anemometer 
would give 48 kt.  (However, value was not considered reliable due to the 
noisiness of the instrument and is why the “maximum velocity” (or 5 min wind) 
is what was generally reported in the Monthly Weather Review.)  The Charleston 
station record showed a sea-level pressure of 1009 mb 3-4 hours after the 
strongest winds, and a lower pressure likely occurred at that time. If the 
station record correctly logged peak conditions, this lower pressure was 
between 1003-1008 mb, as 1003 mb was the lowest for the month (on the 19th 
in association with an extratropical low).  50 kt is chosen for landfall and 
maintains the 50 kt originally shown in HURDAT at 06 UTC on the 3rd. Given the 
small size of the system and the sparsely populated coast, it is possible that 
it had a stronger inner core (approaching minimal hurricane intensity) which 
struck the coast just south of Charleston, but no definitive evidence that this 
is the case is available. Once over land, the system quickly diminished in 
intensity and dissipated by 12 UTC on the 4th with no changes made to HURDAT 
in the dissipation. 

******************************************************************************

1927/06 - 2010 REVISION:

24535 10/17/1927 M= 3  6 SNBR= 548 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
24535 10/16/1927 M= 4  6 SNBR= 548 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
         **         *    

(The 16th is new to HURDAT.)
24538 10/16*165 870  30    0*166 867  30    0*167 862  30    0*169 854  35    0

24540 10/17*185 865  40    0*187 855  40    0*188 843  40    0*188 833  40    0
24540 10/17*172 844  40    0*175 835  40    0*178 827  40    0*182 820  40    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

24545 10/18*192 822  40    0*191 809  40    0*195 795  40    0*198 779  40    0
24545 10/18*187 814  40    0*193 806  40    0*200 795  40    0*210 777  40    0
            *** ***          *** ***          ***              *** ***

24550 10/19*200 762  35    0*214 743  35    0*233 723  35    0*260 702  35    0
24550 10/19*222 750  40    0E237 720  35    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0
            *** ***  **     **** ***          *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24555 TS                    

Major changes to the track and minor alterations to the intensity shown in 
McAdie et al. (2009).  Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical 
Weather Maps series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather Review, and Perez 
et al. (2000).

October 16: HWM analyzed a broad area of low pressure in the western Caribbean
Sea. No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

October 17: HWM indicates a broad closed low of at most 1005 mb in the western
Caribbean Sea. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 18.8N, 84.3W at 12
UTC. Ship highlights: 30 kt NW and 1000 mb at 17.3N, 83.2W at 12 UTC (COA).

October 18: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1005 mb near 21.5N, 80W.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 19.5N, 79.5W at 12 UTC. The MWR
Tracks of Cyclones indicate the center near 19.5N, 80W at 8 a.m. Ship
highlights: 15 kt NW and 1004 mb at 19.5N, 80.7W at 11 UTC (COA).

October 19: HWM indicates a cold front stretching northeast from the eastern
Bahamas to Bermuda. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 23.3N, 72.3W at
12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of Cyclones indicate the center near 22N, 72.5W at 8
a.m. Ship highlights: 25 kt S and 999 mb at 22N, 74.3W at 00 UTC (COA).
"The disturbance was of small extent but of moderate intensity causing some
destruction to crops as it passed northeast over extreme eastern Cuba during
the night of the 18th (MWR).  "October 18-19 - Tropical Storm - Cuba" 
(Perez et al.).

Genesis for storm #6 began on October 16th at 00 UTC as a tropical depression 
rather than a tropical storm in the western Caribbean Sea, one day earlier 
than original HURDAT. On the 17th, a peripheral pressure of 1000 mb was 
observed implying winds of at least 47 kt from the Brown et al. south of 
25N pressure-wind relationship.  Environmental pressures were quite low 
suggesting a slight decrease in the pressure-wind intensity estimates. Thus, 
40 kt is retained for HURDAT at 12 UTC on the 17th. The storm progressed 
east-northeastward throughout its duration.  On the 18th a peripheral pressure 
of 1004 mb was observed implying winds of at least 39 kt from the south of 25N 
pressure-wind relationship. 40 kt is retained for HURDAT at 12 UTC on the 18th.  
The system made landfall around 16 UTC on the 18th in Cuba as a 40 kt tropical 
storm.  Available observations indicate the system became absorbed by a frontal 
boundary around 06 UTC on the 19th, while the original HURDAT showed a final 
position (not becoming extratropical) at 18 UTC on the 19th.  Peak intensity 
with this tropical storm is maintained at 40 kt. 

******************************************************************************

1927/07 - 2010 REVISION:

24560 10/30/1927 M= 6  7 SNBR= 549 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
24560 10/30/1927 M= 5  7 SNBR= 549 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
                    *  

24565 10/30*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*188 830  35    0
24565 10/30*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*195 800  30    0*200 799  35    0
                                              *** ***  **      *** ***

24570 10/31*197 818  35    0*204 806  40    0*209 800  40    0*214 796  40    0
24570 10/31*205 797  35    0*210 796  40    0*215 795  40    0*220 794  40    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

24575 11/01*220 790  35    0*227 784  35    0*236 777  35    0*247 768  35    0
24575 11/01*225 793  35    0*230 792  35    0*236 790  35    0*247 783  35    0
            *** ***          *** ***              ***              ***

24580 11/02*261 757  35    0*275 746  35    0*286 737  35    0*295 732  35    0
24580 11/02*261 771  35    0*275 755  35    0*290 745  35    0*305 745  35    0
                ***              ***          *** ***          *** ***

24585 11/03*303 729  35    0*309 728  35    0E314 727  30    0E321 727  30    0
24585 11/03*315 755  35    0*318 759  35    0*320 760  35    0*321 760  30    0
            *** ***         **** ***         **** ***  **          ***  

(The 4th is removed from HURDAT.)
24590 11/04E332 727  30    0E359 727  30    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0

24595 TS                    

Major changes to the track and but minor alterations to the intensity shown 
in McAdie et al. (2009).  The new track also removes the extratropical stage from 
this system.  Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather Maps 
series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather Review, and Perez et al. (2000).  

October 30: HWM analyzed a weak low at 18N 80W. HURDAT listed this as a tropical 
storm at its first position at 18.8N 83.0W at 18 UTC. No gale force winds (or
equivalent in pressure) were observed.  (Perez et al. suggested that the system
began as a tropical depression in the southwest Caribbean on the 28th and
moved northward for the next two days without intensifying.  However, 
analysis of HWM and COADS maps for those days suggest instead that the
system was more of a trough feature and did not yet exhibit a closed
circulation until the 30th.)

October 31: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 26N, 81W. HURDAT
listed this as a tropical storm at 20.9N, 80W at 12 UTC. No gale force winds (or
equivalent in pressure) were observed.

November 1: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered over central
Cuba. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 23.6N, 77.7W at 12 UTC.  No
gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed. "October 31-
November 1 - Tropical Storm - Cuba" (Perez et al.).

November 2: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 25N, 75W. HURDAT
listed this as a tropical storm at 28.6N, 73.7W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of
Cyclones indicate the center near 25N, 74W at 8 a.m.  Ship highlights: 35 kt ESE
and 1018 mb at 30.3N, 72.3W at 13 UTC (MWR).

November 3: HWM analyzed an elongated northwest to southeast closed low of at
most 1000 mb near 26N, 66W with a warm frontal boundary analyzed.  Additionally, 
HWM shows a closed low of at most 1000 mb near 36N 76W over North Carolina with 
an approaching frontal boundary to the northwest.  HURDAT listed this as a 
tropical storm at 31.4N, 72.7W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of Cyclones indicate 
the center near 30.5N, 72.5W at 8 a.m. Ship highlights: 35 kt ESE and 1011 mb 
at 33.7N 72.3W at 12 UTC (HWM).

November 4: HWM indicates an extratropical cyclone near 30N, 60W. HURDAT listed
this as an extratropical storm at 35.9N, 72.7W at 06 UTC. No gale force
winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.
 
Genesis for storm #7 began on October 30th as a tropical depression in the 
northwestern Caribbean Sea, six hours earlier than originally indicate. 
The storm moved northeast from the 30th through November 2nd as the system 
crossed over Cuba into the western Atlantic Ocean.  HURDAT intensity 
estimates on October 31st and November 1st are retained due to the lack 
of available data near the system on these dates. Perez et al. confirm
that the system was likely a minimal tropical storm that made landfall Cuba 
around 12 UTC on the 31st, with a track that was farther north than 
originally indicated.  The new storm track for the 3rd and 4th indicates a 
substantially different evolution than original HURDAT, with the system 
farther west on the 3rd and dissipated on the 4th.  A complex synoptic 
pattern developed on the 3rd and 4th.  As the tropical cyclone moved 
northward north of the Bahamas on the 3rd, it weakened as a separate, 
baroclinic system that impacted New England and Canada (and caused 
significant flooding in New England) began developing over North Carolina 
and Virginia.  At the same time, a large non-tropical low that formed south 
of Bermuda with gale force winds (this is now included in the Additional 
Notes section) was occurring on the 3rd and 4th of November.  The reanalysis 
efforts reconfirms that the pre-existing tropical storm, the baroclinic 
system that impacted New England/Canada, and the third low south of Bermuda 
were all separate cyclones.  It is analyzed that the tropical cyclone 
remained in that status until dissipation after 18 UTC on the 3rd, while in 
the warm section of the developing baroclinic low.

******************************************************************************

1927/08 - 2010 ADDITION:

24596 11/19/1927 M= 3  8 SNBR= 550 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
24597 11/19*205 504  30    0*220 512  30    0*235 520  35    0*251 527  40    0
24598 11/20*268 534  45    0*284 540  50    0*300 545  50    0*315 548  50    0
24599 11/21*328 550  50    0*339 551  45    0E350 550  40    0E360 547  35    0
24599 TS                    

Storm #8 is added to the original hurricane record shown in Neumann et al.
(1999). Evidence for the addition comes from the Historical Weather Maps series
and the COADS ship database.  

November 16: HWM isobaric analysis indicated a closed low of no more than
1007.5 mb located near 17N, 52W.  No gales (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

November 17: HWM isobaric analysis indicated a closed low of no more than 1005
mb located near 18N, 45W.  No gales (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

November 18: HWM isobaric analysis continued to indicate a closed low of no
more than 1005 mb located near 19N, 50W. 
No gales (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

November 19: HWM isobaric analysis continued to indicate a closed low of no
more than 1005 mb located near 21.5N, 54.5W.  
Ship highlights: 40 kt SE and 1012 mb at 27.5N, 50.5W (COA).

November 20: HWM isobaric analysis indicated a very large closed low of no 
more than 1005 mb located roughly near 26N, 57.5W. Ship highlights:
45 kt SSE and 999 mb at 29.5N, 53.5W at 12Z (COA). 

November 21: HWM isobaric analysis indicated an elongated closed low of no more
than 1005 mb located at the tail end of the cold front near 24N, 59W. 
No gale force winds or equivalent in pressure were
observed.

Despite the Historical Weather Map series indicating a closed low as early
as November 16th, available observations suggest that the system became
a tropical cyclone early on the 19th.  Tropical storm intensity is begun
at 12 UTC on the 19th and is supported by several gale force wind reports
(on the 19th and 20th) and one 999 mb peripheral pressure reading (on 
the 20th).  This pressure suggests winds of at least 45 kt from the Brown et al. 
north of 25N pressure-wind relationship - 50 kt chosen for HURDAT at 12 UTC on 
the 20th.  The system encountered a strong frontal boundary around 12 UTC on the 
21st and extratropical transition is noted at that time.  The system likely 
dissipated late on the 21st.  Peak intensity for this late season tropical storm 
is around 50 kt on the 20th and 21st.  It should be noted that this system may 
have been a subtropical cyclone, but without satellite imagery to confirm the 
convective structure, it will be considered a tropical cyclone.

******************************************************************************

1927 - Additional Notes:

1)  Historical Weather Maps and COADS indicate that a weak low formed along a
weakening frontal boundary on 13 August. The low began to take shape on the
12th along a still-intact front, near 23N, 77W. The next day it moved
moderately northeastward as the front dissipated in the vicinity of the low.
Winds near the center did not exceed 20 kt, so the system is not being added to
HURDAT. Afterwards, the low moved very rapidly to the east-northeast and became
absorbed in the remaining frontal boundary.

DAY		LAT	LON		STATUS
Aug 12	33N	77W		Not closed
Aug 13	35N	70W		Tropical Depression
Aug 14	36N	56W		Extratropical
 
2)  Historical Weather Maps and COADS indicate that a tropical cyclone
developed on 17 October in the Northern Bahamas near 26N, 78W. It appears that
the cyclone originated from a northern piece of the precursor disturbance to
Storm #6. It moved rather quickly to the north immediately after it formed in
response to an approaching frontal boundary. No gale force winds were reported
while the system was presumed to be tropical, but the pressure was about 1004
mb. The highest winds reported were 25 kts. The system continued to deepen
after it merged with the front, and several reports of gales were noted, along
with a minimum pressure of 996 mb. Due to the lack of gale force winds during
its brief period as a tropical cyclone, the system is not being added to
HURDAT.

DAY		LAT	LON		STATUS
Oct 16	-----	-----		Not closed
Oct 17	26N	78W		Tropical Depression
Oct 18	35N	74W		Absorbed by front

3)  Historical Weather Maps and COADS indicate a broad non-tropical low existed 
south of Bermuda on the 3rd and 4th of November.  This developed as part of a 
complex synoptic situation with storm #8 slowly moving northward north of the 
Bahamas and a third, vigorous extratropical cyclone was forming over North 
Carolina and Virginia.  While numerous ships show low pressures below 1005 mb, 
none of these are co-located with gale force winds – consistent with a 
non-tropical low structure.  There were two ships that reported gales:  
“UK035419” with 45 kt SW at 12Z on the 3rd and “2061000” with 35 kt SE at 20Z 
on the 3rd, 50 kt SE at 00Z on the 4th, 70 kt ESE at 04Z on the 4th, and 50 kt 
SE at 08Z on the 4th.  Comparison of the latter ship versus nearby observations 
suggests, however, that this ship may have reported double the actual winds.  
By 12Z on the 4th, the system had opened up into a trough.  It is possible that 
this system had acquired some tropical characteristics on the 3rd, but the balance 
of the evidence indicates that it was a broad non-tropical low with some gale 
force winds.

DAY		LAT	LON		STATUS
Nov 3 	28N   55W    	Non-tropical Low
Nov 4       ---   ---         Trough along 25N50W to 27N58W

******************************************************************************

1928/01 – 2010 REVISIONS:

24600 08/03/1928 M=10  1 SNBR= 550 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=2
24600 08/03/1928 M=11  1 SNBR= 550 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=2
                   **

24605 08/03*113 607  35    0*123 621  35    0*133 636  35    0*142 652  35    0
24605 08/03*188 636  35    0*189 643  35    0*190 650  35    0*191 657  35    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

24610 08/04*150 660  35    0*160 670  35    0*167 678  35    0*176 690  40    0
24610 08/04*192 664  35    0*194 672  35    0*196 680  35    0*200 690  40    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** 

24615 08/05*185 700  40    0*194 709  40    0*203 720  35    0*212 731  40    0
24615 08/05*205 701  40    0*210 712  40    0*215 723  40    0*221 734  40    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  **      *** ***            

24620 08/06*221 743  45    0*230 754  55    0*238 765  65    0*245 774  70    0
24620 08/06*228 745  45    0*235 755  55    0*242 765  65    0*248 774  70    0
            *** ***          *** ***          ***              ***

24625 08/07*251 781  80    0*255 786  80    0*260 791  85    0*265 795  85    0
24625 08/07*253 782  80    0*258 788  90  971*263 792  90    0*266 795  90    0
            *** ***          *** ***  **  *** *** ***  **      ***      **

24630 08/08*269 799  85    0*274 803  80  977*278 807  70    0*282 812  50    0
24630 08/08*269 798  90    0*272 801  85  977*276 805  70    0*279 809  50    0
                ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***          *** ***

24635 08/09*286 817  40    0*290 822  40    0*294 827  35    0*298 832  35    0
24635 08/09*281 815  45    0*284 821  40    0*287 827  40    0*291 833  40    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***          ***      **      *** ***  **

24640 08/10*303 838  35    0*309 843  35    0*317 848  35    0*326 840  30    0
24640 08/10*296 839  35    0*302 844  35    0*310 845  35    0*319 840  30    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          ***

24645 08/11*335 829  30    0E343 817  30    0E352 805  30    0E361 790  30    0
24645 08/11*329 832  30    0E340 822  30    0E352 810  30    0E364 797  30    0
            *** ***          *** ***              ***          *** ***

24650 08/12E370 775  30    0E378 759  30    0E387 741  30    0*  0   0   0    0
24650 08/12E372 782  35    0E380 762  45    0E385 745  55    0E385 730  55    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **     **** ***  **

(The 13th is new to HURDAT.)
24652 08/13E385 718  50    0E385 708  45    0E385 700  40    0E385 695  35    0

24655 HRCFL2                





U.S. Continental Hurricanes (and Tropical Storms):
-------------------------------------------------
#/Date         Time  Lat    Lon    Max  Saffir RMW   Central   States
                                   Wind Simpson      Pressure  Affected
8/8/1928       0700Z 27.3N  80.2W   85kt  2   10nmi    977mb   CFL2
8/10/1928      0400Z 30.0N  84.3W   35kt  TS  -----    -----   ----

Major changes to the track and minor alterations to the intensity shown in 
McAdie et al. (2009).  Evidence for these alterations comes from the 
Historical Weather Maps series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather 
Review, the Original Monthly Records, Dunn and Miller (1960), Schwerdt et 
al. (1979), Ho et al. (1987), and Jarrell et al. (1992).  Analysis of this 
hurricane before and at landfall in Florida was greatly assisted by Daniel 
Gladstein.

August 3: HWM analyzed no features of interest in the eastern Caribbean Sea. 
HURDAT listed this system as a tropical storm at 12Z at 13.3N 63.6W.  
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

August 4: HWM analyzed a broad trough near 67W. HURDAT listed this system as 
a tropical storm at 12Z at 16.7N 67.8W.  No gale force winds (or equivalent 
in pressure) were observed.  “August 3-12, 1928 – From reports received by 
mail it is evident that a tropical disturbance, the first of the season, 
passed on a westward course some 75 to 100 miles north of the Leeward Islands 
during the 3d and 4th of August” (MWR).

August 5: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 20N, 72.5W. HURDAT
listed this as a tropical storm at 20.3N, 72W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of Lows
suggests a center near 22N, 73W at 8 a.m. Ship highlights: 35 kt W and
1008 mb at 22.9N, 74.3W at 20 UTC (MWR); 35 kt SW and 1008 mb at 22.3N, 74.4W
at 21 UTC (COA). “…the first [tropical disturbance of the month] was in the 
vicinity of Turks Island on the morning of the 5th and following the usual 
northwesterly path, struck the southeast coast of Florida on the 7th” (MWR).  
“The first telegraphic report of its existence was received from the S.S. 
Saraola, just west of Acklin Island on the afternoon of the 5th” (MWR).

August 6: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 23.5N, 78W. HURDAT
listed this as a Category 1 hurricane at 23.8N, 76.5W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks
of Lows suggests a center near 24N, 76.5W at 8 a.m. No gale force winds
(or equivalent in pressure) were observed.  “The center moved northwestward 
with slowly increasing intensity and was central on the morning of the 6th 
about 60 miles southeast of Andros, Bahamas” (MWR).

August 7: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1005 mb near 25N, 80W. HURDAT
listed this as a Category 2 hurricane at 26N, 79.1W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks
of Lows suggests a center near 26N, 79W at 8 a.m. Ship highlights: 60
kt NNW and 999 mb at 26.4N, 79.9W at 07 UTC (COA); 10 kt W and a central
pressure of 971 mb at 26N, 79.8W at 07 UTC (MWR); 50 kt N and 1010 mb at 26.2N,
79.7W at 12 UTC (COA).  “By the morning of the 7th a tropical storm, moving 
from the West Indies, approached the east coast of Florida” (MWR).

August 8: HWM indicates a closed low 1005 mb near 28.2N, 80.5W, just off the
coast of Cape Canaveral. HURDAT listed this as a Category 1 hurricane at 27.8N,
80.7W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of Lows suggests a center near 27.8N, 81W at 8
a.m. Ship highlights: 50 kt W and 1001 mb at 26N, 80W at 00 UTC
(COA); 70 kt SW and 997 mb at 26.5N, 79.8W at 00 UTC (COA); 45 kt SSE and 1002
mb at 27.2N, 79.6W at 09 UTC (COA). Station highlights: 977 mb and “Wind lulled” 
at Fort Pierce at 09Z (MWR); E wind with 1002 mb at Titusville, Florida, at 
20 UTC (OMR).  “Tropical Cyclones in Florida – Aug. 7-9 – N of Palm Beach – 
Minimal Hurricane – 2 killed, damage $235,000” (Dunn and Miller).  “US 
Hurricane – FL, SE2 (no central pressure)” (Jarrell et al.).  No mention of 
this hurricane in Ho et al. and Schwerdt et al., implying central pressure at 
landfall higher than 981 mb.  “On the evening of the 7th no land observations 
were available between Titusville and Miami, but vessel reports south of the 
center indicated that it was beginning to turn north-northwest or possible 
northwest…At that time the center was about 20 miles southeast of Jupiter.  
By the morning of the 8th the center was about 60 miles northwest of Jupiter, 
moving northwest” (MWR).  “…and during the following two or three days [8th 
to 9th or 10th] crossed the State in a northwest direction, attended by 
torrential rains and high winds, reaching the northing limits by the morning 
of the 10th, where it recurved sharply and moved then northeastward over the 
South Atlantic States during the 11th, passing into the Atlantic near the 
mouth of Chesapeake Bay during the following day.  The storm was attended by 
high winds and heavy rains not only in Florida but in its passage over the 
central and southern parts of Georgia and South Carolina, the winds diminishing 
somewhat with the advance of the storm, but heavy rains continued throughout 
its entire course, reaching high intensities in portions of Virginia and Maryland, 
particularly in the vicinity of the District of Columbia, where the 23-hour fall 
on the 11th and 12th was the greatest of record.  Much damage to crops, roads, 
and bridges occurred throughout the course of this storm – in Florida by injury 
to the citrus and other crops, in the eastern cotton States by damage to open 
cotton, and in all sections by flattening corn, tobacco, and other crops, 
blowing fruit from trees, flooding and washing of farm land, roads, etc., and 
otherwise” (MWR).  “The center passed nearly over Fort Pierce as a lull was 
experienced between 3 and 4 a. m. on the 8th…SW winds (estimated 90 m. p. h.) 
at 4:30” (MWR).

August 9: HWM analyzed a closed low of 1000 mb near 29N, 83W. HURDAT listed
this as a tropical storm at 29.4N, 82.7W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of Lows
suggests a center near 30N, 83W at 8 a.m. Ship highlights: 15 kt NW
and 1003 mb at 27.8N, 87.7W at 12 UTC (COA). Station highlights: 14 kt W and
1004 mb at Tampa at 00 UTC (OMR); 1001 mb at Tampa at 06 UTC (OMR); 13 kt SW
and 1003 mb at Tampa at 12 UTC (OMR). “The storm continued to move 
northwestward with decreasing intensity to between Tampa and Apalachicola by 
the evening of the 9th” (MWR).

August 10: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 31N, 84W. HURDAT
listed this as a tropical storm at 31.7N, 84.8W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of
Lows suggests a center near 32N, 83.5W at 8 a.m. Station highlights:
1004 mb at Apalachicola, Florida, at 12 UTC (HWM); 19 kt N and 997 mb at Macon,
Georgia, at 20 UTC (OMR); 26 kt S and 1004 mb at Savannah at 20 UTC (OMR); 
34 kt S at Savannah at 21 UTC (OMR).  “It then turned northward to southern 
Georgia being more and more northwestward” (MWR).

August 11: HWM analyzed a broad extratropical cyclone centered near Charlotte,
North Carolina. HURDAT listed this as an extratropical storm at 35.2N, 80.5W at
12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of Lows suggests a center near 35N, 81W at 8 a.m.
Station highlights: 16 kt NW and 999 mb at Macon, Georgia, at 00 UTC
(OMR); 997 mb at Augusta, Georgia, at 03 UTC (OMR).  “…until it finally passed 
off the coast north of the Virginia Capes during the night of the 11th” (MWR).

August 12: HWM indicates an extratropical cyclone just east of the Chesapeake
Bay. HURDAT listed this as an extratropical storm at 38.7N, 74.1W at 12 UTC.
The MWR Tracks of Lows suggests a center near 38.5N, 74W at 12 UTC. 
Ship highlights: 35 kt SW and 1006 mb at 37.2N, 74.7W at 12 UTC (COA); 25 kt SW
and 1004 mb at 37.7N, 74.6W at 12 UTC (COA); 35 W at 37.5N, 74.5W at 21 UTC
(COA). Station highlights:  38 kt NE at Philadelphia (MWR); 53 kt NE Atlantic 
City (MWR); 37 kt NE at Sandy Hook (MWR); 34 kt W at Norfolk (MWR).  “It passed 
out to sea near the Virginia Capes on the morning of the 12th, with moderate 
to strong gales along the coast between Hatteras and New York” (MWR).

August 13: HWM analyzed an extratropical cyclone near 40N, 70W. Original HURDAT
did not list this system on this date. Available observations from HWM and
COADS suggest a center near 39N, 68W at 06 UTC. Ship highlights:  35 kt NW and 
1015 mb at 36.5N 73.5W at 09 UTC (COA); 35 kt NNW and 1015 mb at 37.5N 73.5W at 
13 UTC (COA); 35 kt N and 1019 mb at 38.5N 73.5W at 17 UTC (COA).

Three different scenarios were available for the genesis of storm #1:  
a) The tropical cyclone formed north of Hispaniola on the 5th (MWR – page 336 and HWM), 
b) The tropical cyclone formed north of the Leeward Islands on the 3rd (MWR – page 441), or 
c) The tropical cyclone formed near Trinidad and Barbados on the 3rd (HURDAT, McAdie et al.).  
Examination of the data does suggest that a closed circulation was present 
on the 3rd (with SW winds at San Juan), but the observations are ambiguous 
on the 4th.  The data are fairly conclusive, however, that a closed circulation 
was not present in the eastern Caribbean on the 4th.  The revised HURDAT positions 
are closest to scenario b – forming north of the Leeward Islands on the 3rd.  
Thus major track changes are introduced on the 3rd and 4th.  No changes are made 
to the intensity on these dates as the data – while not showing any observed gales 
– are ambiguous as to the intensity.  On the 3rd and 4th, the system moved 
west-northwestward turning toward the northwestward on the 5th, which it continued 
until landfall in central Florida on the 8th. Peak winds on the 5th were reported 
at 35 kt. 35 kt is retained for HURDAT at 12 UTC on the 5th. No gale force winds 
or low pressures were observed on the 6th as the storm paralleled Cuba's 
southeastern coast. On the 7th, a central pressure of 971 mb was observed, 
implying winds of 89 and 83 kt from the south and north of 25N Brown et al. 
pressure-wind relationships, respectively.  Winds of 90 and 87 kt are implied 
from the intensifying group of systems south of 25N and north of 25N, respectively.  
90 kt is retained for HURDAT at 06Z UTC on the 7th, up from 80 kt originally.  
This may have been the peak intensity of this hurricane.

The Category 2 hurricane made landfall in central Florida around 07 UTC, just 
southeast of Fort Pierce on the 8th.  The Fort Pierce measurement of 977 mb 
accompanied by a “lull” in the wind (along with a 180 degree wind shift from 
NE to SW) suggests that this was a central pressure reading from the hurricane’s 
eye, shortly after the hurricane made landfall.  This value does look reasonable 
given the 971 mb central pressure recorded from a ship the day previous. The 
radius of maximum winds (RMW) for this hurricane at landfall was approximately 
10 nmi, significantly smaller than climatology (20 nmi - Vickery et al, 2000). 
(The 10 nmi RMW value is an estimate based upon both the duration of the lull 
experienced at Fort Pierce (~75 minutes with 180 degree wind shift from NE to 
SW) relative to the speed of the hurricane (~5 kt) as well as the small radius 
of outer closed isobar (~140 nm).  This 10 nmi RMW could be off by as much as 
50%.  However, even if the RMW size were 50% larger, this would still suggest 
a small system with a commensurate boost to the winds from the pressure-wind 
relationship.)  A central pressure of 977 mb implies winds of 81 and 76 kt from 
the south and north of 25N Brown et al. pressure-wind relationships, respectively. 
Due to the small RMW, 85 kt is chosen for HURDAT at 06 UTC, a 5 kt increase from 
original HURDAT. However, this does not change the Saffir-Simpson Category 2 
hurricane classification at landfall. Peak observed winds after landfall were 
the following: 12 UTC 8th - 45 kt, 18 UTC - 30 kt, 00 UTC 9th - 25 kt, and 06 UTC 
- no wind speed record. Application of the Kaplan and DeMaria (1995) model suggests 
winds of 67, 52, 41, and 38 kt, accordingly. Winds for revised HURDAT are retained 
at 70 kt at 12 UTC and 50 kt at 18 UTC. On the 9th winds for revised HURDAT are 
increased to 45 kt at 00 UTC and maintained at 40 kt at 06 UTC. 

It appears that the center of the cyclone may have moved into the Gulf of Mexico 
(though still close to the coast) from about 12Z on the 9th until 04Z on the 
10th.  Gale force winds were not observed on the 9th but a peripheral pressure 
of 1003 mb was observed, implying winds of at least 38 kt from the north of 25N 
pressure-wind relationship. 40 kt is chosen for HURDAT at 12 UTC, a 5 kt upgrade 
from previous HURDAT.  On the 10th, a peripheral pressure of 997 mb was observed 
implying winds of at least 49 kt from the north of 25N pressure-wind relationship. 
Given that the storm is over land, a significant reduction to the implied winds 
is necessary. Thus, 35 kt is retained for HURDAT at 12 UTC on the 10th. 
Available observations indicate that the storm transitioned to an extratropical 
storm by 06 UTC on the 11th. Peak winds on the 11th were 25 kt. 30 kt is 
maintained for HURDAT at 12 UTC. On the 12th the system reemerged into the 
Atlantic Ocean off the Virginia coast. Numerous gale force winds were observed 
along the coastal mid-Atlantic state US Weather Bureau stations on the 12th.  
Winds are boosted accordingly in HURDAT.  Available observations indicate the 
system dissipated by 00 UTC on the 14th, 30 hours later than indicated in 
original HURDAT, in the North Atlantic Ocean.

*******************************************************************************

1928/02 – 2010 REVISIONS:

24660 08/07/1928 M=11  2 SNBR= 551 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0
24665 08/07*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*123 600  35    0*128 608  35    0
24665 08/07*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*115 603  30    0*122 612  30    0
                                              *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24670 08/08*133 616  35    0*138 625  40    0*142 635  40    0*146 646  45    0
24670 08/08*129 621  35    0*136 630  40    0*142 640  40    0*146 650  45    0
            *** ***          *** ***              ***              ***  

24675 08/09*150 655  50    0*154 669  55    0*158 680  60    0*162 689  65    0
24675 08/09*150 660  50    0*154 670  55    0*158 680  60    0*162 690  65    0
                ***              ***                               ***  

24680 08/10*165 698  70    0*169 707  70    0*173 716  70    0*179 727  70    0
24680 08/10*165 700  70    0*169 710  75    0*173 720  80    0*177 730  80    0
                ***              ***  **          ***  **      *** ***  **

24685 08/11*186 737  70    0*194 748  70    0*201 759  60    0*207 770  60    0
24685 08/11*180 739  80    0*182 749  75    0*186 759  70    0*191 769  65    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      ***      **      *** ***  **

24690 08/12*213 780  50    0*220 790  45    0*227 798  45    0*235 805  45    0
24690 08/12*197 781  60    0*204 792  55    0*215 800  50    0*228 806  50    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24695 08/13*244 811  45    0*252 816  50    0*260 822  50    0*268 828  55    0
24695 08/13*242 811  60    0*252 816  60    0*260 822  55    0*269 828  55    0
            ***      **               **               **      ***

24700 08/14*276 833  50    0*285 839  50    0*293 844  45    0*302 849  40    0
24700 08/14*278 834  50    0*287 840  50    0*296 846  45    0*305 850  40    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

24705 08/15*313 854  40    0*324 856  35    0*334 854  35    0*344 848  30    0
24705 08/15*313 854  35    0*321 856  35    0*330 854  30    0*339 850  30    0
                     **      ***              ***      **      *** ***

24710 08/16*353 842  30    0*362 835  30    0*371 827  25    0*379 820  25    0
24710 08/16*347 845  30    0*355 839  30    0*365 833  25    0*375 825  25    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

24715 08/17*386 812  25    0*392 805  20    0*397 797  20    0*  0   0   0    0
24715 08/17*384 816  25    0*392 805  20    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0
            *** ***                           *** ***  **

24720 HR    
                
U.S. Tropical Storms:
-------------------------------------------------
#/Date         Time  Lat    Lon    Max  States
                                   Wind Affected
8/13/1928      0300Z 24.7N  81.4W  60kt  FL
8/14/1928      1400Z 29.9N  84.7W  45kt  FL

Minor changes to the track and intensity shown in McAdie et al. (2009).
Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather Maps series,
the COADS ship database, Original Monthly Records, Monthly Weather Review, 
and Perez et al (2000).

August 7: HWM analyzed no significant features in the eastern Caribbean Sea.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 12.3N, 60W at 12 UTC. No gale force 
winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.  “The disturbance was first 
noted as one of slight to moderate intensity west of Bridgetown, Barbados, on 
the evening of the 7th, advancing west-northwest” (MWR).

August 8: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1005 mb near 14N, 65W. HURDAT
listed this as a tropical storm at 14.2N, 63.5W at 12 UTC.  No gale force winds 
(or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

August 9: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1005 mb near 15.5N, 68W. HURDAT
listed this as a tropical storm at 15.8N, 68W at 12 UTC. Ship highlights:  
40 kt W and 998 mb at 14 UTC at 15.5N 69W (MWR).

August 10: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1005 mb near 16.5N, 71W.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 17.3N, 71.6W at 12 UTC. 
Ship highlights: 20 kt ESE and 1005 mb at 13.8N, 69.2W at 12 UTC (HWM).  
“Belated reports indicate that a very small but destructive disturbance 
passed over extreme southwest Haiti during the 10th” (MWR).

August 11: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1005 mb near 20N, 76.5W. HURDAT
listed this as a tropical storm at 20.1N, 75.9W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of
Lows suggests a center near 19.8N, 75.8W at 8 a.m. Ship highlights: 70 kt E 
at ~19N, 75W at 08 UTC (OMR – Key West); 45 kt E and 1012 mb at 19.3N, 75W at 
11 UTC (MWR); 60 kt E at 19.3N, 75W (MWR); 45 kt E at 19.3N, 75.1W at 12 UTC 
(COA). “The second disturbance was central near Jamaica on the 11th, and on 
that day strong easterly gales were encountered in the northerly quadrants…
This disturbance decreased in intensity as it moved in a north-northwesterly 
direction, and was accompanied by comparatively moderate winds on the three 
succeeding days…On the morning of the 11th the center of the disturbance was 
over extreme eastern Cuba” (MWR).  “On the 11th a disturbance of small area 
passed on a west-northwest course between Jamaica and the eastern end of Cuba.  
This disturbance must have been of hurricane intensity as the U.S.S. Arkansas 
experienced a 78-mile east wind at 4 a.m. of that date off Guantanamo Bay.  
Judging from the general conditions that prevailed over Cuba to the eastward 
of Havana the disturbance rapidly lost energy after passing between Jamaica 
and Cuba, and on the night of the 11th crossed Cuba, moving directly north, 
the center passing a short distance to the west of Cienfuegos.  Although no 
heavy winds were experienced over that section of Cuba the unsettled conditions, 
including gusty winds and excessive rainfalls, were typically symptomatic of 
tropical disturbances.  But in crossing the Straits of Florida there occurred a 
rapid recrudescence” (OMR – Key West).  

August 12: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1000 mb near 22N, 81.5W.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 22.7N, 79.8W at 12 UTC. The MWR
seasonal hurricane chart suggests a center near 23N, 79.5W at 12 UTC. 
Ship highlights: 45 kt SE and 1014 mb at 25.2N, 80.2W at 18 UTC (COA).  
“As far as telegraphic reports are concerned, the center was not definitely 
traceable for the next 24 to 36 hours, but reports received by mail indicate 
that a small center passed over the province of Oriente, Cuba, where some 
banana trees were blown down, and was central on the morning of the 12th on 
the north coast of central Cuba.  Observations during the afternoon of the 
12th indicated a disturbance southeast of Key West…At 8 p. m. of that date 
it was evident that a small but intense disturbance was advancing northwestward 
toward the Florida Keys” (MWR). “No dangerous of destructive winds developed 
from the disturbance that apparently formed to the eastward of Key West on the 
12th and for which hurricane warnings were displayed at 9:30 p.m. of that date.  
The lowest pressure recorded was 29.72 inches at 8 p.m. on the 12th, and the 
highest wind velocity was 36 miles an hour from the southwest at 7:05 a.m. on 
the 13th” (OMR – Key West).  “Tropical Storm in central Cuba, August 12th” (Perez).

August 13: HWM analyzed a closed low of 1000 mb near 26N, 82W, just west of
Fort Myers, Florida. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 26N, 82.2W at 12
UTC. The MWR Tracks of Lows suggests a center near 25.8N, 82.5W at 8 a.m.
Ship highlights: 70 kt S at 24.6N, 80.9W (MWR); 45 kt SE and 1008 mb at 24.6N, 
80.8W at 07 UTC (MWR). Station highlights: 24 kt E and 1004 mb at Tampa at 
22 UTC (OMR). “On the 13th the center was off the southwest coast of Florida…
Gales were also experienced along the coast and over the Florida Keys” (MWR)

August 14: HWM indicates a closed low of 1000 mb near 29N, 84.5W. HURDAT listed
this as a tropical storm at 29.3N, 84.4W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of Lows
suggests a center near 29.8N, 84.3W at 8 a.m. Ship highlights: No gales or low 
pressures.  Station highlights: 26 kt S and 1005 mb at Tampa at 00 UTC (OMR); 
21 kt NW and 1004 mb at Apalachicola at 12 UTC (OMR); 1003 mb at Apalachicola 
at 13 UTC (OMR). “On the 14th [the storm was] near Apalachicola. From this point 
it began to recurve slightly toward the east and gradually filled in as it 
moved over the land…This sotrm moved in a track slightly west of that of the 
preceding few days and was attended by heavy rains over much of the territory 
affected by the earlier [storm #1] storm, though the winds were generally not 
so high” (MWR).

August 15: HWM analyzed a very broad closed low of at most 1015 mb centered
near Montgomery, Alabama. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 33.4N,
85.4W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of Lows suggests a center near 33N, 85.3W at 8
a.m.  No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

August 16: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1015 mb centered near the
lower Appalachian Mountains. HURDAT listed this as a tropical depression at
37.1N, 82.7W at 12 UTC. The MWR Tracks of Lows suggests a center near 37N, 84W
at 8 a.m.  No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.  
“By the morning of the 16th the storm center had reached the southern 
Appalachian region, attended by further heavy rains, whence it moved 
northeasterly during the following day, heavy rains still continuing, and 
merged into a general low-pressure area passing along the northern border” 
(MWR).

August 17: HWM analyzed a trough centered over Virginia and North Carolina.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical depression at 39.2N, 80.5W at 06 UTC. The MWR
Tracks of Lows suggests a center near 38.3N, 80W at 8 a.m. No gale force winds 
(or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

Genesis for storm 2 began at 12 UTC on August 7th near the Lesser Antilles as a
tropical depression rather than a tropical storm.  Intensification to a tropical 
storm likely occurred early on the 8th.  The storm progressed west-northwestward, 
moving between Haiti and Jamaica and brushing the southwest coast of Haiti, 
eventually making landfall in south central Cuba and recurving to make a second 
landfall near Apalachicola on the 14th of August.  While the track changes in 
general were minor, the original track took the cyclone over southeastern Cuba.  
These new track changes are consistent with recommendations provided by Perez 
et al. (2000).  A peripheral pressure of 998 mb was observed on the 9th, which 
suggests winds of at least 51 kt from the Brown et al. south of 25N 
pressure-wind relationship.  60 kt are retained in HURDAT at 12 UTC on the 9th.  
Winds are boosted slightly on the 10th (from 70 to 80 kt, which is the new peak 
intensity for the cyclone) to account for description of impact in Haiti, though 
the intensity is highly uncertain.  Hurricane intensity for this cyclone was 
also observed from the U.S.S. Arkansas observations, while south of Cuba early 
on the 11th and hurricane intensity is maintained until 18 UTC on the 11th, 
12 hours longer than previously indicated in HURDAT.  Because of the track 
change introduced, landfall in central Cuba is analyzed to occur around 
12 UTC on the 12th as a 50 kt tropical storm rather than just before 12 UTC 
on the 11th in eastern Cuba as a 70 kt hurricane.  This is consistent with 
the analysis of Perez et al., the Key West OMR, and MWR.

The cyclone apparently strengthened some after reaching the Straits of Florida, 
based both upon the analysis in the OMR as well as ship observations late on the 
12th and early on the 13th.  A ship in COADS reported 45 kt winds twice and the 
U.S.S. El Almirante reported peak winds of hurricane force around 00 UTC on the 
13th.  The track of the cyclone takes it across the Florida Keys east of Key 
West around 03 UTC on the 13th (unchanged from original HURDAT).  Because of the 
small size of this tropical cyclone, the lack of strong winds in Key West on 
the weak side of the storm were not of much assistance in determining the 
intensity of the system.  Given the report in the Monthly Weather Review of 
“gales were also experienced … over the Florida Keys”, it is judged that the 
ship’s reported winds may have been somewhat too high.  (It is of note that 
the ship with hurricane force also reported a minimum pressure of only 
1006 mb.)  However, winds are boosted from 45 and 50 kt at 00 and 06 UC on 
the 13th to 60 kt at both time periods and it is possible that this was a 
minimal hurricane to impact the Florida Keys.  

The storm then paralleled Florida's west coast on the 13th before making a 
second U.S. landfall around 14 UTC east of Apalachicola on the 14th. Peak 
observations before landfall on the 14th, indicates a peripheral pressure 
report of 1003 mb from Apalachicola. 1003 mb implies at least 38 kt from 
the north of the 25N pressure-wind relationship. 45 kt is retained for 
HURDAT at 12 UTC and is the estimate for intensity at the second U.S. 
landfall. Once over land, the tropical storm gradually diminished in intensity 
and is estimated to have dropped below tropical storm intensity at 12 UTC 
on the 15th, six hours earlier than previously in HURDAT. The cyclone 
apparently dissipated over West Virginia around 12 UTC on the 17th, six hours 
earlier than originally in HURDAT.

*******************************************************************************

1928/03 – 2010 REVISIONS:

24725 09/01/1928 M= 8  3 SNBR= 552 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
24730 09/01*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*172 728  35    0
24730 09/01*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*172 728  25    0
                                                                        **

24735 09/02*173 741  35    0*174 754  35    0*176 767  35    0*179 780  35    0
24735 09/02*173 738  30    0*174 748  30    0*176 760  35    0*177 775  35    0
                ***  **          ***  **          ***          *** ***  

24740 09/03*182 793  35    0*184 805  40    0*186 815  40    0*187 824  45    0
24740 09/03*178 792  35    0*179 807  40    0*180 820  40    0*182 830  45    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

24745 09/04*188 833  50    0*189 841  50    0*190 850  50    0*192 858  50    0
24745 09/04*185 838  50    0*187 844  50    0*190 850  50    0*192 858  50    0
            *** ***          *** ***

24750 09/05*194 867  50    0*196 875  50    0*198 884  40    0*200 893  35    0
24755 09/06*203 903  35    0*205 913  40    0*208 922  40    0*211 930  45    0
24760 09/07*214 938  45    0*217 945  45    0*220 951  45    0*223 957  45    0
24765 09/08*227 964  45    0*231 973  40    0*240 985  35    0*248 993  30    0
24765 09/08*227 964  45    0*231 973  40    0*240 985  35    0*248 997  30    0 
                                                                   ***

24770 TS                    

Minor changes to the track and intensity shown in Neumann et al. (1999).
Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather Maps series,
the COADS ship database, the Original Monthly Records, and Monthly Weather Review.

September 1: HWM analyzed no significant features across the Caribbean Sea.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 17.2N, 72.8W at 18 UTC. 
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 2: HWM indicates no significant features across the Caribbean Sea.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 17.6N, 76.7W at 12 UTC. No
gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed. “From the 2nd until
the 5th a tropical disturbance of moderate intensity moved slowly westward over
the Caribbean Sea” (MWR).

September 3: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 16N, 84W, just
northeast of Honduras. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 18.6N, 81.5W
at 12 UTC. No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were
observed.

September 4: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010 mb near 17N, 85W.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 19N, 85W at 12 UTC. Ship highlights: 
35 kt ESE at 24N, 80W at 02 UTC (COA); 50 kt ESE at 20.5N, 81.1W at 04 UTC 
(MWR); 45 kt SE at 19.7N, 83.4W at 12 UTC (COA). “The American S.S. Norma in 
20.5N, 81.1W, near midnight of the 3rd, encountered a heavy ESE to SE squall 
of force 8 to 10 [35 to 50 kt], with a rough cross sea” (MWR).

September 5: HWM analyzed an inverted trough along 85W. HURDAT listed
this as a tropical storm at 19.8N, 88.4W at 12 UTC. Ship highlights:  
35 kt ~06 UTC at ~21N, ~85W (MWR).  “The American S. S. San Benito on the 
evening of the 4th ran into a severe squall off Cape San Antonio, accompanied 
by heavy rain and suddenly shifting winds of a maximum force of 8, though the 
barometer readers varied by little during the night” (MWR).

September 6: HWM indicates no significant features across the western Caribbean
Sea or southern Gulf of Mexico. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at
20.8N, 92.2W at 12 UTC. No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 7: HWM analyzed no significant features across the southern Gulf of
Mexico. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 22N, 95.1W at 12 UTC.
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 8: HWM indicates no significant features across the southern Gulf of
Mexico. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 24N, 98.5W at 12 UTC.
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

Genesis for storm 3 is retained at 18 UTC on September 1st, but cyclone is 
begun as a tropical depression.  Timing of the transition to tropical storm is 
somewhat ambiguous due to the somewhat sparse observations available, but is 
analyzed to have occurred around 12 UTC on the 2nd – 18 hours after that 
originally shown in HURDAT. The system originated in the central Caribbean Sea 
and propagated west to west-northwestward for the storm’s entire duration, 
making landfall twice along the Mexican coastline. Gale force winds were not 
observed until early on the 4th, when the ship S.S. Norma reported 50 kt winds 
(MWR). 50 kt is retained in HURDAT for the 4th, which is also the peak intensity 
for the cyclone. The system made landfall in the Yucatan around 06 UTC on the 
5th as a 50 kt tropical storm. The storm reemerged in the southern Gulf of 
Mexico early on the 6th and eventually made a second landfall in Mexico early 
on the 8th well south of the United States/Mexico border. Scant data coverage 
prevailed for the 6th through the 8th. Thus no changes were made to the track 
or to the intensity from the 5th until 12 UTC on the 8th.  The final position 
– at 18 UTC on the 18th – was adjusted slightly to provide a more realistic 
ending translational velocity.

*******************************************************************************

1928/04 – 2010 REVISIONS:

24775 09/06/1928 M=15  4 SNBR= 553 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=4
24775 09/06/1928 M=16  4 SNBR= 553 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=4
                   **

24780 09/06*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*137 204  35    0*138 221  35    0
24780 09/06*142 170  30    0*141 185  30    0*140 200  35    0*138 216  40    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***              ***  **

24785 09/07*139 239  35    0*140 257  35    0*141 275  35    0*142 294  35    0
24785 09/07*137 232  45    0*136 248  50    0*135 265  55    0*135 282  60    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24790 09/08*144 315  35    0*146 335  40    0*147 352  40    0*148 367  40    0
24790 09/08*135 300  60    0*136 317  60    0*137 335  60    0*138 352  60    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24795 09/09*148 382  45    0*148 396  50    0*149 411  50    0*150 426  55    0
24795 09/09*139 370  60    0*140 387  60    0*142 405  60    0*143 422  60    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24800 09/10*151 440  55    0*152 454  60    0*153 469  60    0*154 486  65    0
24800 09/10*144 440  60    0*145 457  60    0*147 475  60    0*149 492  65    0
            ***      **      *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  

24805 09/11*155 505  70    0*155 525  75    0*156 542  80    0*157 557  85    0
24805 09/11*152 509  70    0*155 526  75    0*158 542  80    0*159 558  85    0
            *** ***              ***          ***              *** ***

24810 09/12*158 572  95    0*159 586 100    0*160 599 105    0*162 611 110  940
24810 09/12*159 573  95    0*159 588 100    0*160 603 110    0*162 615 120  940
            *** ***              ***              *** ***          *** ***

24815 09/13*165 623 115    0*169 635 120    0*174 647 135    0*179 658 140  931
24815 09/13*165 626 130    0*170 636 135    0*175 648 140    0*180 659 140  931 
                *** ***      *** *** ***      *** *** ***      *** ***      

24820 09/14*185 670 140    0*190 680 135    0*196 691 135    0*200 700 135    0
24820 09/14*184 669 120  941*189 680 125    0*194 690 130    0*199 700 135    0
            *** *** ***  *** ***     ***      *** *** ***      ***     

24825 09/15*206 708 135    0*213 716 135    0*222 727 135    0*228 736 135    0
24825 09/15*207 708 135    0*215 717 135    0*222 727 135    0*229 738 135    0
            ***              *** ***                           *** *** 

24830 09/16*235 748 135    0*243 760 135    0*251 772 135    0*258 783 130    0
24830 09/16*237 750 135    0*245 763 135    0*253 776 135    0*260 788 130    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** *** 

24835 09/17*265 795 130  929*271 801 115    0*278 815 110  955*288 820  90    0
24835 09/17*267 800 125  929*272 811 100    0*278 820  85    0*286 822  75    0
            *** *** ***      *** *** ***          *** ***  *** *** ***  **

24840 09/18*300 819  80  974*313 815  75    0*325 808  60  978*331 800  60    0
24840 09/18*294 820  70    0*301 817  65  977*311 811  75  976*324 805  75  977
            *** ***  **  *** *** ***  **  *** *** ***  **  *** *** ***  **  ***

24845 09/19*341 786  50  981*349 777  45    0*358 770  40  989*370 770  40    0
24845 09/19*338 792  60    0*348 783  60    0E358 775  70    0E368 773  60    0
            *** ***  **  *** *** ***  **     *    ***  **  ******* ***  **

24850 09/20*385 775  40 1002E402 780  40    0E420 784  35 1008E433 790  35    0
24850 09/20E380 775  50    0E397 780  40    0E415 790  35 1008E435 792  30    0
           ****      **      ***              *** ***          *** ***  **

(The 21st is new to HURDAT.)
24850 09/21E455 790  25 1002*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0

24855 HRCFL4        DFL2 GA1 SC1    
24855 HRCFL4BFL3AFL1DFL1 GA1 SC1    
            ************ 

U.S. Continental Hurricanes:
----------------------------
#/Date         Time  Lat    Lon    Max  Saffir RMW   Central   States
                                   Wind Simpson      Pressure  Affected
9/17/1928      0000Z 26.7N  80.0W  125kt  4   30nmi    929mb   CFL4,BFL3,AFL1, 
										   DFL1
9/18/1928      1900Z 32.5N  80.3W   75kt  1   35nmi    976mb   SC1

Minor alterations are introduced to the track, but major changes are made 
to the intensity shown in McAdie et al. (2009).  Evidence for these 
alterations comes from the Historical Weather Map series, the COADS ship 
database, individual station and ship data from NCDC, Monthly Weather Review, 
Dunn and Miller (1960), Perez (1971), Schwerdt et al. (1979), Ho et al. 
(1987), Jarrell et al. (1992), Barnes (1998), Roth and Cobb (2001), Pfost 
(2003), Kleinberg (2003) and Caribbean observations provided by Mike Chenoweth.  
Daniel Gladstein also made significant contributions toward the reanalysis 
of this cyclone. 

September 6: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  HURDAT listed
this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 13.7N, 20.4W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 7: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  HURDAT listed
this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 14.1N, 27.5W.  Ship highlights: 50 kt S 
at 14 UTC at 13.5N, 26.5W (COA); 30 kt NNW and 1003 mb at 06 UTC at 
13.5N, 26.5W (COA).

September 8: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  HURDAT listed
this as a 40 kt tropical storm at 14.7N, 35.2W.  Ship highlights: 
No gales or low pressures do to lack of ships in the area.  Land highlights: 
No gales or low pressures in the Cape Verde Islands.

September 9: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  HURDAT listed
this as a 50kt tropical storm at 14.9N, 41.1W.  Ship highlights: 
No gales or low pressures due to lack of ships in the area.

September 10: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near
12.5N, 44.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 60 kt tropical storm at 15.3N, 46.9W.
Ship highlights: 50 kt WSW and 1001 mb at 14 UTC at 14.5N, 48.2W (NCDC); 
45 kt SW and 1003 mb at 15 UTC at 14.3N, 48.2W (NCDC); 45 kt NNW and 1004 
mb at 12 UTC at 14.8N, 48.1W (NCDC).  "On the morning of September 10 the 
S.S. Commack, in latitude 17N, longitude 48.3W, reported a barometer reading 
of 29.94 inches with wind from the northeast, force 7 [30 kt]... although 
this hurricane undoubtedly formed near the Cape Verde Islands" (MWR).  
“At 2 pm the same date the S.S. Clearwater, in latitude 14N, longitude 51W, 
reported a barometer reading of 29.90 inches with wind from the northwest, 
force 5 [20 kt], and a pressure fall of 0.10 inch in 2 hours" (MWR).

September 11: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near
14.2N, 52.6W.  HURDAT listed this as an 80 kt hurricane at 15.6N, 54.2W.
Ship highlights: 50 kt SSE and 1011 at 15 UTC at 16.0N, 53.0W (NCDC); 
50 kt NE and 1011 mb at 16 UTC at 17.0N, 56.0W (MWR); 999 mb at 08 UTC 
at 16.0N, 53.0W (NCDC).  "At 8 pm of the same date [the 10th] the S.S. 
Clarissa in latitude 13N, longitude 51W, reported a barometer reading 
of 29.84 inches with wind from the west, force 6 [25 kt].  The reports 
from these three vessels definitely established the fact that a tropical 
cyclone of unknown intensity was moving almost directly westward, being 
central at 8 pm [the 10th] nearly 600 miles east-northeast of Bridgetown.  
The following morning a report from S.S. Inanda, in latitude 17N, 56W, 
was received, the barometer reading 29.86 inches with wind from the 
northeast, force 10 [50 kt]" (MWR).

September 12: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near
14.6N, 60.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 105 kt hurricane at 16.0N, 59.9W.
Ship highlights: 50 kt W and 999 mb at 19 UTC at 14.7N, 61.2W (MWR); 
45 kt WNW and 1001 mb at 12 UTC at 14.6N, 61.1W (COA/MWR).  Land highlights: 
40 kt NE at 2320 UTC at San Juan, Puerto Rico at 18.5N, 66.0W (Perez); 
4 observations of 940 mb all in the eye between 1730 UTC and 1830 UTC in 
Guadeloupe at 16.2N, 61.5W (MWR/NCDC); 3 of those observations were at 
Agronomique, Guadeloupe, and 1 was at Pointe A'Pitre, Guadeloupe, both at 
16.2N, 61.5W; 955 mb at Martinique at 2230 UTC (Chenoweth); 35 kt W and 
993 mb at 17 UTC at Dominica at 15.3N, 61.4W (MWR).  10-12 foot tidal surge 
at ~1830 UTC at Agronomique, Guadeloupe at 16.2N, 61.5W (NCDC).  Regarding 
the intensity: "By 8 pm [the 11th] pressure had begun to fall in the Lesser 
Antilles and the wind at Bridgetown, Barbados, had backed from northeast to 
northwest.  At 8 am of the 12th the barometer at Roseau, Dominica, read 
29.44 inches and the wind was 24 mph from the northwest.  A report received 
by mail from Guadeloupe, shows that the center of the hurricane passed 
close to that place about noon of the 12th with a barometer reading of 
27.76 inches.  Press dispatches from Paris, France, indicate that great 
destruction was wrought by the hurricane in Guadeloupe, which is a 
French possession.  The English islands of St. Kitts and Montserrat also 
suffered heavy losses" (MWR).  "Dominica reported lowest barometer at 
1 pm of the 12th of 29.32 inches (993 mb) with a west wind of 40 mph" 
(MWR).  "Center was as wide as the distance between Duquerry and 
Ste. Anne, i.e., about 14 miles.  The storm was thus moving at 14 mph.  
The central or calm of dread of the hurricane was variously estimated to 
be from 14 to 25 miles in diameter and to occupy 20 minutes to over an 
hour in crossing a given point..." (NCDC - Station Agronomique de la 
Guadeloupe). "That the storm was severe as was indicated by the large 
number of dead (apparently well over 1300) and the heavy material losses 
which are estimated to be over four million pounds sterling.  At 1:30 pm 
the barometer had reached its minimum of 940 mb, about which point it 
oscillated until 2:30 pm, when it was still at 940 mb.  This period was 
marked by a slight calm. The wind decreased somewhat in violence and the 
rain was lighter.  Between 2 pm and 2:30 the calm was, for a short period, 
more marked, and the sky cleared up somewhat, the sun almost piercing the 
clouds.  At 2:30 pm the barometer began to rise and the wind returned with 
increased violence, coming now from the south.  During the 2nd half of the 
storm, and practically coinciding with the beginning of the South wind there 
was a sort of bore or tidal wave, caused perhaps, by the wind driving the sea 
into the 'Petit Cul de Sao," and into the harbor.  This wave caused 
considerable damage and killed many.  The water rose from 10 to 12 feet above 
high-water mark and came into the city, bringing with it boats, barges, etc., 
which it left high and dry far from the wharf.  Luckily the water receded 
almost immediately as it came in.  We were unable to record either wind 
velocity or rainfall.  The wind is estimated to have reached over 150 miles 
per hour and to have blown with hurricane force for about 16 hours" (NCDC - 
Station Agronomique de la Guadeloupe).  “At 6:30 A.M. storm wind from 
NE ~25-30 mph, very low barometer 29.731. Storm increasing to hurricane 
in the day” (Leeward Islands Government Gazette – St. John’s Antigua – 
provided by Mike Chenoweth).  “At the Saintes, tiny islands about 22 miles 
southwest of Pointe a Pitre, the director of a bacteriological laboratory 
recorded a reading of 27.45 [930 mb]” (Kleinberg).

September 13: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 17.1N,
65.2W.  HURDAT listed this as a 135 kt hurricane at 17.4N, 64.7W.  Ship highlights: 
70 kt N and 989 mb at 20 UTC at 18.2N, 67.2W (NCDC); 931 mb in eye at 15 UTC at 
17.6N, 65.2W (MWR); 70 kt ENE and 990 mb at 17 UTC at 18.3N, 64.9W (MWR).  Land 
highlights: 139 kt NE and 976 mb at 18 UTC at San Juan, Puerto Rico at 18.5N, 
66.0W (MWR); 936 mb at 1830 UTC at Guayama, Puerto Rico (MWR). "About 11 am of 
the 13th the hurricane center passed near the S.S. Matura, in latitude 17.6N, 
longitude 65.2W, a short distance southwest of St. Croix, Virgin Islands, a 
barograph trace received by mail showing a minimum pressure of about 27.50 inches 
[931 mb].  A wind velocity of 90 mph was reported from St. Thomas, 50 miles north 
of the center, and the island of St. Croix suffered heavily in loss of life and 
in damage to property and crops.  The hurricane crossed Puerto Rico during the 
13th, causing the loss of many lives and widespread destruction to crops and 
property" (MWR).  "The storm broke over the southeastern portion of the island 
early Thursday morning with the center near Guayama and passed across the island 
in a west-northwest direction, leaving between Aguadilla and Isabela.  The storm 
center moved across the island in about 8 hours at the rate of 13 mph. The 
barometer as the center passed to the south of San Juan at 2:30 pm, registered 
the very low reading of 976 mb.  At Humacao on the east coast of Puerto Rico a 
reading of [949 mb] was recorded at 1:50 pm.  Ponce reported 957 mb at 4:30 pm; 
Arecibo on the north coast 974 mb at 3:30 pm; Isabela on the northwest coast 
941 mb at 9 pm; Mayaguez on the west coast 968 mb at 8 pm.  Guayama on the 
southeast coast reported the lowest barometer 936 mb at 2:30 pm" (MWR).  "At 
11:44 am of the 13th the anemometer at the office of the United States Weather 
Bureau in San Juan lost one of the cups- just after recording a maximum velocity 
(the greatest velocity in 5 minutes) of 150 mph, and an extreme velocity (the 
highest velocity in 1 minute) of 160 miles.  San Juan was about 30 miles from 
the storm center when these velocities were recorded.  Estimated winds of 
200 mph near the center of the storm appear to be not much overdrawn.  At San 
Juan the storm increased in intensity for 3 hours after the record of 150 miles 
(5 minutes) was made.  Most of the damage to property on the Weather Bureau 
Reservations occurred between 2:30 and 3:30 pm.  With only 2 cups the anemometer 
still recorded about 75 mph.  The second cup disappeared at 12:47 pm.  The arms 
and shaft of the anemometer with one cup still attached were blown away at 1:33 pm; 
these parts were later found a third of a mile to the southwest.  The 3-cup 
anemometer in service at San Juan during the recent storm registers 30 per cent 
less than the 4-cup variety at velocities in excess of 100 mph.  In other words, 
the 4-cup anemometer formerly used at the Weather Bureau stations would have 
registered not less than 190 miles (5 minutes) at San Juan on the 13th at the 
time the anemometer lost one cup" (MWR).  "Loss of life (in Puerto Rico) will 
not exceed 300, due mostly to the fact that the approach of the storm was 
announced in time to take necessary precautions against loss of life" (MWR).  
"The lowest barometer at St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, 50 miles north of the path, 
was 992 mb with a maximum velocity of 90 mph at 10 am" (MWR).  "Guayama, on the 
southeast coast of Porto Rico, was in the vortex of the storm at 2:30 pm of the 
13th.  Winds of hurricane force prevailed from 4 am to 10 pm, a period of 18 hours 
- assuming a progressive movement of 13 mph for the storm, the area of winds of 
hurricane force east to west, would be 234 miles.  At San Juan, 30 miles to the 
north of the vortex, hurricane winds prevailed from 4 am to 4 pm, or 12 hours.  
Winds of hurricane force were experienced throughout the island to the north of 
the path (right side); to the south (left side) some portions of the coast were 
apparently free from hurricane winds.  In spite of the great intensity and great 
extent of the storm no reports of loss of vessels in the vicinity of Porto Rico 
have been reported" (MWR).  "Several hundred thousand people were rendered 
homeless.  Some towns near the center of the storm were practically leveled.  
Property and crop losses are estimated at approximately $50,000,000" (MWR).  
San Juan was given 36 hours notice when storm warnings were first issued (MWR).  
"Eye was 15-20 miles diameter and moved WNW at 9 kt- entered Guayama - Arroyo area 
at 13/1830 UTC and left Aguadilla at 14/0200 UTC (7 hours and 30 minutes)…The 
central calm passed over Aibonito, Cayey, Adjuntas" (Perez).  "A careful study of 
all of our records for the storm of Sept. 13th shows clearly that the path of the 
storm was north of Mayaguez.  The barometer at Isabela on the northwest coast was 
941 mb and other readings to the north of Mayaguez show lower readings than observed 
at Mayaguez.  Several reporters state that there was an area of comparative calm 
between 8 and 9 pm and that the NE wind prevailing earlier changed suddenly to the 
SE after the passage of the lowest barometer, (at 8:10 pm).  Aside from the notation 
of an east wind at 9 pm in the log of the Montoso, we have no evidence of the wind 
changing from N to S via E" (NCDC - US Dept. of Agriculture - Weather Bureau - 
San Juan, Puerto Rico).  “At 7 A.M. hurricane abated, wind still very high, 
bar. 29.799, rainfall 7.31, thermometers smashed and no other readings taken” 
(Leeward Islands Government Gazette – St. John’s Antigua – provided by Mike Chenoweth).

September 14: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near
18.9N, 68.4W.  HURDAT listed this as a 135 kt hurricane at 19.6N, 69.1W.  The
MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 19.3N, 68W.  Ship highlights: 
70 kt ENE and 970 mb at 00 UTC at 18.2N, 67.2W (NCDC); 70 kt S and 980 mb at 04 UTC 
at 18.2N, 67.2W (NCDC); 70 kt SSW and 992 mb at 08 UTC at 18.2N, 67.2W; 
70 kt E at 12 UTC at 20.3N, 67.4W (COA).  Land highlights: 941 mb (eye) at 01 UTC 
at Isabela, Puerto Rico at 18.5N, 67.0W (MWR); 70 kt N and 970 mb at 00 UTC at 
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico at 18.2N, 67.2W (NCDC); 5 kt E and 971 mb at 01 UTC at 
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico at 18.2N, 67.2W (NCDC); 70 kt SSE and 975 mb at 03 UTC at 
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico at 18.2N, 67.2W (NCDC); 70 kt S and 980 mb at 04 UTC at 
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico at 18.2N, 67.2W (NCDC).  The wind remained at least 70 kt S 
at Mayaguez until past 07 UTC, at which time the pressure rose to 991 mb.  
"After leaving Puerto Rico, the direction of movement of the hurricane changed 
from west-northwest to nearly northwest, maintaining  the latter course 
continuously at a rate of about 14.5 miles per hour until after it passed inland 
over the east Florida coast near West Palm Beach.  There was little damage in 
the island of Haiti, although the center moved near, and almost parallel to, the 
northeast coast" (MWR).  "On the morning of the 14th, the hurricane was central 
off the northeastern coast of Haiti" (MWR).  

September 15: HWM analyzes a closed low of 965 mb central pressure centered near
20.5N, 73.2W.  HURDAT listed this as a 135 kt hurricane at 22.2N, 72.7W.  The
MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 22N, 72.5W.  Ship highlights: 
90 kt NNE at 20 UTC at 23.2N, 74.2W (MWR); 90 kt SSE at 2010 UTC at 23.2N, 74.2W 
(MWR); 0 kt (EYE) and 941 mb at 20 UTC at 23.2N, 74.2W (MWR); 70 kt E and 984 mb 
at 23 UTC at 24.2N, 74.0W (NCDC).  Land highlights: 104 kt NE and 965 mb at 05 UTC 
at Grand Turk Island at 21.5N, 71.1W (MWR).  "At midnight [~4 to 5 UTC] the 
barometer at Grand Turk read 28.50 inches and the wind was 120 mph from the northeast.  
'The center apparently passed about 9 miles south of our island, which is Grand 
Turk'" (MWR).  Regarding the ship mentioned in this day's ship highlights for 
3 observations at 23.2N, 74.2W: "The German steamer August Leonhardt … was hove to 
in latitude 23 deg 10 min W., longitude 74 deg 10 min W, when the center of the 
hurricane passed over it about 3 p. m. of the 15th, the lowest barometer reading 
being 27.80 inches.  Just previous to the arrival of the center the wind was 
north-northeast force 12 (and more).  After the barometer had remained stationary 
and the wind had calmed down for a short time, the hurricane started again at 
3:10 p. m., this time blowing from the south-southeast … ‘The force of the wind, 
if more or less, could only be judged by the noise made by the storm, which reminded 
me of the New York subway going full speed passing switches.  Rain and spray were 
carried away horizontally and our whistle started to blow loudly due to the force of 
wind pressing the wire. The foam and spray went up to the masthead (40 meters above 
the water), this being proved by our antenna and insulators which we had to take down 
in order to clean the salt.  Hatch tarpaulins, boat ventilators, covers, etc., were 
torn to pieces and carried away.  Spray, rain, and foam were so dense that we could 
not see our forecastle head’" (MWR).

September 16: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near
25.9N, 80.2W.  HURDAT listed this as a 135 kt hurricane at 25.1N, 77.2W. The
MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 25.4N, 77.7W.
Ship highlights: 70 kt WNW and 976 mb at 18 UTC at 25.8N, 79.7W (NCDC); 
70 kt ESE and 982 mb at 00 UTC at 24.2N, 74.0W (NCDC); 70 kt WSW and 
983 mb at 21 UTC at 25.7N, 79.8W (NCDC).  Land highlights: 83 kt at 
0830 UTC at Nassau, Bahamas at 25.0N, 77.5W (MWR/NCDC); SW wind and 
951 mb at 10 UTC at Nassau, Bahamas at 25.0N, 77.5W (MWR/NCDC); 
938 mb at 23 UTC at West Palm Beach, FL at 26.7N, 80.1W (MWR); 
68 kt (1 min) SW at 2308 UTC at Miami, FL at 26.0N, 80.2W (OMR); 
981 mb at 2215 UTC at Miami (min pressure for Miami) at 26.0N, 80.2W (OMR).  
"Continuing on a practically straight course from Porto Rico to 
Lake Okeechobee, Fla., the center of the hurricane passed near but slightly 
north of Nassau, Bahamas, on the morning of the 16th" (MWR). "110 to 
120 mph SW and 28.08 inches at 5 am" [at Nassau, after anemometer was 
disabled] (MWR).  "Although considerable damage was done to property and a 
lesser extent to crops, no loss of life occurred" (MWR).  "The center of the 
hurricane reached the coast in the Palm Beach section about 7:00 pm of the 16th.  
The corrected sea-level reading is 27.43 inches, 0.18 inch lower than at Miami 
during the hurricane of September 18, 1926, and is the lowest pressure ever 
recorded in the United States during a hurricane" (MWR).  Key West: "The violent 
tropical disturbance the center of which, moving from southeastward, impinged 
on the southeast coast of Florida near West Palm Beach about 6 pm, on the 16th, 
did not affect this station materially" (OMR).  Miami: "A tropical storm of 
great intensity moving northwestward off the lower east coast of Florida, 
caused strong northwest winds during the forenoon, increasing to whole gale 
force during the afternoon.  The wind shifted from northwest to southwest 
shortly after 5 pm and to south between 10 pm and 11 pm.  Rain occurred at 
intervals during the first half of the 16th, and it was continuous after 
11:40 am" (OMR).  

September 17: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 990 mb centered near 27.7N,
81.8W, or over the very central part of Florida.  HURDAT listed this as a 110
kt hurricane at 27.8N, 81.5W.  At 00 UTC, the MWR Tracks for Centers of
Cyclones showed a center near 26.8N, 80.4W with a 929 mb pressure.  At 12 UTC,
the MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones showed a center near 28.4N, 81.8W with
a 966 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 70 kt SSE at 12 UTC at 26.3N, 79.7W (COA); 
979 mb with ENE wind at 04 UTC at 30.5N, 80.5W (MWR); 60 kt SW, then S and 991 
mb at 00 UTC at 25.7N, 79.8W (NCDC).  Land highlights: 929 mb at 00 UTC at West 
Palm Beach, FL at 26.7N, 80.1W; 66 kt NW and 957 mb at 0115 UTC, and Calm (EYE) 
and 942 mb at 0245 UTC at Canal Point, FL at 26.9N, 80.6W (MWR). "The hurricane 
moved northwestward over the Florida peninsula, its center passing over Lake 
Okeechobee during the early night of the 16th and near and slightly east of 
Bartow about 7 am of the 17th.  Its course changed to north-northwest after 
leaving the Bartow section..." (MWR).  "The hurricane apparently reached Lake 
Okeechobee with little diminution in intensity.  Complete barometric and wind 
data during the storm were furnished by Mr. B. A. Bourne of Plant Industry's 
sugar cane breeding station located on the shore of Lake Okeechobee about 
one-half mile northward from Canal Point.  At 5 pm (16th) the barometer was 
29.17 inches and the wind 40 mph from the north; at 7:48 pm (16th), the 
barometer was 28.54 inches and the wind 60 mph from the NW; and at 8:15 pm 
the anemometer cups blew away after the velocity reached 75 mph from the NW, 
the barometer at this time reading 28.25 inches.  By 9 pm the barometer had 
fallen to 27.87 inches with an estimated wind velocity of 150 mph from the NW.  
There was a dead calm between 9:30 and 10:00 pm when the center passed over 
the station, the lowest barometer reading being 27.82 inches (942 mb) at 
9:45 pm (0245 UTC).  Shortly after 10 pm, the barometer began to rise and the 
wind immediately came with hurricane force from the southeast, reaching an 
estimated velocity of 160 mph about 10:45 pm.  The wind force decreased rapidly 
after 11 pm" (MWR).  Miami, FL: "Strong winds, reaching whole gale force at 
times, continued throughout the day in connections with the tropical storm of 
the 16th, which passed inland a short distance south of Palm Beach" (OMR).  
Apalachicola, FL: "A tropical hurricane which recurved to the northeastward 
some 150 miles to the eastward..." (OMR).  “Sep. 17, 935 mb central pressure 
at landfall in Florida, observed at West Palm Beach Everglades Drainage District 
Office, 28 nm RMW, 13 kt translational velocity, landfall point 26.7N 80.0W” 
(Ho et al.).  “111 kt 1 min max wind equivalent at landfall, 1007 mb 
environmental pressure” (Schwerdt et al.).  “SE FL4, NE FL2, GA1, SC1, 
central pressure at landfall 929 mb” (Jarrell et al.)  “1928, Sept. 16-17, 
Entire peninsula, Extreme, 1,836 killed, damage $25,000,000” (Dunn and Miller). 

September 18: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 980 mb centered near 31N,
81.1W, or just off the coast of southern Georgia.  HURDAT listed this as a 60
kt tropical storm at 32.5N, 80.8W.  At 00 UTC, the MWR Tracks for Centers of
Cyclones shows a center near 30.4N, 82W with a 979 mb pressure.  At 12 UTC,
the MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 32.2N, 81W with a
979 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 70 kt SSW and 981 mb at 11 UTC at 31.8N, 
79.8W (MWR); 70 kt SSW and 982 mb at 12 UTC at 31.8N, 79.8W (COA); 60 kt and 
980 mb at 07 UTC at 30.4N, 81.6W (MWR).  Land highlights: 979 mb at 0730 UTC 
and 17 kt NW and 979 mb at 0750 UTC at Jacksonville at 30.4N, 81.7W (OMR); 
26 kt N and 979 mb at 13 UTC at Savannah at 32.1N 81.2W (OMR); 23 kt SE and 
980 mb at 21 UTC and 70 kt E (1 min) (no time) at Charleston at 32.8N 79.9W 
(OMR).  "...and after passing between Ocala and Cedar Keys it turned toward 
the north-northeast, passing a short distance west of Jacksonville about 1 am 
of the 18th" (MWR).  "The damage at Miami was negligible...Hollywood and Fort 
Lauderdale escaped with only slight structural damage to buildings...From 
Pompano north to Jupiter, especially at Delray, Lake Worth, Palm Beach, West 
Palm Beach, and Kelsey City, there was serious structural and water damage, 
the losses being greatest at Palm Beach and West Palm Beach... In the Lake 
Okeechobee region, the great loss of life and damage to property were caused 
by the overflowing of the lake along the southeast shore, principally at 
Belle Glade, Pahokee, and South Bay.  The small houses in those localities 
were washed away or inundated, and approximately 2,000 persons were drowned" 
(MWR).  "One of the noteworthy features in connection with the storm was the 
absence of serious structural damage to substantial buildings.  This was also 
the particularly noticeable after the Miami hurricane of 1926.  These two 
hurricanes, both of major intensity, have shown that buildings properly 
constructed will not suffer serious structural damage from hurricanes, and 
that the use of storm shutters will prevent practically any damage to such 
buildings.  This statement to frame buildings as well as to those constructed 
of steel, concrete, brick, or stone" (MWR).  "The hurricane center was of 
great diameter... 25 miles or more (twice as large as the center of the 
Miami hurricane of 1926)" (MWR).  The total property loss in Florida is given 
at $25,000,000 (MWR).  "On October 28, Red Cross officials announced their 
official casualty estimate, placing the number of dead at 1,836 and injured 
at 1,870 for the entire storm area in Florida.  The detailed casualty list is 
as follows: West Palm Beach area (from Jupiter to Delray Beach), 26 dead, 
1,437 injured; Broward County, one dead, 51 injured; Palm Beach County, 
1,700 dead 266 injured; Okeechobee County, 25 dead, none injured; other 
territory, 84 dead, 67 injured.  A total of 10,172 families had registered 
with the Red Cross applying for aid up to October 28, about two-thirds of 
this number being in Palm Beach County" (MWR).  Atlanta, GA: "29.64 inches 
occurred on the 18th in connection with the passage of the tropical hurricane 
up the Georgia coast on that date. No high winds of any consequence attended 
the passage of this storm at Atlanta, the maximum velocity being 24 miles an 
hour from the northwest, and the rainfall was negligible" (OMR).  Savannah, GA: 
"The outstanding feature of the weather for the month was the passage of a 
tropical storm almost over the station on the 18th…Increasing NE and E winds 
reached 44 miles by midnight (18th) and 48 by 3:40 am of the 18th.  Steadily 
falling barometer during the 17th and to 8 am [13 UTC] of the 18th when it 
stood at 979 mb.  The center of the storm was then evidently a short distance 
east of the station.  The wind had changed to N at 7 am and lulled somewhat, 
but by 8:30 am it changed to NW and increased to 40 miles or more and 
maintained a velocity between 40 and 50 to about 2:30 am of the 19th.  The 
heavy rain continued to the time of the passage of the center, then lighter 
to about 9:30 pm of the 18th, reaching the unprecedented total of 11.68 inches 
for the entire storm.  There was no loss of life here and buildings escaped 
with little damage except some broken windows, but low-lying sections were 
flooded and roads were badly washed, trees uprooted or broken, and telephone 
and telegraph wires laid low in all directions" (OMR).  Charleston, SC: 
"Precipitation on the 18th was extremely heavy, breaking the record at this 
station for 15 minutes and equaling the ten-minute record.  The tropical 
storm which struck Florida on the 16th passed over this station on the 18th.  
The winds attained a great velocity during the early morning hours, reaching 
a maximum of 59 mi. per hour [5 min] at 4:22 am [0922 UTC].  Many trees were 
uprooted and some small boats were damaged but no one was injured.  
The sea-level pressure at 4 pm (980 mb) was the lowest since October, 
1893" (OMR).  Columbia, SC:  "Record breaking rains of the 17th-18th attended 
the tropical storm passing northeastward along the Carolina coast.  The high 
winds of the 18th prostrated about 1,000 fine large shade trees in the city, 
and these had to be cut and removed.  Estimated at $100 per tree, which is a 
low value for such trees, the general loss approximated $100,000.  The trees 
tilted slowly with each passing squall, and the property damage of consequence 
was due to the pounding of tree trunks against houses" (OMR).  Charlotte, NC: 
"The rainfall of 5.16 inches on the 17th-18th was the greatest 24-hour fall in 
any month during the past 50 years.  Practically no wind damage occurred in 
Charlotte, but there was considerable minor flooding of cellars and low places" 
(OMR).  “The ‘Okeechobee’ hurricane of 1928 [death toll] be raised from 1836 to 
2500 (with an asterisk denoting it could be as high as 3000)” (Pfost 2003).

September 19: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 35.2N,
76.7W, or on the mainland coast of North Carolina with a stationary front 
draped on the northern side of the cyclone.  HURDAT listed this as a 40 kt 
tropical storm at 35.8N, 77.0W.  At 00 UTC, the MWR Tracks for Centers of 
Cyclones showed a center near 33.4N, 79.2W with a 985 mb pressure.  At 12 UTC, 
the MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones showed a centered near 35.2N, 77.5W 
with a 994 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 5 kt SE and 986 mb at 00 UTC at 
33.0N, 78.5W (COA); 60 kt NW and 991 mb at 00 UTC at 31.3N, 80.1W (COA); 
60 kt S and 996 mb at 00 UTC at 32.7N, 76.0W (COA). Land highlights: 66 kt 
(1 min) NE at 12 UTC at Atlantic City, NJ at 39.4N, 74.5W (MWR); 63 kt NE 
(1 min) at Cape Henry, VA at 36.9N, 76.0W (Roth and Cobb 2001); 28 kt NW and 
986 mb at 00 UTC at Charleston, SC at 32.8N, 80.0W (OMR). "After leaving 
Florida the storm decreased steadily in intensity as it moved close to the 
Georgia and South Carolina coasts and passed into North Carolina the night 
of the 18th-19th.  On the 19th its course again changed to north and later 
north-northwest, diminishing greatly in intensity and merging with another 
disturbance over Ontario during the 20th" (MWR).  Regarding the flooding 
in the southeast US: "By the time the hurricane crossed into the sandhills 
of North Carolina on the night of September 18, its destructive winds had 
diminished, but tremendous rains fell across the Tar Heel state. The 
resulting floods were very severe and the highest on record for some upper
portions of the Cape Fear River.  At Fayetteville, where the bank-full stage
is 35 feet, the river reached an unprecedented height of 64.7 feet.  At
Elizabethtown, the river rose to 41.3 feet.  Flooding at Lumberton was
reported as 'the worst in history,' and thousands of acres of crop lands were
underwater.  Many highways were closed because of bridge washouts and
deep-standing water" (Barnes).  "Tides peaked at 7.2 feet above mean lower 
low water at Norfolk" (Roth and Cobb).  Raleigh, NC: "The month's greatest 
amount of precipitation in 24 hours, 3.45 inches on the 18th and 19th, sets 
a new record for September... whereas there was a pressure of 995 mb 
recorded on September 19 (11 UTC)" (OMR). Norfolk, VA: "The storm of the 
18th-19th was accompanied by severe gales.  The tropical storm that was 
central over eastern North Carolina on the morning of September 19th, 
moved north-northwestward and passed west of Richmond during the night. 
Northeast winds of gale force began during the afternoon of September 18th 
and continued until 3:00 am of the 19th, causing an unusually high tide and 
considerable crop damage.  Property damage was mostly of minor character. 
Many small trees were blown down, cellars flooded, traffic delayed, 
telephones put out of commission and electric lights cut off in parts of the 
city" (OMR).  Baltimore, MD:  "A northeast gale between 10 am and 7 pm.  
Maximum velocity of 47 miles from the northeast, beginning 12:18 pm.  
Locally some trees were uprooted and one house was unroofed.  One man was 
killed when an uprooted tree fell on him.  Some telephones were put out of 
order by breaking of wires.  On the eastern shore, many telephones were put 
out of order when wires gave way under uprooted trees.  Considerable corn was 
flattened by the gale and fruit blown off trees.  There was no general 
property damage from the gale in Md. & Del.  An unusually high tide resulted 
along the western shore of Chesapeake Bay" (OMR).  Nantucket, MA: "Northeast 
storm of marked intensity began 2:35 am (48 mph  NE 11:03 am ) and continued 
all day, and ended at 2:03 am the 20th.  Storm was accompanied by excessive 
rain (3.70 inches in 24 hours).  Whole gale warnings displayed from 9:30 am 
the 19th to 9:30 am the 20th" (OMR).  

September 20: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 41N,
79.4W, or over western Pennsylvania, attached to the west end of a WNW-ESE
warm front.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt extratropical low at 42.0N, 78.4W.
At 00 UTC, the MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones showed a center near 37.4N,
78.1W with an 1001 mb pressure.  At 12 UTC, the MWR Tracks for Centers of
Cyclones showed a center near 41.2N, 79W with an 1008 mb pressure.  
Ship highlights: 35 kt E and 1009 mb at 03 UTC at 38.4N, 74.3W (MWR);
35 kt NE and 1012 mb at 39.5N, 74.0W (COA).  No other gales.  No low
pressures.  Land highlights: 35 kt E at 01 UTC at Richmond, VA at 37.6N, 77.5W
(OMR); 8 kt N and 1001 mb at 00 UTC at Richmond, VA at 37.6N, 77.5W (OMR); 21
kt S and 1005 mb at 00 UTC at Norfolk, VA at 36.8N, 76.5W (OMR).  No other
gales.  A few other low pressures.  Baltimore: "During the last night
northeast winds gave way to east, southeast, and south winds, which carried
the unusually high tide of yesterday along the western shore of Chesapeake Bay
some distance up the tributaries.  In Baltimore Harbor the water this morning
was so high that it covered Light Street and the floors of some piers,
damaging goods stored thereon" (OMR).  Nantucket, MA: "A thunderstorm of
moderate energy came from the south at 1:45 am and moved toward the east
through southeast, and the last thunder was heard at 3:20 am" (OMR).

Genesis is begun at 00 UTC on the 6th of September for this cyclone, 12 
hours earlier than shown in HURDAT originally due to numerous ship and 
station observations of a well-defined closed low almost immediately off 
of the coast of West Africa.  Only minor alterations of the cyclone’s 
track were made, though positions every day in its 16 day existence were 
changed.  On the 7th at 06 UTC, a peripheral pressure reading of 1003 mb 
suggests winds of at least 41 kt from the south of 25N Brown et al. 
pressure-wind relationship.  Additionally, a 50 kt ship report was measured 
on the same date at 14 UTC.  Winds are boosted to 50 kt at 12 and 18 UTC 
on the 7th, up from 35 kt previously.  As is typical for cyclones in 
between the West Africa and the Caribbean, very few observations were 
available on the 8th and 9th.  Winds were maintained at 50 kt on the 
8th and 9th from continuity with the observations on the 7th, which is 
up from 40 kt at 12 UTC on the 8th and is no change from 12 UTC on the 
9th.  On the 10th at 14 UTC, the ship Clan Matheson reported 1001 mb 
with 50 kt of wind.  This pressure suggests maximum winds of at least 
45 kt from the south of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  Intensity at 
12 UTC on the 10th remains unchanged at 60 kt.  As the cyclone 
continued westward late on the 10th through early on the 12th, few 
observations were available in the inner core of the cyclone.  But 
given observations later on the 12th, the system undoubtedly reached 
hurricane strength during this period.  Winds are unchanged in HURDAT 
on the 10th to 06 UTC on the 12th.  From 1730 to 1830 UTC on the 12th, 
the eye of the hurricane went over Guadeloupe with calm winds at 
940 mb central pressure recorded (at two separate locations on the 
island).  This pressure suggests winds of 121 kt from the south of 
25N Brown et al. pressure-wind relationship.  120 kt is chosen for 
HURDAT at 18 UTC on the 12th, up from 110 kt originally.  This makes 
the cyclone a Category 4 impact in Guadeloupe, which is consistent 
with the extreme destruction that was caused by winds and storm surge 
in the island.  (It is of note that Kleinberg erroneously reported a 
930 mb reading at the Saintes, tiny islands about 22 miles southwest 
of Pointe a Pitre.  Upon obtaining the original reports, the minimum 
pressure measured at the Saintes was in actuality 962 mb, substantially 
higher than that measured at Point a Pitre.)

The hurricane then turned slightly toward the west-northwest and made a 
direct and devastating landfall on Puerto Rico around 18 UTC on the 13th.  
The cyclone is known as the San Felipe hurricane in Puerto Rico. The center 
of the hurricane cut across Puerto Rico in about 8 hours with the “central 
calm” reported in Aibonito, Cayey, and Adjuntas.  A possible central pressure 
was recorded by the ship Matura of 931 mb at 15 UTC on the 13th, just 
southeast of Puerto Rico.  Guayama reported a minimum sea level pressure of 
936 mb (and a station pressure of 931 mb).  It is of note that Perez 
explicitly mentioned Aibonito, Cayey, and Adjuntas as experiencing the calm 
eye, but not Guayama.  Thus it appears that Guayama may not have recorded the 
central pressure and 931 mb from the ship is retained as the central 
pressure in HURDAT at 18 UTC on the 13th and at landfall in Puerto Rico.  
A 931 mb central pressure suggests winds of 129 kt from the south of 25N 
pressure-wind relationship.  The San Juan Weather Bureau office had recently 
replaced their old Robinson 4-cup anemometer with the more reliable 3-cup 
anemometer which has a minimal bias in high winds (Fergusson and Covert 1924).  
This anemometer measured peak 1 min winds of 139 kt at 1544 UTC at which 
time the anemometer lost one of its cups.  Winds were estimated by the 
observer to have possibly been higher than this between 1830 and 1930 UTC 
(at the time of the closest approach of the hurricane).  An RMW value of 
25 nm is quite well established between the timing of the peak estimated 
winds at the San Juan Weather Bureau Office at 19 UTC and landfall of the 
hurricane’s center in southeast Puerto Rico just an hour earlier.  There 
is no evidence that the 139 kt winds were caused by funneling between 
buildings or because of citing the anemometer on a tall building 
(J. Colon – personal communication).  The observed winds, central pressure, 
and size of the hurricane present a dilemma, in determining its intensity.  
The observed winds – which appear reliable – would suggest an intensity of 
at least 140 kt.  This would, however, be much above the pressure-wind 
relationship.  Typically, winds can be substantially above the wind suggested 
by the pressure-wind relationship if the cyclone has a fast translational 
velocity, small RMW, and/or high environmental pressure (Knaff and Zehr 2007).  
This hurricane apparently had none of these three, as the hurricane was only 
moving at about 12 kt in its transit across Puerto Rico, had a RMW of perhaps 
a large 25 nmi, and was embedded in environmental pressures of about 1010 mb.  
We are unable here to successfully explain the discrepancy, but will go with 
the observed winds to estimate an intensity of 140 kt at 18 UTC on the 13th 
and at landfall in Puerto Rico.  (One alternative possibility is that the 
139 kt 1 min winds were associated with a transient mesoscale low and were 
not representative of the maximum winds in the eyewall of the hurricane.)  
This makes this hurricane – known as San Felipe in Puerto Rico – a Category 5 
hurricane, which is consistent with the extreme wind caused damage across the 
island.  No alteration to HURDAT was required at 18 UTC on the 13th, as this 
wind value was already included.  As the hurricane neared the northwest coast 
of Puerto Rico, an eye reading of 941 mb was observed in Isabella at 01 UTC 
on the 14th.  This would suggest winds of 116 kt from Brown et al. south of 
25N pressure-wind relationship for weakening cyclones.  Given that the 
observed winds were above the pressure-wind relationship at landfall in 
Puerto Rico, a value of 120 kt is estimated for 00 UTC, which is a 20 kt 
decrease from that in HURDAT originally.

After striking Puerto Rico, the hurricane moved toward the northwest during 
the next three days.  On the 14th, as the center of the hurricane was just 
north of Hispaniola, no information near the center was available.  Early 
on the 5th, a wind observation of 104 kt NE with a concurrent 965 mb pressure 
was reported in Grand Turk.  It appears that the center of the hurricane was 
about 30 nm from the island at that time, thus this pressure represents a 
peripheral reading, not a central pressure.  Late of the 15th, a pressure of 
941 mb was recorded by the ship August Leonhardt.  While the ship was inside 
the radius of maximum wind as a distinct lull was recorded, it may not have 
measured the central pressure – as suggested by the peak winds only shifting 
from NNE to SSE bracketing the lull.  This peripheral pressure suggests at 
least 121 kt from the south of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  The original 
135 kt in HURDAT is retained on the 15th.  The hurricane then directly impacted 
the Bahamas with Nassau reporting a minimum pressure of 951 mb at 10 UTC on 
the 16th when the winds were blowing about 100 kt (estimated, as the anemometer 
was disabled earlier).  Reviewing the account of the hurricane in Nassau does 
suggest a close bypass (winds NE-NW-SW), but without any mention of a lull.  
Thus the central pressure could have been close to the 929 mb central pressure 
at landfall in Florida.  Winds of 135 kt – high end Category 4 - retained in 
HURDAT during passage across the Bahamas.

The hurricane next made landfall in Southeast Florida around 00 UTC on the 
17th of September at 26.7N 80.0W.  A 929 mb pressure reading was observed at 
00 UTC on the 17th from the AT&T; Company office in West Palm Beach and this 
is what is utilized in HURDAT and also what has been accepted as the central 
pressure in Jarrell et al.  However, Ho et al. (and Schwerdt et al. previously) 
had used a 935 mb reading from the West Palm Beach Everglades Drainage District 
Office, as the basis for a 935 mb central pressure at landfall.  Given that 
the pressure readings may vary based upon a true calibration as well as 
relative location to the exact eye center, the 929 mb value is retained as 
the central pressure at landfall for this hurricane.  929 mb suggests 124 kt 
[131 kt] from the north of 25N [south of 25N] Brown et al. pressure-wind 
relationship.  The hurricane was rather large in size (325 nmi radius of 
closed isobar and RMW of 25 nmi – compared with 15 nmi from climatology 
for this landfall latitude and central pressure [Vickery et al. 2001]).  
(Ho et al. had estimated a 28 nm RMW.  However, after reviewing all 
available observations, it appears that this was somewhat too large.  
Our best estimate of the RMW is 25 nm, plus/minus 5 nm.) The environmental 
pressures were somewhat low, with an outer closed isobar of 1009 mb.  
The translational velocity was moderate at about 13 kt at landfall.  
Taking an average of the pressure-wind relationship for south and north of 
25N gives 128 kt.  Accounting for the large size and low environmental 
pressures would indicate a maximum sustained wind of about 125 kt at 
landfall in southeast Florida, making this a US Category 4 hurricane.  
This is a 5 kt reduction from what was in HURDAT originally.  Peak observed 
winds after landfall were 60 kt within 2 hr of 06 UTC on the 17th, 70 kt at 
12 UTC, and 42 kt at 18 UTC, though the available observations were extremely 
sparse (the 60 and 70 kt reports were actually ship reports though the hurricane 
was overland).  A run of the Kaplan and DeMaria inland-decay model suggests 
winds of 74 kt at 06 UTC, 58 kt at 12 UTC, and 48 kt at 18 UTC.  Because of 
the large size of the hurricane and that it was likely intensifying right up 
until landfall, winds are chosen for HURDAT after landfall substantially higher 
than the inland-decay model would suggest:  100 kt at 06 UTC, 85 kt at 12 UTC, 
and 75 kt at 18 UTC.  These values are reduced from that originally shown in 
HURDAT by 15, 25, and 15 kt, respectively.  Based upon these analyzed winds, 
SW Florida was impacted by Category 3 hurricane winds and NW Florida was 
impacted by Category 1 hurricane winds.  Neither region was included in the 
hurricane state impact summary in HURDAT previously.  The hurricane recurved 
over the Florida peninsula late on the 17th and early on the 18th and the 
center passed just east of Jacksonville.  Jacksonville’s 17 kt NW concurrent 
with 979 mb minimum pressure at 0750 UTC on the 18th suggests a central 
pressure of 977 mb (which is now included into HURDAT at 06 UTC).  This 
central pressure suggests winds of 76 kt from the north of 25N pressure-wind 
relationship (73 kt for filling cyclones).  Given that the maximum winds were 
still over land at 06 UTC, the intensity at this time analyzed to be 65 kt, 
down from 75 kt originally. (It is noted that pressures were estimated every 
12 hours into HURDAT after landfall [955 mb at 12 UTC on the 17th, 974 mb at 
00 UTC on the 18th, etc.].  However, none of these are based upon any direct 
observations as can be determined.  These are now removed from HURDAT.)

The hurricane made oceanfall around 08 UTC on the 18th back over the Atlantic 
Ocean.  Savannah measured 26 kt N winds with 979 mb pressure at 13 UTC on the 
18th.  This suggests a central pressure of 976 mb as the hurricane passed just 
east of the city, which supports winds of 77 kt from the north of 25N 
pressure-wind relationship.  Winds are chosen to be 75 kt in HURDAT at 12 UTC, 
up from 60 kt originally.  The hurricane made a second mainland US landfall near 
32.5N 80.3W in southern South Carolina around 19 UTC on the 18th.  Charleston 
reported 23 kt SE wind with 980 mb at 21Z, suggesting about 977 mb central 
pressure at that time.  Peak observed 1 min winds were 70 E kt at Charleston.  
Maximum sustained winds at landfall are estimated to have been 75 kt, making 
this a Category 1 hurricane for South Carolina.  As the revised track was 
slightly offshore of Georgia, the maximum winds would not have impacted the 
Georgia coast.  However, it is likely that minimal hurricane force sustained 
winds (~65 kt) impacted parts of the Georgia coastline.  Thus Georgia is 
retained in HURDAT as a Category 1 impact.  Peak observed winds after landfall 
were the following:  60 kt at 00 UTC on the 19th, 56 kt at 06 UTC, 66 kt at 12 
UTC, and 50 kt at 18 UTC.  The cyclone was undergoing extratropical transition 
on the 19th and is analyzed to have become extratropical at 12 UTC on the 19th, 
24 hours earlier than identified previously.  The system reintensified briefly 
as an extratropical storm based upon hurricane force winds observed in Atlantic 
City and close to hurricane force in Cape Henry.  Winds are analyzed to be 65 kt 
at 00 UTC on the 19th (up from 50 kt originally), 60 kt at 06 UTC (up from 45 kt), 
70 kt at 12 UTC (up from 40 kt), and 60 kt at 18 UTC (up from 40 kt).  Gradual 
weakening occurred after 12 UTC on the 19th as an extratropical storm.  The last 
entry in HURDAT before dissipation is 00 UTC on the 21st, six hours later than 
originally in HURDAT.  

*******************************************************************************


1928/05 – 2010 REVISIONS:

24860 09/08/1928 M= 5  5 SNBR= 554 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
24860 09/08/1928 M= 6  5 SNBR= 554 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
                    *

24865 09/08*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*211 477  35    0*218 486  35    0
24865 09/08*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*180 480  35    0*190 486  35    0
                                              *** ***          ***

24870 09/09*224 495  35    0*230 502  35    0*236 510  40    0*257 535  40    0
24870 09/09*201 493  40    0*214 501  45    0*230 510  50    0*249 525  55    0
            *** ***          *** ***          ***              *** ***

24875 09/10*280 553  40    0*304 556  45    0*324 550  45    0*341 530  45    0
24875 09/10*270 540  60    0*293 543  60    0*315 540  60    0*335 530  60    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      ***      **

24880 09/11*359 503  50    0E375 470  50    0E394 423  50    0E412 397  50    0
24880 09/11*354 503  60    0E372 480  60    0E390 450  60    0E406 425  60  984
            ***      **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **  ***

24885 09/12E431 369  50    0E449 347  50    0E468 324  50    0E485 307  50    0
24885 09/12E420 400  60    0E432 375  60    0E445 350  60    0E460 325  55    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

(The 13th is new to HURDAT.)
24887 09/13E477 305  50    0E495 290  45    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0

24890 TS                    

Major changes to the track, but minor alterations to the intensity shown in McAdie 
et al. (2009). Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather 
Maps series, the COADS ship database, and Monthly Weather Review.

September 8: HWM analyzed no significant features in the central Atlantic
Ocean. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 21.1N, 47.7W at 12 UTC.
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

September 9: HWM indicates no significant features in the central Atlantic
Ocean. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 23.6N, 51W at 12 UTC.
Ship highlights: 35 kt SSE and 1014 mb at 24.5N, 49.5W at 1014 mb
(COA); 35 kt SE at 27.8N 51.6W (MWR). “On the evening of the 9th a moderate 
depression was central near 27N, 51W, that moved slowly north accompanied by 
moderate winds until the morning of the 11th” (MWR).

September 10: HWM analyzed an extratropical cyclone just east of Bermuda.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 32.4N, 55W at 12 UTC. Ship highlights: 
60 kt ESE and 1015 mb at 28.5N, 53.5W at 00 UTC (COA); 35 kt SSW and 1015 mb at 
28.5N, 53.5W at 04 UTC (COA); 35 kt SSW and 1014 mb at 34N, 50.6W at 20 UTC (MWR).

September 11: HWM indicates an extratropical cyclone well southeast of Cape
Race. HURDAT listed this as an extratropical storm at 39.4N, 42.3W at 12 UTC.
Ship highlights: 10 kt ESE and 985 mb at 40.3N, 43.3W at 18 UTC (MWR); 40
kt NNE at 40.3N, 43.3W (MWR). “By that date [11th] this low was near 40N, 45W,
and had deepened considerably, with winds of force 7 [30 kt] near the center at
the time of observation” (MWR).

September 12: HWM analyzed an extratropical cyclone of at most 1005 mb pressure 
near 45N37W in the northern Atlantic Ocean.  HWM also depicts a larger 
extratropical cyclone centered near 60N40W with a strong cold front extending 
NE-SW north of the system.  HURDAT listed this as an extratropical storm at 
46.8N, 32.4W at 12 UTC.  Ship highlights: 60 kt W and 993 mb at 41.3N, 36W at 
10 UTC (MWR); 60 kt W at 42N, 35.3W at 12 UTC (COA); 45 kt SSW and 1002 mb at 
43.5N, 29.5W at 18 UTC (COA).

September 13: HWM indicates an extratropical cyclone of at most 1000 mb pressure 
near 57N28W.  This appears to have merged with the larger, previously separate, 
extratropical cyclone noted on the 12th.  No gale force winds (or equivalent 
in pressure) were observed. “The…low moved steadily northward and…was by the 
16th near the coast of Iceland” (MWR).

Genesis is retained for storm 5 at 12 UTC on September 8th as a minimal
tropical storm. The storm progressed on a northwestward track after formation 
and recurved well east of Bermuda.  Large track changes were introduced on the 
8th, 11th and 12th.  Relatively smaller alterations were introduced for the 
remainder of its lifetime. The HWM analysis of the system being an 
extratropical storm on the 10th appears to be inconsistent with available data 
that suggests the system is still barotropic on this date. A wind of 60 kt was 
reported (with an accompanying 1015 mb pressure) at 00 UTC on the 10th.  This 
is used to adjust the winds upward on the 9th and 10th, though the 60 kt 
observation might be somewhat too strong given the rather high pressure also 
recorded simultaneously.  60 kt is the peak intensity for this cyclone, up 
previously from 50 kt.  Available observations do agree with original HURDAT's 
analysis of the system becoming an extratropical storm around 06 UTC on the 11th.  
A measurement of 985 mb with 10 kt wind suggests a central pressure of about 
984 mb, which is included into HURDAT at 18 UTC on the 11th.  A 984 mb central 
pressure implies winds 68 kt from the north of 35N pressure-wind relationship. 
Given that the system is no longer barotropic, the pressure-wind relationship 
can be utilized with a reduction from the implied 68 kt. 60 kt is chosen for 
HURDAT at 18 UTC, a 10 kt upgrade from original HURDAT, and 60 kt is also 
selected as the intensity for all of the 11th (which continues the 60 kt 
intensity estimate from the 10th). On the 12th a peak wind of 60 kt was 
observed at 10 UTC. 60 kt is chosen for HURDAT at 12 UTC, 10 kt more than 
previous HURDAT. An additional 12 hr is included on the track of the cyclone 
as an extratropical storm on 00 and 06 UTC on the 13th.  The system became 
absorbed by a large extratropical cyclone by 12 UTC on the 13th, which differs 
from what was concluded by MWR.  

*******************************************************************************

1928/06 - 2010 REVISION:

24895 10/10/1928 M= 6  6 SNBR= 555 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
24900 10/10*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*168 358  35    0*180 369  35    0
24900 10/10*167 356  40    0*173 363  45    0*180 370  50    0*187 377  55    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24905 10/11*194 379  35    0*206 388  35    0*218 398  35    0*229 407  35    0
24905 10/11*194 384  60    0*202 391  60    0*210 398  60    0*218 405  60    0
                ***  **      *** ***  **      ***      **      *** ***  **

24910 10/12*240 416  35    0*250 424  40    0*260 432  45    0*270 439  50    0
24910 10/12*227 411  60    0*236 418  60    0*245 425  60    0*255 434  60    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

24915 10/13*278 445  55    0*287 450  60    0*297 455  60    0*309 459  70    0
24915 10/13*266 445  65    0*277 454  70    0*290 460  70    0*305 459  75    0
            ***      **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      ***      **

24920 10/14*325 453  65    0*343 440  60    0E363 420  60    0E380 400  60    0
24920 10/14*322 452  80    0*342 435  80    0*363 410  80    0*380 390  75    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **     *    ***  **     *    ***  **

24925 10/15E400 380  60    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0
24925 10/15*395 375  65    0E405 365  50    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0
           **** ***  **     **** ***  **
24930 HR                    

Minor changes to the track and major alterations to the intensity shown in McAdie 
et al. (2009).  Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather 
Maps series, the COADS ship database, and Monthly Weather Review.

October 10: HWM analyzed no significant features in the central Atlantic Ocean.
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 16.8N, 35.8W at 12 UTC. Ship
highlights: 45 kt ESE and 1011 mb at 20.5N, 37.5W at 22 UTC (COA); 35 kt E and
1013 mb at 20.5N, 37.5W at 18 UTC (COA). “On the 10th a disturbance of tropical
origin was somewhere in the vicinity of 22N, 37W, as indicated by the storm
report from the Dutch S.S. Prins Frederik Hendrik” (MWR).

October 11: HWM analyzed no significant features in the central Atlantic Ocean. 
HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 21.8N, 39.8W at 12 UTC. 
Ship highlights: 55 kt E and 1015 mb at 20.7N, 37.5W at 00 UTC (MWR); 
35 kt SSE and 1015 mb at 21.5N, 37.5W at 02 UTC (COA); 
35 kt SSE and 1013 mb at 21.5N, 37.5W at 06 UTC (COA).

October 12: HWM analyzed a cold front extending southwest from 40N, 35W to 27N,
50W. HURDAT listed this as a tropical storm at 26N, 43.2W at 12 UTC. 
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

October 13: HWM indicates an extratropical cyclone near 28N, 47W. HURDAT listed
this as a tropical storm at 29.7N, 45.5W at 12 UTC. Ship highlights: 35 kt
N and 1004 mb at 29.9N, 47.2W at 20 UTC (MWR); 35 kt NNE at 29.9N, 47.2W (MWR);
45 kt SSE and 1014 mb at 31.4N, 41.4W at 22 UTC (COA). “Unfortunately, this is
an unfrequented part of the ocean and so few reports have been received that it
has been difficult to trace its track accurately until the 14th” (MWR).

October 14: HWM analyzed a large extratropical cyclone near 38N, 41W. HURDAT
listed this as a tropical storm at 36.3N, 42W at 12 UTC. Ship highlights:
70 kt SW and 990 mb at 35.5N, 41.3W at 12 UTC (COA); 70 kt SW and 980 mb at
35.5N, 41W at 14 UTC (MWR); 70 kt SSE and 984 mb at 37.9N, 39.1W at 18 UTC
(MWR). “It was on the 14th that the American tanker David C. Reid foundered, her
approximate position being given in an SOS as 37N, 38W, apparently not far from
the center of the disturbance” (MWR).

October 15: HWM indicates a large extratropical cyclone near 55N, 30W, in the
process of absorbing a smaller extratropical system near 41N, 41W. HURDAT
listed this as an extratropical storm at 40N, 38W at 00 UTC.  
No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were observed.

Genesis for storm 6 is begun at 00 UTC on October 10th as a tropical storm, 12
hours earlier that original HURDAT based upon rather plentiful ship observations 
for that part of the Atlantic. The tropical cyclone progressed northwestward
through October 13th before recurving well away from any landmass.  Minor 
modifications are made to the track for all six days of its duration.  On the 
10th a peak wind of 45 kt was observed around 22 UTC. 55 kt is chosen for HURDAT 
at 18 UTC on the 10th, a 20 kt upgrade from the original HURDAT. As mentioned 
by MWR, the Dutch ship S.S. Prins Frederik Hendrik observed peak winds of 55 kt 
on the 11th around 00 UTC. 60 kt is chosen for HURDAT at 00 UTC, a 25 kt increase 
from the original HURDAT. Gale force winds were not observed again until late on 
the 13th when a peak wind of 45 kt was reported well removed from the cyclone’s
center.  The intensity is kept at 60 kt through 18 UTC on the 12th.  The increase 
in winds between 18 UTC on the 10th and 06 UTC on the 12th are considered major 
– at least 20 kt – changes to HURDAT.  A peripheral pressure of 980 mb with 
simultaneous SW hurricane force winds was observed on the 14th, implying winds 
of at least 73 kt from the Brown et al. north of 25N pressure-wind relationship 
(and the same from the north of 35N relationship as well). 80 kt is chosen for 
HURDAT at 12 UTC, a 20 kt upgrade from previous HURDAT. HWM consistently 
analyzed an extratropical system on the 13th and 14th but observational evidence 
exists that indicates the system had not yet transitioned to baroclinic status. 
It is apparent, however, that the system weakened and became absorbed by a large 
extratropical system after 06 UTC on the 15th. The track for the cyclone was 
extended six hours further in time.  Peak intensity of the cyclone is 80 kt on 
the 14th, up from 70 kt shown originally in HURDAT for the 13th.  

*******************************************************************************

1928- Additional Notes

1) The May MWR Tracks of Centers of Cyclones and the Historical Weather Maps 
show a low developing south of 25N over the Bahamas in early May.  This system 
deepened slightly as it moved north-northwest from the 5th to the 7th and then 
north-northeast until passing through the Canadian Maritime provinces on the 12th.  
No gale force winds were observed and the system was extratropical throughout its 
lifetime with significant frontal boundaries present even while south of 35N.  
Because of the low latitude formation of this cyclone, this system is included 
in Additional Notes, but likely never had tropical (or subtropical) 
characteristics during any portion of its lifetime.

DAY LAT LON STATUS

May  5 24N 76W Extratropical Low
May  6 26N 79W Extratropical Low
May  7 30N 78W Extratropical Low
May  8 33N 75W Extratropical Low
May  9 36N 73W Extratropical Low
May 10 39N 69W Extratropical Low
May 11 42N 67W Extratropical Low
May 12 50N 63W Extratropical Low


2) HWM and COADS indicate that a closed low associated with a front formed near
Bermuda on the 22nd and moved East-Northeastward until the 25th, when it became
absorbed by another frontal system and dissipated.  This system is analyzed to
be a 25 kt Tropical Depression on the 22nd and 23rd, and it became baroclinic
on the 24th.  On the 22nd, an East wind at 33.4N, 73.2W (COADS) supports a
closed low if this observation is added to the HWM analysis.  There was only
one gale with this system.  It occurred on the 23rd: 35 kt SW and 1009 mb at 4
UTC at 29.5N, 67.5W.  Based on the system's association with the frontal
boundary and lack of gales and low pressures, this system will not be added to
HURDAT.

DAY LAT LON STATUS

Sep 22 34N 68W Tropical Depression
Sep 23 35N 65W Tropical Depression
Sep 24 39N 53W Extratropical
Sep 25 40N 49W Extratropical

3) The September MWR Tracks of Centers of Cyclones and the Historical Weather 
Map series show a low that developed in late September in the Gulf of Mexico. 
It moved to the east-northeast from late on the 22nd to the 24th.  The system 
did not have any observed gale force winds, though it did have well-defined 
frontal boundaries during its brief lifetime.  Because of its occurrence 
during the peak of the hurricane season, the system is included here in 
Additional Notes, even though it was very likely extratropical throughout 
its short lifetime. 

DAY LAT LON STATUS

Sep 23 25N 93W Extratropical Low
Sep 24 27N 88W Extratropical Low

*******************************************************************************

1929/01 - 2010 REVISION:

24935 06/27/1929 M= 3  1 SNBR= 556 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=1
24935 06/27/1929 M= 4  1 SNBR= 556 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=1
                    *

24940 06/27*213 933  35    0*225 932  35    0*236 933  45    0*245 934  55    0
24940 06/27*213 933  35    0*225 934  35    0*236 936  45    0*245 939  55    0
                                 ***              ***              ***

24945 06/28*255 937  65    0*262 941  70    0*270 948  75    0*278 957  70  986
24945 06/28*254 943  65    0*262 947  70    0*270 953  75    0*278 960  80  982
            *** ***              ***              ***              ***  **  ***

24950 06/29*285 969  60    0E293 982  35    0E300 998  30    0*  0   0   0    0
24950 06/29*288 971  65  985*294 987  55    0*3001010  50    0*3081035  45    0
            *** ***  **  ******* ***  **     *    ***  **      *** ***  **

(The 30th is new to HURDAT.)
24955 06/30*3181065  40 1008*3301095  30    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0

24955 HRBTX1                

U.S. Continental Hurricanes:
----------------------------
#/Date         Time  Lat    Lon    Max  Saffir RMW   Central   States
                                   Wind Simpson      Pressure  Affected
6/28/1929      2100Z 28.3N  96.4W   80kt  1   10nmi    982mb   BTX1

Minor alterations are introduced to the track and major changes to the intensity 
shown in McAdie et al. (2009).  Reanalysis of this cyclone indicates that it did 
not undergo an extratropical transition, as originally shown in HURDAT, but 
instead remained a tropical cyclone until dissipation.  Evidence for these 
alterations comes from the Historical Weather Map series, the COADS ship database, 
Monthly Weather Review, the Original Monthly Records, Climatological Data: 
Texas Section, Connor (1956), Dunn and Miller (1960), Ho et al. (1987), and 
Jarrell et al. (1992).

June 27: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 23.7N,
95.1W.  HURDAT listed this as a 45 kt tropical storm.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

June 28: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 990 mb centered near 26.2N,
95.8W.  HURDAT listed this as a 75 kt hurricane at 27.0N, 94.8W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 26.8N, 95.4W with a 998 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: 50 kt SE and 1001 mb at 07 UTC at
25.3N, 93.8W (MWR); 35 kt NNE and 998 mb at 12 UTC at 27.0N, 96.0W (HWM).  No
other gales or low pressures.  Land highlights: 986 mb at 2130 UTC at Port
O'Connor, TX (MWR); 15 kt and 1005 at 22 UTC at mb at Corpus Christi, TX
(OMR).  "Pressure had been low for several days previous to the 28th over the 
western portion of the Gulf of Mexico, but it was not until this date that any 
definite disturbance was more than suspected…The storm was extremely small in 
diameter, but of considerable intensity over a path about 20 miles in diameter 
from Port O'Connor to San Antonio.  The lowest barometer reading probably was 
not below 29 inches, 29.12 [986 mb] being reported from port O'Connor, 
29.10 [985 mb] at Victoria, and 29.44 [997 mb] at San Antonio.  Being of such 
small diameter, the storm did not last more than two or three hours at any one 
point, but estimated wind velocities of 80 mph were reported.  Corpus Christi 
and Galveston were only slightly affected. Due to the difficulty in locating 
the storm, which was apparently in process of rapid development even as it 
struck the coast … The storm passed Port O'Connor at 4:30 pm.  The storm 
lasted from 4:30 pm to 6 pm at Port Lavaca and from 6:30 pm to 8 pm at 
Victoria" (MWR).  "Capt. C. V. Nissen of the American steamship Mexoil states 
that on June 27, 9 pm., in 25.3N, 93.8W, he encountered this storm, and 
estimated the strength of winds squalls at 80 mph.  The lowest barometer was 
29.56 inches (uncorrected)[1001 mb] at 2 am on the 28th, wind SE., force 8 to 10, 
heavy rain squalls, wind of hurricane force" (MWR).  Corpus Christi, TX: 
"A small tropical disturbance appeared southeast of Corpus Christi on the 
morning of the 28th, followed by several heavy showers, and the maximum wind 
velocity was 36 miles an hour from the northeast" (OMR).  Houston: Min pressure 
of 1008 mb at 0930 UTC on the 27th (OMR).  Galveston, TX: "A tropical 
disturbance of small diameter, moving inland on the Texas coast on June 28th, 
near Port O'Connor, Texas, caused a tide of about 3.5 feet above normal and a 
maximum wind, 31 miles from the southeast, at Galveston.  No damage resulted" 
(OMR).  San Antonio: "Hurricane came inland on night of June 28 passing to the 
east of San Antonio.  Pressure fell from 29.86 [1011 mb] at 2 pm to 29.44 
[997 mb] at 11:45 pm.  Wind reached velocity of 42 mph from NW for 5 minute 
period, and 56 mph for one minute. Fields flattened, poles, wires, signs, 
trees, and some light buildings were blown down.  Damage to city estimated to 
be $100,000" (OMR).  "1929, Jun 28, Port O’Connor, Minimal, 3 killed, damage 
$675,000" (“Minimal” indicates maximum winds of 64 to 87 kt, central pressure 
of 983 to 996 mb – Dunn and Miller). “Jun 28 1929, Center Crossed Coast – Port 
O’Connor, Estimate Lowest – 29.00” [982 mb], Movement – NW 15 mph” (Connor). 
"June 28, 1929, 969 mb central pressure, based upon 986 mb pressure at Port 
O’Connor, TX, 13 nm RMW, 15 kt speed, Landfall at 28.3N, 96.4W" (Ho).  “1929, 
Jun, TX,1C, 982 mb” (Jarrell et al.).  “A tropical storm of small diameter 
moved out of the Gulf of Mexico during the late afternoon of June 28, entering 
Texas at Matagorda Bay, with attending winds of estimated hurricane force 
(75 to 80 miles per hour) over a strip from 16 to 20 miles wide as far inland 
as Yorktown in DeWitt county and diminishing force along its central path to 
San Antonio, Bexar County, where a maximum wind of 42 miles per hour from the 
northwest was recorded at 10:37 p. m.  Winds of gale force were common, however, 
over a path from 60 to 80 miles wide as far inland as Kerr, Kendall, Bexar, 
and Medina counties – heaviest near coast and diminishing inland…Conservative 
estimates of wind damage by the storm to crops total $310,000 and to non-crops, 
such as buildings, windmills, power, telephone, and telegraph lines, $365,000.  
Three people lost their lives in Wharton County, a score or more received injuries, 
and many had narrow escapes…Outside of the area of wind damage, the rainfall 
was highly beneficial to crops and range” (Climatological Data: Texas Section).

June 29: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1008 mb centered near 30.7N,
101.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 30 kt extratropical low at 30.0N, 99.8W.  At
00 UTC, the MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones showed a center just inland on
the Texas coast with a pressure of 985 mb.  At 12 UTC, the MWR Tracks for
Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 30.2N, 101W with an 1008 mb pressure.
Ship highlights: 35 kt SE and 1014 mb at 01 UTC at 29.4N,93.5W (MWR).  
One other gale.  No other low pressures.  Land highlights.  44 kt NE at 05 
UTC at Kelly Field, TX (OMR); 985 mb at 00 UTC at Victoria, TX (MWR); 
36 kt NW and 997 mb at 0445 UTC at San Antonio, TX (OMR).  
A few other gales (at Kelly Field and at El Paso – late in the day).  
No other low pressures.

June 30: HWM analyses no features of interest over the south central United 
States and northern Mexico.  Station highlights:  3 kt N and 1008 mb and 79F 
temperature and 58F dewpoint (highest for the month) at 00Z at El Paso (31.8N 
106.5W); 40 kt NE at 01Z at El Paso.  “The only appreciable precipitation 
during the month occurred during thundershowers on the 29th.  Excessive 
precipitation occurred at that time…Strong winds also accompanied the 
thunderstorm and did some damage to roofs, plate glass windows, etc” (El Paso OMR).

No change to the genesis of this hurricane on the 27th of June.  Minor track 
changes were introduced for the three days of this system’s existence.  The 
cyclone apparently underwent rapid intensification from the 27th until the 
28th (with no changes introduced into HURDAT’s winds through 12Z on the 28th), 
though observations were sparse near the system on the 27th.  

The system made landfall around 21Z on the 28th at 28.3N 96.4W, just southwest 
of Port O’Connor.  Minimum observed sea level pressures were 986 mb in Port 
O’Connor at 2130Z and 985 mb at Victoria at 00Z on the 22nd (neither had wind 
data).  Assuming that the 985 mb in Victoria was a central pressure (which is 
not known to be certain), application of the Ho et al. (1987) inland pressure 
decay model suggests a central pressure at the coast of 981 mb.  This is close 
to the central pressure at landfall of 982 mb from Connor and Jarrell et al, 
but is substantially higher than the 969 mb analyzed by Ho et al.  It is 
suspected that Ho et al’s value is too deep and 982 mb is chosen as the 
central pressure at landfall in central Texas.  This value is now indicated for 
HURDAT at 18Z on the 28th, replacing the 986 mb in HURDAT originally (likely 
using the 986 mb observed from Port O’Connor directly).  982 mb central pressure 
suggests winds of 70 kt from the north of 25N Brown et al. pressure-wind 
relationship and 73 kt from the subset of cyclones north of 25N that are 
intensifying.  Given the likelihood that the hurricane was intensifying up 
until landfall (in agreement with the assessment in Monthly Weather Review), 
the latter value is more applicable.  The small RMW of 13 nm estimated by Ho 
et al. appears to be somewhat too large given the swath of high winds 16 to 
20 miles across reported in the Monthly Weather Review.  The RMW is analyzed 
to be about 10 nm, which would be quite small compared with 22 nm 
climatologically for hurricanes at the same latitude and central pressure – 
Vickery et al. 2000.  Given this, the small outer closed isobar (150 nm radius), 
somewhat low environmental pressures (1007 mb outer closed isobar), a value 
stronger than that suggested by the pressure-wind relationship is chosen:  
80 kt is the estimated maximum sustained winds at landfall.  Winds are thus 
boosted at 18Z on the 28th from 70 to 80 kt.  This retains the system as a 
Category 1 hurricane for central Texas (“BTX1”), in agreement with the original 
HURDAT.  (However, both Jarrell et al. and Neumann et al. listed this as “CTX1” 
– north Texas coast – which, given the landfall location in HURDAT originally 
was likely just a typographic error.)  After landfall, highest observed winds 
were 35 kt at 00Z on the 29th (within two hours of synoptic time), 44 kt at 06Z, 
20 kt at 12Z, 20 kt at 18Z, and 40 kt at 00Z on the 30th.  Application of the 
Kaplan and DeMaria inland decay model suggests winds around 61 kt at 00Z on the 
29th, 45 kt at 06Z, 32 kt at 12Z, 29 kt at 18Z, and 28 kt at 00Z on the 30th.  
Of particular note is that the system was still of considerable intensity 
(at least 40 kt) when passing directly over El Paso around 00Z on the 30th.  
(The weaker observed winds during 12 and 18Z on the 29th were likely due to 
the very sparse network of observations available over Texas.)  Because of 
the substantially higher observations around 00Z on the 30th compared with the 
Kaplan and DeMaria model, winds in HURDAT are revised upward: 65 kt (up from 
60 kt originally) at 00Z on the 29th, 55 kt (up from 35 kt originally) at 06Z, 
50 kt (up from 30 kt originally) at 12Z, 45 kt (no entry in HURDAT originally) 
at 18Z, 40 kt at 00Z on the 30th, and 30 kt at 06Z.  The changes at 06 and 12Z 
on the 19th are major upward revisions in intensity.  Given the still well-defined 
vortex at 12Z on the 29th and fortuitous observations from El Paso around 00Z on 
the 30th, the cyclone is extended an additional 18 hr before dissipation after 
06Z on the 30th.  Originally, HURDAT had this system becoming extratropical 
around 06Z on the 29th.  However, analysis of the synoptic environment show no 
significant baroclinic zones (or separate extratropical cyclones) and the 
cyclone’s structure remained fairly symmetric.  These indicate that instead 
of a transition to an extratropical cyclone, it remained a tropical cyclone 
until dissipation.  

*******************************************************************************

1929/02 - 2010 REVISION:

24960 09/22/1929 M=13  2 SNBR= 557 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=3
24960 09/19/1929 M=17  2 SNBR= 557 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=3
         **        **

(The 19th to the 21st are new to HURDAT.)
24961 09/19*230 636  30    0*230 638  30    0*230 640  30    0*230 642  30    0
24962 09/20*231 644  30    0*231 647  30    0*232 650  30    0*232 655  30    0
24963 09/21*233 660  30    0*234 665  30    0*235 670  30    0*236 675  30    0

24965 09/22*220 659  35    0*227 650  40    0*237 654  45    0*243 666  50    0
24965 09/22*237 680  35    0*238 685  40    0*240 690  45    0*244 695  50    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

24970 09/23*248 677  55    0*252 689  60    0*257 700  65    0*261 712  70    0
24970 09/23*250 700  55    0*256 706  60    0*260 712  65    0*264 719  70    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

24975 09/24*265 723  75    0*268 734  75    0*270 744  80    0*270 752  85    0
24975 09/24*267 728  75    0*269 737  75    0*270 744  85    0*270 749  95    0
            *** ***          *** ***                   **          ***  **

24980 09/25*264 755  90    0*262 758  95    0*259 763  95    0*256 764 100    0
24980 09/25*267 754 105    0*263 759 115    0*259 763 125    0*256 766 135  924 
            *** *** ***      *** *** ***              ***          *** ***  ***

24985 09/26*253 770 105    0*249 771 110    0*248 774 115    0*244 780 120    0
24985 09/26*252 770 125  936*249 773 120    0*246 777 120    0*244 780 120    0
            ***     ***  ***     *** ***      *** *** ***             

24990 09/27*244 782 120  936*244 787 120    0*246 791 115    0*247 794 110    0
24990 09/27*242 784 120    0*241 788 120    0*242 791 115    0*243 794 110    0
            *** ***      *** *** ***          ***              ***

24995 09/28*247 796 105    0*248 798  95    0*249 801  90  948*251 807  85    0
24995 09/28*245 797 105    0*247 800 100    0*249 804 100  948*251 810  95    0
            *** ***          *** *** ***          *** ***          ***  **

25000 09/29*254 814  85    0*259 820  85    0*264 827  90    0*270 833  90    0
25000 09/29*254 817  90    0*259 825  90    0*264 835  90    0*270 845  90    0
                ***  **          ***  **          ***              ***

25005 09/30*278 839  85    0*285 845  75    0*292 850  65    0*298 853  60    0
25005 09/30*276 853  85    0*282 857  85    0*288 860  80    0*294 862  75    0
            *** ***          *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

25010 10/01*303 852  50    0*308 849  50    0*314 842  45    0*323 829  40    0
25010 10/01*299 860  70    0*304 854  60  975E310 842  55  986E320 827  50    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **  *******      **  ******* ***  **

25015 10/02E335 810  40    0E348 798  40    0E363 785  35    0E379 773  35    0
25015 10/02E335 811  50    0E352 795  50    0E367 780  50    0E383 770  50    0
                ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

25020 10/03E396 761  35    0E412 749  30    0E428 737  30    0E441 725  30    0
25020 10/03E399 763  50    0E415 755  50    0E428 745  50    0E441 734  50    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **          ***  **          ***  **

25025 10/04E453 713  25    0E463 700  25    0E472 691  25    0E509 615  25    0
25025 10/04E453 721  45    0E463 706  45    0E472 691  40    0E480 671  40    0
                ***  **          ***  **               **      *** ***  **

(The 5th is new to HURDAT.)
25027 10/05E488 645  35    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0

25030 HRCFL3AFL2            
25030 HRCFL3BFL3AFL1
            ********           

U.S. Continental Hurricanes:
----------------------------
Date         Time  Lat    Lon    Max  Saffir RMW   Central   States
                                 Wind Simpson      Pressure  Affected
9/28/1929    1300Z 25.0N  80.5W  100kt  3   30nmi    948mb   BFL3, CFL3
10/1/1929    0400Z 30.2N  85.7W   70kt  1   -----    975mb   AFL1

Major changes to the track and to the intensity shown in Neumann et al. (1999).  
Genesis for this tropical cyclone was begun three days earlier than originally 
indicated.  Evidence for these changes comes from the Historical Weather Map 
series, the COADS ship database, _Monthly Weather Review_, the Original Monthly 
Records from NCDC, Climatological Data – Florida Section, Dunn and Miller (1960), 
Harris (1963), Rosenberg (1970 – unpublished manuscript), Schwerdt et al. (1979), 
Ho et al. (1987), Jarrell et al. (1992), Kasper et al. (1998), Neely (2006), 
and Barnes (2008).

September 15-18:  A westward moving trough is depicted in the Historical Weather 
Maps from the 15th to the 17th north of the Lesser Antilles.  On the 18th, a low 
of at most 1010 mb was shown in HWM near 23N 70W, however, a closed circulation 
cannot be confirmed.  No gale force winds (or equivalent in pressure) were 
observed.  HURDAT did not previously list this system on these days.  

September 19: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 24N,
65W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 20: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 23N,
63W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 21: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 22N,
65W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 22: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 22N,
66W.  HURDAT listed this as a 45 kt tropical storm at 23.7N, 65.4W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 23.2N, 67.4W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 23: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 26N,
71.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 65 kt hurricane at 25.7N, 70.0W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 25.5N, 70W.  Ship highlights: 
35 kt S and 1012 mb at 08 UTC at 25.0N, 68.0W (COA).  No other gales.  
No low pressures.

September 24: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 27N,
74.2W.  HURDAT listed this as an 80 kt hurricane at 27.0N, 74.4W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 26.2N, 74W with an 1004 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures, but several
observations of 30 kt winds.

September 25: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near 26N,
77.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 95 kt hurricane at 25.9N, 76.3W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 26N, 77W.  Ship highlights: 
35 kt NNE and 1007 mb at 12 UTC at 26.2N, 78.8W (COA); 30 kt W and 1004 mb at 
21 UTC at 29.9N, 80.5W (COA).  A few other gales of 35 kt. No other low 
pressures.  Regarding the intensity: "The steamship Potomac passed near the 
hurricane center on the 25th about 15 miles west of Abaco Island and reported 
a barometer reading of 27.30 inches [924 mb] (uncorrected).  At Nassau, the 
lowest pressure was 27.64 inches [936 mb] (unofficial) between 8 pm and midnight 
[00 UTC to 04 UTC of the 26th]" (MWR). (Note that the statement about “15 
miles west of Abaco Island” is likely incorrect given the other information 
available and that the nearby island instead was Eleuthera, also in the Bahamas.)  
"No accurate information has been received regarding the force of wind in the 
Bahamas region, but it must have exceeded 100 mph near the hurricane center" 
(MWR).  "Some of the data such as the high tide of 12 feet on Andros, the death 
toll of 25 plus on Andros and the 120 to 140 mph winds in Nassau, were not on 
our records at the National Hurricane Center" (Letter from NHC to Mr. Pierce 
S. Rosenberg thanking him for his excellent report).  Nassau: EYE lasted from 
2030 UTC to 2230 UTC with min pressure of 936 mb (Summary from the Nassau 
Guardian on Saturday, October 12, 1929 - Rosenberg).  "Details the loss at sea 
of 3 boats, 'the Ethel, Myrtle, and Pretoria,' with 33 souls aboard enroute 
from Nassau Harbor to Fresh Creek" (Rosenberg).  “To this day, this storm was 
one of the most destructive storms to hit the island of Andros because it 
completely devastated that island.  There was 12 feet of storm surge from this 
hurricane and the hurricane winds and the storm surge from the hurricane 
lasted nearly 48 hours, as the storm slowed in forward speed from the Tongue 
of the Ocean to just west of Andros…The eye of the hurricane passed over Nassau 
at 8:30pm on September 25th but the calm lasted for at least two hours 
according to local reports, so this hurricane had quite some time over these 
islands to do tremendous damage with the strong winds and surge of the storm.  
The lowest barometer reading at the time was 936.2MB or 27.65 inches at Nassau…
Impact of the Hurricane on: Nassau - …seven deaths in Nassau…456 houses totally 
destroyed, while an additional 640 houses were damaged in some degree or the 
other…sixty four vessels were wrecked…most of the homes and business (about 73% 
based on the population of Nassau compared with actual statistics at the time of 
damaged houses) in Nassau were in some way of the other affected by this 
storm…Abaco – 19 houses destroyed completely and twelve boats completely 
destroyed.  The hurricane lasted 36 hours and the wind speed was at Hurricane 
Force between 75 and 100mph…Andros – …the hurricane destroyed all crops and 
most of the fruit trees, livestock, and poultry…It was stated that there were 
25 plus persons drowned from this storm in Andros alone…on September 25th, 
26th, and 27th the most extreme destructive Hurricane in the history of this 
district swept the Island.  Its extreme duration and sustained violence 
without precedent in my experience.  The whole place appears as through 
burned with fire and fields once full of premise are naked stripped of all 
vegetation.  The Situation is the most serious the island has ever had to 
face…Cat Island – Storm reported as not severe and just slight damage and 
experienced gale force winds…Grand Bahama – No significant damage but 
experienced severe gale conditions…Eleuthera – Some damage reported and 
North Eleuthera experienced 75 to 100 knot winds” (Neely).

September 26: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 990 mb centered near 24.8N,
78W.  HURDAT listed this as a 115 kt hurricane at 24.8N, 77.4W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 25.2N, 77.5W.  Ship highlights: 
50 kt E and 1013 mb at 12 UTC at 26.4N, 76.4W (COA); 45 kt
ESE at 12 UTC at 26.0N, 75.3W (COA); 25 kt NE and 999 mb at 13 UTC at 26.4N,
79.8W (COA).  No other gales.  One other low pressure.

September 27: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 990 mb centered near 24N,
78.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 115 kt hurricane at 24.6N, 79.1W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 24.6N, 78W.  Ship highlights: 
35 kt NNE and 1005 mb at 09 UTC at 24.5N, 80.5W (COA); 30 kt NNE and 1003 mb at 
17 UTC at 25.0N, 80.3W (COA).  A few other gales of 35 kt.  A few other low 
pressures from 1003-1005 mb.

September 28: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 990 mb centered near 24.6N,
80.6W.  HURDAT listed this as a 90 kt hurricane at 24.9N, 80.1W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 24.7N, 80.6W with a 949 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: 951 mb at 25.0N 80.0W at 12 UTC (MWR).  
Two additional gales.  Several other low pressures between 999-1005 mb.  
Station highlights:  954 mb at 1330 UTC at Long Key (MWR), 63 kt 1 min wind 
and 989 mb at 1930 UTC at Key West (OMR, MWR).  Regarding the track: "During 
the 3 and a half day period ending at 12 UTC September 28 the storm center 
moved only about 300 miles, or less than 4 miles an hour, and the greater part 
of this time its course was southwest, the center on the 28th being 80 to 90
miles farther south than the 24th" (MWR).  Regarding the intensity: "The next
report received from near the center was 28.09 inches [951 mb] on the
steamship Bessemer in latitude 25N, longitude 80W, at 12 UTC of the 28th.  The
center passed over Long Key, the barometer falling to 28.18 inches [954 mb] at
9:30 am [1330 UTC] of the 28th.  The lowest pressure at Miami was 29.41 inches
[996 mb] at 12:30 pm [1630 UTC] and at Key West 29.21 inches [989 mb] at 3:30
pm [1930 UTC] of the 28th.  At Everglades City, FL it was 28.95 inches [980
mb] at 5 pm [21 UTC] and at Boca Grande 29.18 inches [988 mb] at 1 am [05 UTC]
of the 29th" (MWR).  Miami: 49 kt E (MWR).  Key West: 57 kt W (MWR).  Fort
Myers: 51 kt NE (MWR).  Those were 5 minute winds.  Key West one minute wind:
63 kt (OMR).  "The estimated velocity at Key Largo was (during gusts) about
150 mph.  There was a 10-minute lull as the hurricane center passed over this
key.  At Everglades City, the estimated velocity was 90-100 mph" (MWR).  "The
greatest damage in the Keys seems to have taken place on the northward side of
the center- the upper Matecumbe Key, the southern portion of Key Largo, and
the Cape Sable and Ten Thousand Island areas" (MWR).  Miami: "The heavy
rainfall, which equaled 10.42 inches for the 24 hours ending at midnight of
the 28th [04 UTC on the 29th], flooded many low sections of the city.  The
estimated loss from fruit crops in Dade County was $1,500,000.  Two tornadoes,
occurring at about 5:30 pm [2130 UTC] and moving from southeast to northwest,
passed over the southern and western parts of the city demolishing a few
buildings and seriously damaging many other buildings.  Property damage from
the hurricane and tornado winds was $100,000.  The destructive Ft. Lauderdale
tornado occurred at about the same time as the Miami tornadoes" (OMR).  “948 mb 
central pressure from Key Largo observation, 28 nm RMW, 10 kt forward speed, 
25.0N 80.5W landfall point” (Ho).  “Tropical Cyclones in Florida – Sep. 27-Oct. 1, 
Key Largo, NW Florida, Extreme, Key Largo bar. 28” (“Extreme” 136 mph or higher 
winds, 948 mb or less pressure” (Dunn and Miller).  “Key Largo 10 min lull, 
28” pressure, 150 mph wind estimate, Everglades City 28.95” winds estimated 
90-100 mph, Panama City 28.80” and 100 mph wind estimate” (Barnes 2007).  
“6’ storm surge at Everglades City, 2’ Punta Rassa” (Kasper et al. 1998).  
“8.8’ storm tide at Goulds, 6’ Long Key” (Harris).  “Sep FL SE3 NW2 Lowest 
central pressure 948 mb” (Jarrell et al.).  “1009 mb environmental pressure, 
84 kt equivalent 1 min wind” (Schwerdt et al.).  “The only fatalities ashore, 
and ascribed to this storm, were those of a negro woman and child – the former 
killed at Marathon, Key Vacca, when her shack was razed ; and the child, near 
Wewhitchee, from a falling tree, and one drowned at Panama City…The damage to 
property was heavy on the Keys were only slight precautions could be taken.  
It was considerable at Apalachicola, chiefly, to marine interests, and approximated 
$66,000.  Sundry damage at Pensacola was $60,000.  The greatest damage reported 
from any district occurred in Collier County, as follows:  fruit and track, 
$40,000; highways, $45,000; telephone and telegraph, $6,000; small boats and 
equipment, $8,000; los of timber, $150,000; building, power plants, and shops, 
$46,000.  It is stated that the damage to highways in the State will approximate 
$300,000…A tornado occurred at Ft. Lauderdale at 4.40 p. m. September 28th, 
doing damage of $100,000” (Climatological Data – Florida Section).

September 29: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 985 mb centered near 26N,
84W.  HURDAT listed this as a 90 kt hurricane at 26.4N, 82.7W.  The MWR Tracks
for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 26.4N, 83.5W.  Ship highlights: 
35 kt S and 1005 mb at 09 UTC at 24.5N, 80.5W (COA); 30 kt SSW and 999 mb 
at 00 UTC at 24.4N, 81.3W (COA); 35 kt E and 1006 mb at 00 UTC at 25.2N, 79.6W.  
No other gales.  Several other low pressures from 999-1005 mb.  Tampa: 29 kt E 
(MWR).  That was a 5-minute wind.  Tampa: "Practically no damage occurred in Tampa 
or vicinity, and little damage north of Fort Myers.  Winds of hurricane force were 
reported at Everglades City, Naples, and Punta Rassa, and near hurricane force 
at Ft. Myers.  There was considerable damage to roofs, trees and wires, and much 
fruit blown off the trees, south of Ft. Myers" (OMR).

September 30: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 990 mb centered near 29.6N,
86.2W.  HURDAT listed this as a 65 kt hurricane at 29.2N, 85.0W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 28.6N, 85.2W with a 975 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: 25 kt W and 1002 mb at 00 UTC at 26.4N, 85.9W (COA).  
No gales.  Several other low pressures between 1002-1005 mb.  Apalachicola: 
51 kt S (MWR).  Pensacola: 61 kt NE (MWR).  Those were 5 minute winds.  Regarding 
the intensity: Pensacola: "Although winds of hurricane force prevailed on the 
30th for over 6 hours and of verifying velocity for a period of 27 hours, damage 
was slight, due to advance warning, complete preparation, winds being entirely off 
land, and no high tides" (OMR).  Apalachicola: From 7 am of the 29th to 3:30 am of 
the 30th, the pressure fell from 1008 mb to 990 mb.  By 10 am it rose to 995 mb, 
and then fell to 984 mb by midnight of the 30th/1st (OMR).  “975 mb central pressure 
from Panama City observation, no RMW estimate, 29.9N 85.4W landfall point, 6 kt 
forward speed, Storm becoming extratropical” (Ho).  “1013 mb environmental pressure, 
72 kt equivalent 1 min winds” (Schwerdt et al.).

October 1: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near 31N,
84.5W with the east end of a W-E cold front close to the center and the west
end of a W-E stationary front well northeast of the center.  HURDAT listed
this as a 45 kt tropical storm at 31.4N, 84.2W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of
Cyclones shows a center near 31N, 84W with a 986 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 
25 kt WSW and 1003 mb at 01 UTC at 27.0N, 87.1W (COA); 15 kt W and 1003 mb at 
01 UTC at 27.3N, 87.5W (COA).  No gales.  A few other low pressures between 
(1003-1005 mb).  Regarding the intensity: "The lowest barometer reading at 
Panama City, FL was 28.80 inches [975 mb] at midnight [04 UTC].  Apalachicola 
reported a minimum of 29.06 inches [984 mb] at midnight [04 UTC] and 
Pensacola 29.19 inches [988 mb] at 2:40 pm [1840 UTC] of the 30th" (MWR).  
"Thomasville, GA reported a pressure of 29.12 inches (986 mb) at 8 am [12 UTC] 
of October 1.  After the 1st there was very little change in intensity until it 
reached the lower St. Lawrence Valley during the 4th, the nearest station to 
the center at each observation [between the 1st and the 4th] reporting between 
29.30 [992 mb] and 29.36 inches [994 mb]" (MWR). Jacksonville: 53 kt SW (MWR).  
That was a 5-minute wind.  Jacksonville: 998 mb at 18 UTC (OMR).  
Savannah, GA: Min pressure of 994 mb and winds up to 40 mph (5 minute) (OMR).  
"Heavy rains of the storm caused very high water in the Savannah river... which 
did much damage to roads and crops" (OMR).  Regarding the overall loss of life 
from this hurricane: At least 3 people died in FL and at least 8 died at sea.  
In Nassau, many lives were lost and the casualties were numerous.  Doubtless 
lives were lost at other Bahama Islands (MWR).  "The high tide and heavy seas 
did considerable damage to the new Gulf Coast Highway west of Apalachicola" (MWR).  
"The hurricane center passed inland at Panama City" (MWR).  Damage was $100,000 
to $150,000 at Panama City and $60,000 at Pensacola (MWR/OMR).  “Tropical Cyclones 
in South Atlantic States – Carolinas and Georgia, Oct. 1-2, All sections, Minor, 
Heavy Rains” (“Minor” – less than hurricane force – Dunn and Miller).  

October 2: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb embedded in an occluded
front centered near 36.5N, 77.4W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt extratropical
low at 36.3N, 78.5W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center
near 36.3N, 77.4W with a 993 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 45 kt S and 995 mb 
at 17 UTC at 37.5N, 76.5W (COA); 45 kt S and 1001 mb at 12 UTC at 33.7N, 75.2W 
(COA).  Several other gales.  Several other low pressures.  Station highlights: 
22 kt S and 994 mb at 00Z at Savannah (OMR); 51 kt E at Atlantic City (MWR); 
41 kt SE at Baltimore (MWR); 41 kt NE at Sandy Hook (MWR).

October 3: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb centered near 43N, 74W,
with the west end of a WSW-ENE warm front very near the center.  HURDAT listed
this as a 30 kt extratropical low at 42.8N, 73.7W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers
of Cyclones shows a center near 43N, 73.6W with a 994 mb pressure.  
Ship highlights: 35 kt W and 998 mb at 12 UTC at 38.8N, 74.1W (COA); 5 kt E and 
997 mb at 12 UTC at 43.0N, 70.0W.  No other gales.  Several other low pressures.  
Station highlights:  36 kt NE at Nantucket (MWR).

October 4: HWM analyzes an elongated, closed low of at most 995 mb centered
near 47N, 68W embedded in the west end of a W-E warm front.  HURDAT listed
this as a 25 kt extratropical low centered at 47.2N, 69.1W.  The MWR Tracks
for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 48.4N, 67.7W with a 993 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: 35 kt SW and 1003 mb at 12 UTC at 43.0N, 64.6W (COA).  
No other gales or low pressures.

October 5: HWM no longer analyzes a closed low.  HURDAT did not previously
list this system on this day.  Ship highlights: None.

Genesis for this cyclone is begun at 00Z on the 19th, three days earlier than 
originally indicated.  The system is kept at tropical depression intensity 
through 18Z on the 21st.  (The observations from the 19th to the 21st are quite 
definitive in demonstrating that a closed, non-baroclinic low was present.  
Indeed, one could even make the case to extend genesis back to the 18th as 
well.  While it is somewhat unusual for a system to remain as a tropical 
depression for three days after genesis, observations are not available to 
indicate/confirm that the system was a stronger tropical cyclone.  Without 
evidence for such a status, the system has to remain classified as a 
tropical depression from the 19th until the 21st.)  An upgrade to tropical 
storm intensity was retained at 00Z on the 22nd.  A large northwestward 
alteration to the track was made on the 22nd.  Late on the 4th, while 
extratropical, the position of the cyclone was realistic adjusted 
west-southwestward (the original HURDAT had the system accelerating to from 
10 to 62 kt in the final 12 hours of its lifetime).  From the 22nd until 
early on the 24th, the cyclone had a quite small circulation and few 
observations were observed near its center.  Consequently, no alterations 
were made on these dates to the intensity.  Late on the 25th, the ship the 
Potomac recorded 924 mb.  This uncorrected value, if it is a true central 
pressure, suggests winds of 137 kt and 134 kt from the Brown et al. 
intensifying hurricane pressure-wind relationships south and north, respectively 
of 25N.  The hurricane is slow moving – about 4 kt – but quite small with a 
200 nm mean radius of outer closed isobar.  Winds analyzed to be 135 kt at 
18Z on the 25th, up from 100 kt originally.  Winds are then adjusted accordingly 
upward late on the 24th and early on the 25th to accommodate a rapidly intensifying 
hurricane.  A central pressure reading of 936 mb at Nassau, Bahamas was observed 
between 0030 and 0230 UTC early on the 26th.  This value suggests winds of 125 and 
118 kt from the (whole) Brown et al. pressure-wind relationship.  125 kt analyzed 
for the winds at 00Z and 120 kt at 06Z.  The hurricane is thus indicated to be a 
Category 4 hurricane during its trek over Nassau and Andros Islands in the Bahamas, 
which is unchanged from that originally indicated.  This impact is consistent with 
the extreme surge and wind damage observed.  

The hurricane then weakened some as it moved slowly west-northwestward toward 
Florida.  The best estimate is that the center of the hurricane made landfall 
between Key Largo and Long Key near 25.0N 80.5W – over Plantation Key.  The 
10-min lull in Key Largo was in the edge of the eye, rather than the center.  
The 948 mb reading – a very suspiciously exact 28.00” – for Key Largo was likely 
an estimate, not a measurement.  There is no mention of this value in either the 
Key West OMR, the Climatological Data – Florida Section, or the Monthly Weather 
Review.  The first time this value appears in Dunn and Miller’s 1960 textbook.  
It has since been repeated in Ho et al., Jarrell et al., and Barnes.  However, 
given the observed reading of 954 mb at 1330Z at Long Key on the 28th which was 
likely also in the edge of the eye, a central pressure of 948 mb is quite 
reasonable and is retained in HURDAT.  This central pressure suggests winds 
of 109 and 102 kt from the filling hurricane Brown et al. pressure-wind 
relationships south and north, respectively.  Given the continued slow motion 
– 4 kt – and increasing size (outer closed isobar of 300 nm and RMW of about 
30 nm - compared with 16 nm for climatology based upon similar central pressures 
and landfall latitude – Vickery et al. 2001), sustained winds at landfall are 
analyzed to be 100 kt.  This is raised from the 90 kt originally in HURDAT at 12Z.  
100 kt makes the system a Category 3 hurricane at landfall in the Keys.  Given 
the landfall right at the separation between southwest and southeast Florida (80.85W), 
both are indicated to have received Category 3 hurricane conditions (“BFL3” and “CFL3”).  
The hurricane, despite its slow motion, began moving into the Gulf of Mexico around 00Z 
on the 29th, as it only skirted the southwest coast of Florida.  The hurricane moved 
northwestward across the eastern Gulf of Mexico during the next two days.

The hurricane made a second U.S. landfall over Panama City at 04Z on October 
1st, near 30.2N 85.7W.  Panama City observed a central pressure of 975 mb, 
which suggests 79 kt from the Brown et al. north of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  
One could argue to use the filling pressure-wind relationship 
(which would give 75 kt), but given the lack of inner core data for the 
preceding two dates this relationship may not be strictly appropriate.  
Given the continued expansion of the wind field (400 nm radius of outer 
closed isobar) and slow – 4 kt - motion of the hurricane, the winds are 
estimated to be 70 kt at landfall.  This is substantially higher than the 
50 kt in HURDAT originally indicated at 00Z, though the original track had 
landfall closer to 18Z on the 30th which had 60 kt originally.  70 kt at 
landfall makes the hurricane at Category 1 landfall for northwest Florida 
(“AFL1”), which is actually a decrease from the Category 2 originally noted.  
A run of the Kaplan-DeMaria inland decay model suggests winds of 57 kt at 06Z 
on the 1st.  Given the large size of the hurricane, winds are selected to be 
60 kt at 06Z, 10 kt higher than in HURDAT originally.  By 12Z on the same day, 
the cyclone had transformed enough to be considered an extratropical storm, 
as well-defined frontal zones had developed within the system - note the 
significant (20F) north-south temperature gradient through the cyclone and 
asymmetric structure of the winds and pressure field.  This extratropical 
transition is 12 hours earlier than originally shown in HURDAT.  A 986 mb 
pressure observation from Thomasville, Georgia is likely a central pressure 
reading and is thus added into HURDAT.  The cyclone maintained strong winds 
(40-50 kt) as it moved northeastward across the U.S. Atlantic seaboard from 
the 2nd to the 4th.  Dissipation is indicated at 06Z on the 5th, six hours 
later than shown originally.

*******************************************************************************

1929/03 - 2010 ADDITION:

24931 09/25/1929 M= 5  3 SNBR= 556 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
24932 09/25*320 665  30    0*325 670  30    0*330 675  35 1005*335 680  40    0
24932 09/26*340 685  45    0*347 688  50    0*355 690  50    0*362 691  50    0
24932 09/27*370 690  50    0E379 687  50    0E388 680  50    0E395 671  50    0
24932 09/28E401 661  50    0E407 650  50    0E413 637  50    0E419 619  50    0
24932 09/29E426 595  50    0E433 560  45    0E440 515  40    0E448 465  35    0
24933 TS                    

This is a new tropical storm, not previously included in HURDAT or Neumann et al. (1999).  
Evidence for the existence of this system comes from the Monthly Weather Review, 
the Historical Weather Map series, and the COADS ship database.

September 24: HWM analyzes a low embedded in a W-E stationary front in the 
northwest Atlantic Ocean.  Available HWM and COADS data suggest that there is 
not enough evidence that a closed circulation is yet present.  No gales or 
equivalent in pressure were observed.

September 25: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near
33.5N, 67W at the west end of a W-E front.  HURDAT did not previously analyze
this system.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near
34.5N, 66.2W.  No gales or equivalent in pressure were observed.  Ship highlights:  
30 kt NW and 1008 mb at 12 UTC at 33.0N 68.2W (COA).

September 26: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near
34.5N, 69W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 
36.5N, 69.2W.  Ship highlights: 40 kt E and 1002 mb at 02 UTC at 
34.3N, 68.1W (MWR).  No other gales or low pressures.

September 27: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1015 mb undergoing
extratropical transition attached to the southwest end of a SW-NE warm front
centered near 37N, 70W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center 
near 39N, 68.5W.  Ship highlights: 50 kt SSW and 1011 mb at 14 UTC at 
38.5N, 67.4W (MWR).  No other gales.  No low pressures.

September 28: HWM analyzes a closed, extratropical low of at most 1015 mb centered 
near 41.5N, 62W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 41N, 65W.  
Ship highlights: 35 kt NE and 1006 mb at 12 UTC at 42.2N, 62.9W (COA); 15 kt NE and 
998 mb at 13 UTC at 41.3N, 63.9W (COA).  One other gale.  No other low pressures.  
“Charts VIII to XV cover the period from the 23d to 30th, inclusive, and, besides 
giving an idea of the movement of the tropical disturbance [Storm #2 1929], also 
show the conditions over the eastern section of the steamer lanes, where heavy 
weather occurred on the 23d and again on the last three days of the month” (MWR).

September 29: HWM analyzes a closed, extratropical low of at most 1010 mb centered 
near 44N, 50W.  Ship highlights: 35 kt NW and 1011 mb at 12 UTC at 42.0N, 53.0W (COA); 
25 kt SSW and 1005 mb at 11 UTC at 43.2N, 50.5W (COA).  No other gales.  
One other low pressure of 1005 mb.

Genesis for this system is begun at 00Z on the 25th of September, just west of 
Bermuda and about 500 nm northeast of a major hurricane (Storm #2).  While the 
origins of this cyclone likely did begin as a former frontal boundary, by early 
on the 25th the baroclinicity of the system had diminished and a more symmetric 
closed low had developed in the midst of ~80F sea and air surface temperatures.  
A ship at 12Z on the 25th with 30 kt NW winds and 1008 mb pressure suggests a 
central pressure of 1005 mb.  1005 mb indicates winds of 34 kt from the north 
of 25N Brown et al. pressure-wind relationship.  35 kt – and development of the 
cyclone into a tropical storm – is thus indicated at 12Z on the 25th.  The 
cyclone slowly moved northwestward and then northward on the 25th and 26th, 
well off the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast.  On the 26th at 02Z a ship reported 
40 kt E and 1002 mb.  This pressure suggests winds of at least 40 kt from 
the Brown et al. north of 25N pressure-wind relationship and at least 45 kt 
from the north of 35N pressure-wind relationship.  Winds are chosen to be 
45 kt at 00Z and 50 kt at 06Z on the 26th.  50 kt is analyzed to be the peak 
intensity for this tropical storm.  On the 27th, the cyclone began recurving 
northeastward and had become extratropical around 06Z.  A ship reported 50 kt 
SW at 14Z on the 27th after the system had transitioned to an extratropical 
storm.  A ship at 12Z on the 28th reported 15 kt NNE and 998 mb, apparently 
near the center, suggesting that the system may have maintained its intensity 
around 50 kt through this date.  The cyclone accelerated toward the east-northeast 
on the 28th and 29th as it passed south of the Canadian Maritimes and weakened.  
The system dissipated around 00Z on the 30th of September.  

*******************************************************************************

1929/04 - 2010 REVISION:

25035 10/15/1929 M= 8  3 SNBR= 558 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
25035 10/15/1929 M= 6  4 SNBR= 558 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
                       *

25040 10/15*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*308 396  35    0*307 402  35    0
25040 10/15*318 374  50    0*315 382  55    0*312 390  60    0*310 398  60    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

25045 10/16*306 408  40    0*305 414  40    0*304 420  45    0*302 426  50    0
25045 10/16*308 406  60    0*306 413  60    0*304 420  60    0*302 426  60    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **               **               **

25050 10/17*300 431  50    0*299 436  55    0*297 442  65    0*298 450  70    0
25050 10/17*300 431  60    0*299 436  60    0*297 442  60    0*298 450  60    0
                     **               **               **               **

25055 10/18*310 470  70    0*317 476  70    0*320 482  70    0*315 485  70    0
25055 10/18*304 460  60    0*313 472  60    0*325 482  60    0*337 492  60    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      ***      **      *** ***  **

25060 10/19*309 489  70    0*303 490  70    0*297 489  75    0*291 488  75    0
25060 10/19*349 502  60    0*362 510  60    0*375 515  60    0E390 513  55    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **     **** ***  **

25065 10/20*286 486  75    0*281 484  75    0*276 479  80    0*278 473  80    0
25065 10/20E405 500  45    0E420 480  40    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0
           **** ***  **     **** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

(The 21st and 22nd are incorporated within new storm #5.)
25081 10/21*289 465  80    0*305 456  80    0*323 452  80    0*341 461  75    0
25081 10/22*360 470  70    0E380 471  70    0E403 474  65    0E418 466  65    0

25080 HR                    
25080 TS                    
      **

Major alterations are introduced to the track and to the intensity shown in 
Neumann et al. (1999).  Reanalysis of this cyclone indicates that the system 
did not undergo a four day (18-21 October) counterclockwise loop over the 
central Atlantic, as originally shown in HURDAT, but instead continued 
northward and dissipated on the 20th.  Evidence for these alterations comes 
from the Historical Weather Map series, the COADS ship database, and Monthly 
Weather Review.  However, the last two days of this system were indeed a 
cyclone, but instead a second system, which is now new storm #5.

October 15: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 31N,
39W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 30.8N, 39.6W.  
Ship highlights: 60 kt NNE at 07 UTC at 32.5N, 38.5W (COA); 60 kt N
and 1005 mb at 10 UTC at 32.4N, 39.4W (COA); 45 kt SE and 1005 mb at 18 UTC at
32.4N, 39.4W (COA).  Several other strong gales between 45-60 kt.  One other
low pressure of 1005 mb.  Regarding the intensity or surrounding environment:
"On the 15th anticyclonic northerly winds of gale force were encountered by
vessels between the thirtieth and thirty-sixth parallels and the thirty-fifth
and forty-second meridians, accompanied by barometric readings of from 30.11
[1020 mb] to 30.20 [1023 mb] inches" (MWR).

October 16: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 30N,
40.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 45 kt tropical storm at 30.4N, 42.0W.
Ship highlights: 45 kt NNE at 03 UTC at 31.5N, 41.5W (COA); 45 kt ENE and 
1013 mb at 12 UTC at 32.5N, 42.3W (COA).  
Several other gales between 35-45 kt.  No low pressures.

October 17: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near 29.5N,
44W.  HURDAT listed this as a 65 kt hurricane at 29.7N, 44.2W.  Ship highlights: 
45 kt E and 999 mb at 12 UTC at 30.2N, 43.9W (COA); 40 kt E and 
999 mb at 12 UTC at 30.2N, 43.5W (HWM); 30 kt E and 
1004 mb at 12 UTC at 31.5N, 43.5W (COA).  One other gale.  No other low pressures.

October 18: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 33N,
49W with a stationary frontal boundary a few hundred nm to the west of the 
cyclone.  HURDAT listed this as a 70 kt hurricane at 32.0N, 48.2W.  
Ship highlights: 40 kt WSW and 1007 mb at 03 UTC at 30.9N, 46.5W (MWR); 
35 kt ESE and 1011 mb at 19 UTC at 35.5N, 47.5W (COA); 35 kt SE and 
1014 mb at 23 UTC at 36.5N, 46.5W (COA).  No other gales.  No low pressures.

October 19: HWM analyzes an elongated north-south closed low of at most 
1005 mb centered near 34N, 52W with a cold frontal boundary passing a few 
hundred nm north of the cyclone.  HURDAT listed this as a 75 kt hurricane 
at 29.7N, 48.9W.  Ship highlights: 60 kt S and 1005 mb at 12 UTC at 37.1N, 
50.4W (COA); 35 kt SE and 1005 mb at 12 UTC at 38.3N, 50.4W (HWM).  Several 
other gales. No other low pressures.  "From the 19th to the 22nd the region 
between the Bermudas and Azores was swept by a severe disturbance, the wind 
reaching hurricane force at times" (MWR).

October 20: HWM analyzes a SSW-NNE cold front and a low pressure area south of
that, which is new storm #5.  HURDAT listed this as an 80 kt hurricane at
27.6N, 47.9W.  (HURDAT was actually analyzing new storm #5 instead of this
system.)  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

Genesis is indicated to be 12 hours earlier (00Z on the 15th) than originally 
analyzed in HURDAT, though with the first entry already a 50 kt tropical storm, 
it is possible that the system existed on the 14th (or earlier) but was not 
yet detected by the sparse ship observations.  Track changes introduced from 
the 15th to late on the 18th were relatively minor.  However, on the 19th, the 
reanalysis indicated that there were two separate cyclones present:  
a continuation of the existing system which moved northward and was near 37.5N 
at 12Z and a secondary development to the south near 26.5N at 12Z.  The 
original HURDAT had interpreted the second system to instead be the same 
cyclone that had looped back to the south.  Thus very large changes to the 
track were introduced from late on the 18th until the 20th, with removal of 
entries for this system on the 21st and 22nd.  The secondary system did develop 
into a tropical cyclone (reaching hurricane intensity) and is covered in detail 
in under new Storm #5 to follow.  With regards to this cyclone’s intensity, 
numerous gales including a 60 kt ship report on the 15th necessitated a major 
increase to the cyclone’s winds on the 15th and 16th.  It was closely 
considered whether to analyze this system as reaching hurricane intensity.  
For the 60 kt report on the 15th, the ship – which reported every four hours 
on that date while in the cyclone – only reported their position rounded to a 
precision of 1.0 degree latitude and 1.0 degree longitude (e.g., at 03Z they 
were at 33.5N 38.5W, at 07Z 32.5N 38.5W, at 11Z 32.5N 39.5W, etc.).  This 
means that the ship position has an uncertainty of +/- 30 nm both in the 
north-south and in the east-west positions.  Thus it is unknown as to the 
exact location of the ship relative to the cyclone, though the best guess is 
about 60 nm (+/- 45 nm).  Because of this, it is also unsure whether the ship 
was near the RMW at the time it measured the 60 kt.  The ship on the 19th which 
reported the 60 kt wind does appear to be reporting its position to the nearest 
0.1 degree latitude and longitude, but only one measurement was reported on 
that date.  The cyclone on the 19th was undergoing extratropical transition on 
that date and it may very well be the case that the 60 kt was observed about 
60 nm from the TC’s center near the RMW in the right front (strong) quadrant of 
the system.  Thus 60 kt is retained as the peak intensity for this system, 
though it is quite possible that this system reached hurricane intensity at 
some point during its lifetime.  Peak intensity of this cyclone is reanalyzed 
to be 60 kt (down from 80 kt originally), based upon fairly extensive ship 
observations available from the 17th through the 19th.  The cyclone is now 
listed as becoming extratropical at 18Z on the 19th with dissipation along a 
frontal boundary by 12Z on the 20th.

*******************************************************************************

1929/05 - 2010 ADDITION:

25081 10/19/1929 M= 5  5 SNBR= 559 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0

(The original best track entries below were part of original storm #3, 
which is now recognized to be two separate systems.)

25081 10/19*309 489  70    0*303 490  70    0*297 489  75    0*291 488  75    0
25081 10/19*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*265 515  30    0*265 509  30    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

25081 10/20*286 486  75    0*281 484  75    0*276 479  80    0*278 473  80    0
25081 10/20*265 503  35    0*265 497  40    0*267 490  45    0*275 480  50    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

25081 10/21*289 465  80    0*305 456  80    0*323 452  80    0*341 461  75    0
25081 10/21*288 468  55    0*306 456  60    0*327 452  65    0*347 456  70    0
            *** ***  **      ***      **      ***      **      *** ***  **

25081 10/22*360 470  70    0E380 471  70    0E403 474  65    0E418 466  65    0
25081 10/22*365 461  70    0E384 467  70    0E403 474  65    0E420 479  60    0
            *** ***          *** ***                           *** ***  **

(The 23rd is new to HURDAT.)
25081 10/23E435 480  50    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0

25081 HR                    

This is hurricane is not specifically new, as its track for the 19th to the 
22nd was originally in HURDAT.  However, the reanalysis has indicated that 
the original storm #3 (new storm #4) was instead two separate tropical cyclones.  
Major alterations are introduced to the track and to the intensity shown in 
Neumann et al. (1999).  Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical 
Weather Map series, the COADS ship database, and Monthly Weather Review.  

October 19: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 34N,
52W.  HURDAT listed this as a 75 kt hurricane at 29.7N, 48.9W.  Available
observations suggest that the tropical depression was centered at 26.5N,
51.5W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.  Regarding the intensity:
"From the 19th to the 22nd the region between the Bermudas and Azores was
swept by a severe disturbance, the wind reaching hurricane force at times"
(MWR).

October 20: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 27N,
49W.  HURDAT listed this as an 80 kt hurricane at 27.6N, 47.9W.  
Ship highlights: 10 kt NE and 1006 mb at 12 UTC at 27.0N 52.0W.

October 21: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 28N,
47W.  HURDAT listed this as an 80 kt hurricane at 32.3N, 45.2W.  Ship highlights: 
70 kt S at 35.1N, 43.7W (MWR); 60 kt and 997 mb at 22 UTC at 36.0N, 46.0W (MWR); 
45 kt NNW and 1000 mb at 23 UTC at 36.5N, 46.5W (COA).  
Several other gales starting at 12 UTC.  One other low pressure.

October 22: HWM analyzes an elongated closed low of at most 1010 mb embedded
in an occluded front centered near 42N, 47W.  HURDAT listed this as a 65 kt
extratropical low at 40.3N, 47.4W.  Ship highlights: 50 kt SSE and 1000
mb at 12 UTC at 40.7N, 45.3W (COA); 50 kt SW at 12 UTC at 40.6N, 44.0W (COA).
No other gales.  No other low pressures.

October 23: HWM analyzes an area of low pressure associated with a frontal
system located near 43N, 42W.  HURDAT did not previously list this system on
this day.  Ship highlights: None.

Genesis for this system is begun as a tropical depression at 12Z on the 19th, 
as troughing extending southward from the existing storm #4 (originally storm #3) 
closed off around 26.5N 51.5W.  The revised track had large alterations on the 
19th and early on the 20th with smaller changes late on the 20th until the 22nd.  
No gales were observed on the 19th and 20th, though observations were typically 
sparse over the open North Atlantic.  It is estimated that the system became a 
tropical storm early on the 20th and gradually intensified.  Two ships late on 
the 21st indicated significant strengthening occurred with this cyclone:  
60 kt with 997 mb at 22Z and 70 kt (no time).  It is analyzed that hurricane 
intensity was reached around 12Z on the 21st.  Peak intensity is reanalyzed to 
reach 70 kt early on the 22nd.  This is less than the 80 kt on the 20th and 21st 
as previously shown in HURDAT for original storm #3, though direct comparisons 
are problematic as it was not previously realized that there were two separate 
systems.  The cyclone underwent extratropical transition on the 22nd, which was 
not altered from that shown in HURDAT.  The final position for this system is 
analyzed to be at 00Z on the 23rd, six hours later than originally in HURDAT.

*******************************************************************************

1929 - Additional Notes

1) The May 1930 MWR had a short article (page 210) that discussed some Atlantic 
basin tropical cyclones that began in the Northeast Pacific and crossed central 
America.  One such system listed was September 14-22, 1929.  Michael Chenoweth 
had also suggested that this system was one worth investigation based upon station 
reports from Montserrat and Belize.  HWM, COADS, and MWR Ocean Gales indicate 
the following occurred:  Sep 9th – a strong tropical wave passed through the 
Lesser Antilles.  Sep 10th – system became a tropical depression in the central 
Caribbean.  Sep 11th – system continued slowly westward in the Caribbean.  
Sep 12th – system continued slowly westward in the Caribbean and at the same 
time a Northeast Pacific hurricane was occurring based upon MWR Ocean Gales 
reports near 16N 100W.  Sep 13th – system was inland over Central America as 
a tropical depression while the NE Pacific hurricane moved toward the 
west-northwest and was near 17N 104W.  Sep 14th – system was either over 
Central America or in the extreme northwestern Caribbean as a tropical depression, 
while the NE Pacific hurricane was near 18N 106W slowly moving west-northwestward.  
Also a substantial monsoonal west to southwesterly flow was being established west 
of Central America.  A low indicated by HWM near 11N 79W does not appear to be 
realistic.  Sep. 15th – the system was over Central America as a tropical depression.  
The NE Pacific hurricane was near 20N 109W, moving toward the northwest.  Note 
that the two low pressures shown by the HWM are in error and instead a single 
low (the tropical depression) was centered somewhere between these.  Sep. 16th 
– the system was over Central America and may still have been a tropical 
depression, while the monsoonal flow south of Mexico intensified.  The NE Pacific 
hurricane was near 23N 109W, moving northward.  Sep. 17th – the system may have 
dissipated by this date or possibly have reached near the Bay of Campeche.  
The NE Pacific system likely had weakened to a tropical storm centered near 28N 115W.  
Highest observed winds with the Atlantic system was 30 kt on the 16th and lowest 
observed pressures were 1005 mb on the 15th and 16th.  It is quite possible that 
this system did become a tropical storm, anytime between the 12th and 16th.  
However, without direct supporting evidence of tropical storm intensity, this 
system cannot be added into HURDAT.

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Sep  9 --- 65W Tropical Wave
Sep 10 13N 71W Tropical Depression
Sep 11 13N 75W Tropical Depression
Sep 12 13N 79W Tropical Depression
Sep 13 14N 84W Tropical Depression inland
Sep 14 16N 88W Tropical Depression inland?
Sep 15 17N 90W Tropical Depression inland
Sep 16 18N 91W Tropical Depression inland
Sep 17 19N 93W Tropical Depression?
Sep 18 --- --- Dissipated


2) The July Monthly Weather Review mentions a low pressure area that caused a 
small-scale heavy rain event at Cape Hatteras on 21 July.  The July Cyclone Tracks 
Maps shows the low came up to the Hatteras area from the south.  The Historical 
Weather Map series shows that this system was a short-lived frontal low without 
any tropical storm force winds.

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Jul 20 29N 77W Extratropical Low
Jul 21 33N 76W Extratropical Low


3) The August Monthly Weather Review mentions a tropical disturbance of “limited 
extent and intensity” that was near St. Lucia on 19 August and northwest of Grand 
Cayman on 22 August.  The Historical Weather Map series shows that this system was 
a moderate tropical wave moving across the Caribbean.  However, on the four days 
that the system was evident, there was no evidence of a closed low.

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Aug 19 --- 65W Tropical Wave
Aug 20 --- 72W Tropical Wave
Aug 21 --- 78W Tropical Wave
Aug 22 --- 83W Tropical Wave


4) The August Monthly Weather Review Cyclone Tracks Map shows a low that formed 
in the Gulf of Mexico on 27 August and moved northeast across Florida into the 
Atlantic.  There is no other mention of this system, which suggests it was not 
very strong.  The Historical Weather Map series shows that this system was an 
open trough on the 27th and 28th of August.  It did form a closed low on the 29th 
when it was off of the Georgia coast, but the system by then was embedded in a 
frontal boundary and considered extratropical.  No gales were observed from the 
27th through the 29th.  

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Aug 27 --- 83W Trough
Aug 28 --- 81W Trough
Aug 29 31N 77W Extratropical Low
Aug 30 36N 70W Extratropical Low
Aug 31 42N 61W Extratropical Low


5) HWM and MWR indicate that convection behind a cold front off the southeast
coast of the US on the 19th formed an elongated closed low on the 21st along
the front.  On the 22nd, the low was much tighter, and it was at the
west-southwest end of a WSW-ENE stationary front.  There were many gales to the
north of the center, a few to nearly hurricane force on this day, however, there
was a large temperature gradient across the low, and the high winds were
associated with an extremely tight pressure gradient just north of the low.
Thus, this system will not be added into HURDAT.  
        The next day, the low was gone, but the front stayed in the northwest
Atlantic and would not go away.  A few days later, a new low formed on this
front and became a tropical storm, not previously documented in HURDAT.  This
tropical storm will be presented as a 1929 tropical storm suspect.

DAY LAT LON STATUS
Sep 21 30N 76W Extratropical
Sep 22 33N 75W Extratropical


6) HWM and COADS indicate that a tropical depression formed on the 21st just
south of the Cape Verde Islands.  Available observations indicate that as the
system traveled west, it maintained a closed circulation until the 26th, but
then dissipated.  However, on the 25th there is no data indicating that there
was a closed circulation.  There were no gales with this system.  Thus, this
system will not be added to HURDAT.

DAY LAT LON STATUS
Sep 21 13N 21W Tropical Depression
Sep 22 14N 26W Tropical Depression
Sep 23 15N 31W Tropical Depression
Sep 24 15N 36W Tropical Depression
Sep 25 15N 41W Tropical Depression? 
Sep 26 16N 47W Tropical Depression
Sep 27 Dissipated


7) HWM and COADS indicate that a series of two lows formed in the Gulf of Mexico 
in late September.  The first formed in the eastern Gulf of Mexico on the 22nd.  
There were no observed gales associated with this system.  However, north of this 
low, the pressure gradient was tight – especially on the 22nd – so there may have 
been gales that occurred.  Additionally, even though the Historical Weather Map 
analysis did not depict any frontal boundaries, significant baroclinicity across 
the Gulf was present from the 21st to the 25th.  This weak low moved west-southwestward 
and likely opened up to a trough on the 25h.  Also on the 25th, a second low developed 
along the frontal boundary in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.  This short-lived low 
dissipated the next day.  These two lows likely remained extratropical throughout their 
lifetime (and the second very likely had no gale force winds) and thus neither will be 
added to HURDAT.

DAY LAT LON STATUS
Sep 21 --- 87W Open trough/frontal boundary
Sep 22 25N 89W Extratropical low
Sep 23 24N 92W Extratropical low 
Sep 24 23N 94W Extratropical low
Sep 25 --- 94W Open Trough and 28N 88W Extratropical low


8) HWM, MWR and COADS indicate that a trough associated with an area of
convection near the Bahamas formed a tropical depression on the 14th.  The low
became elongated on the 15th.  There were no gales observed with this system.
Thus, this system will not be added to HURDAT.

DAY LAT LON STATUS
Oct 13 Open trough
Oct 14 27N 73W Tropical Depression
Oct 15 30N 70W Extratropical


9) HWM, MWR, and COADS indicate that a tropical cyclone formed in the 
Western Caribbean Sea, crossed western Cuba and hit southwest Florida.  
Ramon Perez of the Cuban Climate Institute indicated that this system 
was of tropical depression intensity while crossing Cuba early on the 
21st.  The Climatological Data for Florida was obtained for October 
1929 to better examine this system.  The US Weather Bureau had six 
official stations, the closest to this system being Key West and Miami.  
Neither reported tropical storm force winds, though Key West did reach 
a minimum sea level pressure for the month of 1005 mb on the 21st.  
Such a low pressure would often be accompanied by tropical storm 
intensity winds.  However, as the system was in the warm sector of a 
large, developing extratropical system, the environmental pressures 
were quite low (roughly 1007 mb outer closed isobar).  There were also 
a few dozen cooperative observing stations in Florida as well, but none 
of these had barometric pressure or wind observation readings recorded.  
No significant impacts from this system were noted in the Climatological 
Data and it is likely that the system did not reach tropical storm 
intensity over Florida.  Late on the 21st, the depression was absorbed 
in the frontal boundary of a strong extratropical storm system, which 
was moving east from the Great Plains over Georgia.  The combined system 
moved north on the 22nd and northwest on the 23rd, and the low rapidly 
deepened to 986 mb (MWR).  This system killed 50 people on a boat on Lake 
Michigan on the night of the 23rd.  This system will not be added to 
HURDAT, as the tropicalcyclone likely did not obtain tropical storm intensity.

DAY LAT LON STATUS
Oct 18 17N 86W Tropical Depression
Oct 19 18N 83W Tropical Depression
Oct 20 20N 83W Tropical Depression
Oct 21 24N 82W Tropical Depression


10) HWM and COADS indicate that a low developed near the Leeward Islands on the
30th and moved northeast.  Available observations indicate that the system
briefly became a depression on the 2nd before turning extratropical.  There
were no gales observed with this system.  Thus, this system will not be added
to HURDAT.

DAY LAT LON STATUS
Oct 30 Open Trough
Oct 31 15N 58W Tropical Depression?
Nov 1 15N 55W Tropical Depression?
Nov 2 16N 51W Tropical Depression
Nov 3 20N 48W Extratropical
Nov 4 22N 51W Extratropical 
Nov 5 29N 55W Tropical Depression

*******************************************************************************


1930/01 - 2010 REVISION:

25085 08/21/1930 M=11  1 SNBR= 559 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
25085 08/21/1930 M=12  1 SNBR= 559 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
                   **

25090 08/21*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*196 515  35    0
25090 08/21*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*206 545  45    0
                                                               *** ***  **

25095 08/22*208 551  35    0*210 558  35    0*213 566  35    0*215 572  35    0
25095 08/22*208 551  50    0*210 558  55    0*213 566  55    0*215 572  55    0
                     **               **               **               **

25100 08/23*217 577  40    0*219 580  40    0*222 584  40    0*224 588  45    0
25100 08/23*217 577  55    0*218 580  55    0*219 583  55    0*219 586  55    0
                     **      ***      **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

25105 08/24*226 592  50    0*228 595  50    0*230 600  55    0*233 606  55    0
25105 08/24*219 588  60    0*220 591  65    0*222 595  70    0*228 602  80    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

25110 08/25*237 612  60    0*243 618  65    0*251 624  70    0*263 634  80    0
25110 08/25*238 610  90    0*249 619 100    0*260 627 105    0*271 635 110    0
            *** ***  **      *** *** ***      *** *** ***      *** *** ***

25115 08/26*281 645  85    0*299 654  95    0*314 658  95    0*324 658  95    0
25115 08/26*283 643 110    0*297 652 110    0*314 658 110    0*330 660 105    0
            *** *** ***      *** *** ***              ***      *** *** ***

25120 08/27*332 658  90    0*339 657  90    0E349 653  85    0E366 642  85    0
25120 08/27*344 658 100    0*357 650  95    0*370 640  90    0*383 623  85    0
            ***     ***      *** ***  **     **** ***  **     **** ***

25125 08/28E385 620  80    0E402 595  80    0E416 550  80    0E421 513  75    0
25125 08/28*395 604  85    0E406 583  85    0E416 560  85    0E420 530  85    0
           **** ***  **      *** ***  **          ***  **      *** ***  **

25130 08/29E425 475  75    0E425 437  70    0E423 400  70    0E418 363  65    0
25130 08/29E422 490  80    0E423 440  80    0E423 375  75    0E423 325  75    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **          ***  **      *** ***  **

25135 08/30E411 326  65    0E404 290  65    0E397 255  60    0E390 235  60    0
25135 08/30E423 295  75    0E424 275  70    0E425 260  70    0E425 253  65    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

25140 08/31E385 219  60    0E381 211  60    0E379 206  60    0*  0   0   0    0
25140 08/31E425 250  60    0E425 249  55    0E425 250  50    0*427 255  50    0
            *** ***          *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

(The 1st to the 3rd are new to HURDAT.)
25142 09/01E430 260  55    0E433 264  60    0E435 265  60    0E437 266  55    0
25143 09/02E439 266  50    0E442 266  45    0E445 265  40    0E450 260  35    0
25144 09/03E460 250  30    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0

25145 HR                    

Major changes to the track and to the intensity shown in Neumann et al. (1999).  
Dissipation of this system is now indicated to be three days later.  Evidence for 
these changes comes from the Historical Weather Map series, the COADS ship 
database, and Monthly Weather Review.

August 21: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  HURDAT first listed
this at 18 UTC as a 35 kt tropical storm at 19.6N, 51.5W.  
No gales or low pressure were observed.

August 22: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  HURDAT listed this
as a 35 kt tropical storm at 21.3N, 56.6W.  Ship highlights: 50 kt SSW and 
1006 mb at 05 UTC at 21.3N, 56.0W (MWR); 35 kt SE and 1013 mb at 06 UTC at 
21.5N, 53.5W (COA).  No other gales.  No low pressures.

August 23: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  HURDAT listed this
as a 40 kt tropical storm at 22.2N, 58.4W.  Ship highlights:
35 kt E and 1012 mb at 12 UTC at 23.4N, 58.4W (COA); 35 kt SE at 12 UTC at
23.0N, 56.0W (COA).  No other gales.  No low pressures.

August 24: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 19N,
59W.  HURDAT listed this as a 55 kt tropical storm at 23.0N, 60.0W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

August 25: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 25N,
62W.  HURDAT listed this as a 70 kt hurricane at 25.1N, 62.4W.  
Ship highlights: 70 kt NE and 960 mb at 20 UTC at 27.5N, 63.7W (COA); 70 kt NE
and 963 mb at 19 UTC at 27.3N, 63.5W (COA); 60 kt NE and 999 mb at 16 UTC at
27.3N, 63.3W (COA).  A few other gales.  No other low pressures.  Regarding
the intensity: "At 3:30 pm, the wind had shifted to southwest (from
northeast), force 12, barometer 28.36 inches [960 mb]; precipitous seas"
(MWR).

August 26: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 31N,
65W.  HURDAT listed this as a 95 kt hurricane at 31.4N, 65.8W.  
Ship highlights: 70 kt W and 995 mb at 00 UTC at 27.8N, 63.8W (COA); 35 kt E
at 00 UTC at 29.1N, 61.6W (COA).  No other gales.  No low pressures.

August 27: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb embedded in an
occluded front centered near 35.5N, 66.5W.  HURDAT listed this as an 85 kt
extratropical low at 34.9N, 65.3W.  Ship highlights: 70 kt N and 972 mb 
at 18 UTC at 38.8N, 62.5W (MWR); 45 kt SSE and 1007 mb at 12 UTC at 
38.7N, 61.0W (COA); 35 kt ESE and 999 mb at 12 UTC at 38.7N, 62.9W (COA).  
No other gales or low pressures.

August 28: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb embedded in an
occluded front centered near 43N, 52.5W.  HURDAT listed this as an 80 kt
extratropical low at 41.6N, 55.0W.  Ship highlights: 70 kt SW and 965 mb 
at 14 UTC at 41.3N, 53.1W (MWR); 70 kt S and 971 mb at 21 UTC at
41.5N, 48.0W (MWR); 70 kt N and 978 mb at 10 UTC at 41.0N, 57.2W (MWR).
Several other strong gales (45-70 kts).  Several other low pressures from
965-1001 mb.  Regarding the intensity: "By the morning of the 28th the center
had reached latitude 41.5N, longitude 55W, and near here the French liner
Paris was heavily involved.  Captain Pugnet stated that the wind reached a
velocity of 100 miles an hour and the barometer fell from 30.08 inches [1019
mb] to 28.58 inches [968 mb] in a few hours.  According to press reports the
ship was struck by one tremendous wave that smashed heavy glass along the port
promenade and injured about 40 passengers, who were struck by flying glass"
(MWR).

August 29: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb embedded in an
occluded front centered near 42N, 39W.  HURDAT listed this as a 70 kt
extratropical low at 42.3N, 40.0W.  Ship highlights: 70 kt N
and 995 mb at 15 UTC at 41.1N, 32.6W (MWR); 35 kt SSW and 986 mb at 03 UTC at
41.5N, 43.5W (COA); 45 kt NNE and 992 mb at 07 UTC at 41.5N, 42.5W (COA).
Several other gales.  A few other low pressures.

August 30: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1015 mb at the northeast end
of a SW-NE front centered near 42N, 25W.  HURDAT listed this as a 60 kt
extratropical low at 39.7N, 25.5W.  Ship highlights: 70 kt
SW and 980 mb at 12 UTC at 42.0N, 24.0W (COA); 35 kt SW and 975 mb at 22 UTC
at 42.9N, 25.7W (MWR); 70 kt SW and 974 mb at 05 UTC at 41.3N, 22.9W (MWR).
Several other strong gales (45-70 kt).  Several other low pressures.
Regarding the intensity: "From this time until the morning of the 30th the
course of the hurricane was almost due east, and at Greenwich noon of that
date it had reached longitude 22.5W, still exhibiting hurricane strength"
(MWR).

August 31: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1015 mb centered near 40N,
25W.  HURDAT listed this as a 60 kt extratropical low at 37.0N, 20.6W.
Ship highlights: 25 kt SW and 992 mb at 12 UTC at 41.5N,
23.0W (COA).  No gales.  No other low pressures.

September 1: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 41N,
24.5W.  HURDAT did not previously list this system on this day.  
Ship highlights: 60 kt NE at 06 UTC at 43.5N, 28.5W (COA); 10 kt NW
and 988 mb at 06 UTC 43.5N, 26.5W (COA); 50 kt NE at 02 UTC at 44.5N 27.5W (COA).  
Several other strong gales between 45-50 kt.  
Several other low pressures between 993-1001 mb.

September 2:  HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 
45N, 27W with an approaching cold front west of the cyclone.  Ship highlights:  
35 kt NNE at 02 UTC at 42.5N 31.5W (COA); 35 kt WNW and 1007 mb at 02 UTC at 
40.5N 30.5W (COA); 35 kt SW and 1006 mb at 02 UTC at 40.5N 24.5W (COA); 
20 kt SE and 996 mb at 10 UTC at 44.5N 26.5W (COA).

September 3:  HWM analyzes two closed lows – one with at most 1005 mb pressure 
centered at 48.5N 22.5W and one with at most 1000 mb pressure centered near 
56N 33W – with a cold front extending southwestward from the first low.  
No gale force winds were observed.
  
No changes were made to the start of this system, though the initial position 
was substantially adjusted to provide a realistic initial motion.  All dates, 
except the 22nd, have alterations made to the track, with other large changes 
made on the 27th, and 29th through the 31st as an extratropical storm.  Winds 
substantially boosted to 55 kt (from 35 kt originally) at 06Z on the 22nd, 
based upon 50 kt SSW winds from the S.S. Chincha on the south side of the 
cyclone.  Winds are also boosted at the start of this system (from 35 to 45 kt 
at 18Z on the 21st) because of this ship.  (The start of the cyclone in the 
database is unchanged, but genesis could have actually occurred on the 21st, 
20th or even earlier over the relatively data void region of the eastern 
tropical Atlantic.)  Three days later, the same ship again encountered the 
system and recorded hurricane force winds between 19Z on the 25th and 00Z 
on the 26th, along with 960 mb (with NE winds 70 kt) at 20Z on the 25th.  
960 mb suggests winds of at least 95 kt from the Brown et al. north of 25N 
pressure-wind relationship and 100 kt from the subset of intensifying systems.  
Winds are chosen to be 110 kt at 18Z on the 25th, a major increase from the 
80 kt originally recorded.  Winds are also adjusted accordingly earlier in 
time to indicate a transition to hurricane intensity at 06Z on the 24th, 
24 hours earlier than originally shown.  110 kt is now the peak intensity 
of the hurricane on the 25th and 26th, up from 95 kt originally on the 26th.  
The S.S. Endicott reported 70 kt N winds with 972 mb pressure at 18Z on the 27th.  
This suggests winds of at least 80 kt from the north of 35N pressure-wind 
relationship.  Winds of 85 kt at this time are retained in HURDAT.  
Despite the HWM showing frontal boundaries extending from the cyclone at 
12Z on the 27th, the temperature gradient is quite small at that time though 
the wind field was becoming asymmetric.  Extratropical transition is delayed 
18 hours from that originally shown in HURDAT to 06Z on the 28th.  Multiple 
reports of hurricane force winds on the 28th to the 30th as an extratropical 
cyclone.  Only a very gradual weakening is now shown in HURDAT, with hurricane 
force winds retained until 18Z on the 30th, 12 hours later than originally 
indicated in HURDAT.  The cyclone finally began filling on the 31st, but 
reinvigorated on the 1st and was near hurricane force again.  The system 
weakened again – for the final time – on the second and was absorbed by a 
new extratropical cyclone after 00Z on the 3rd.   

*******************************************************************************

1930/02 - 2010 REVISION:

25150 08/31/1930 M=18  2 SNBR= 560 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0
25150 08/29/1930 M=20  2 SNBR= 560 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0
         **        **

(The 29th and the 30th are new to HURDAT.)
25152 08/29*128 435  30    0*129 448  30    0*130 460  30    0*131 473  30    0
25152 08/30*135 485  30    0*135 498  35    0*136 510  40    0*137 522  45    0

25155 08/31*159 541  60    0*158 549  60    0*156 558  65    0*155 568  65    0
25155 08/31*138 534  50    0*140 546  60    0*142 558  65    0*144 571  65    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***          ***              *** ***

25160 09/01*155 579  70    0*155 591  75    0*156 603  80    0*159 617  85    0
25160 09/01*146 584  70    0*149 596  75    0*152 608  80    0*156 620  85    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

25165 09/02*163 632  90    0*169 648  95    0*173 661 100    0*175 669 105    0
25165 09/02*162 632  90    0*166 643  95    0*170 653 100    0*173 663 100    0
            ***              *** ***          *** ***          *** *** ***

25170 09/03*176 674 110    0*177 678 115    0*180 687 120    0*184 700 130  933
25170 09/03*176 673 100    0*179 683 110    0*182 692 120    0*184 700 135  933
                *** ***      *** *** ***      *** ***                  ***

25175 09/04*188 713  60    0*192 725  60    0*196 738  55    0*200 750  50    0
25175 09/04*186 710  80    0*188 722  60    0*190 735  55    0*192 749  50    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

25180 09/05*205 763  45    0*209 775  45    0*213 787  40    0*217 799  40    0
25180 09/05*194 763  45    0*197 777  45    0*200 790  40    0*203 803  40    0
            ***              *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

25185 09/06*221 812  35    0*225 824  35    0*229 836  35    0*233 841  35    0
25185 09/06*207 816  35    0*213 828  35    0*220 838  35    0*227 844  35    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

25190 09/07*238 842  35    0*242 848  35    0*247 849  35    0*252 848  35    0
25190 09/07*234 847  35    0*241 848  35    0*247 849  35    0*251 848  35    0
            *** ***          ***                               ***      

25195 09/08*257 847  35    0*262 845  35    0*267 842  35    0*272 838  35    0
25195 09/08*254 847  35    0*257 846  35    0*260 845  35    0*264 842  35    0
            ***              *** ***          *** ***          *** ***    

25200 09/09*276 833  35    0*280 828  35    0*284 824  35    0*287 820  35    0
25200 09/09*268 837  40    0*273 830  40    0*278 824  35    0*283 820  30    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      ***              ***      **

25205 09/10*290 816  35    0*292 812  35    0*295 808  35    0*298 804  40    0
25205 09/10*288 816  30    0*292 812  30    0*295 808  35    0*297 804  40    0
            ***      **               **                       ***

25210 09/11*302 799  40    0*306 795  45    0*310 790  45    0*315 784  50    0
25210 09/11*299 801  40    0*301 798  45    0*303 795  45    0*307 791  50    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

25215 09/12*321 778  55    0*327 770  65    0*334 762  65    0*343 753  70    0
25215 09/12*313 786  60    0*321 780  70    0*330 772  80    0*340 763  80    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

25220 09/13*353 740  70    0*362 728  75    0*367 717  80    0*370 696  80    0
25220 09/13*351 752  80    0*363 738  80    0*372 720  80    0*375 700  80    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***          *** ***

25225 09/14*370 675  85    0*370 652  85    0*371 630  85    0*372 608  85    0
25225 09/14*375 679  85    0*372 657  85    0*368 635  85    0*367 612  85    0
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  

25230 09/15*373 585  80    0*373 563  80    0*374 540  75    0*374 518  70    0
25230 09/15*369 589  80    0*374 565  80    0*380 540  75    0*382 518  70    0
            *** ***          *** ***          ***              ***      

25235 09/16*373 495  60    0*372 473  60    0*370 451  55    0*368 433  50    0
25235 09/16*379 495  60    0*375 473  50    0*370 451  45    0*367 429  40    0
            ***              ***      **               **      *** ***  **

25240 09/17*367 420  45    0*366 411  40    0*363 400  35    0*356 370  30    0
25240 09/17*365 407  35    0*364 384  30    0*363 360  30    0*362 335  30    0
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **          ***  **      *** ***

25245 HR                    

U.S. Tropical Storms:
-------------------------------------------------
#/Date         Time  Lat    Lon    Max  States
                                   Wind Affected
9/9/1930       0900Z 27.5N  82.7W  40kt  FL
9/13/1930      0000Z 35.1N  75.2W  60kt  NC  (time of closest point of approach)

Major changes to the track and to the intensity shown in Neumann et al. (1999).  
Genesis is now indicated to have begun two days earlier than shown in HURDAT. 
Evidence for these changes comes from the Historical Weather Map series, the COADS 
ship database, Monthly Weather Review, the Original Monthly Records, Climatological 
Data – Florida and North Carolina Sections, Connor (1956), Dunn and Miller (1960), 
and Perez et al. (2000).

August 25: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  HURDAT did not
previously list this system on this day.  Ship highlights:
No gales or low pressures.

August 26: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  Ship highlights:  No gales or low pressures.

August 27: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  Ship highlights:  No gales or low pressures.

August 28: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  Ship highlights:  No gales or low pressures.

August 29: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  Ship highlights:  No gales or low pressures.

August 30: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

August 31: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  HURDAT listed this
as a 65 kt hurricane at 15.6N, 55.8W.  Ship highlights: No gales or
low pressures.

September 1: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 16N,
59.8W.  HURDAT listed this as an 80 kt hurricane at 15.6N, 60.3W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.  “There was no ship in the Atlantic 
near enough to report the formation of this storm to the east of the Lesser 
Antilles, so the first intimation obtainable was in the regular morning reports 
of the Weather Bureau observers from Barbados to Dominica [on the 1st], each 
showing a barometer reading only slightly below normal, but a wind circulation 
decidedly abnormal.  The directions ranged from north at Dominica, through 
northwest and west, to south at Barbados…It was over or very near Dominica at 
noon of the first…Wind velocities, estimated by those acquainted by long 
experience in these areas, vary from 80 to 100 [mph] at Dominica” (MWR).

September 2: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 17N,
65.5W.  HURDAT listed this as an 100 kt hurricane at 17.3N, 66.1W.  
Ship highlights: 35 kt SE at 12 UTC at 17.0N, 64.6W (COA); 35 kt E and 1008 mb
at 20 UTC at 18.5N, 66.5W (COA).  No other gales.  No low pressures.

September 3: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near 17N,
69W.  HURDAT listed this as a 120 kt hurricane at 18.0N, 68.7W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones shows a center near 17.5N, 69W with a 938 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: 50 kt SE at 12 UTC at 17.7N, 68.0W
(COA); 938 mb at 17 UTC at 18.2N, 69.8W (MWR); 35 kt SE and 1009 mb at 13 UTC
at 17.5N, 68.5W (COA).  Land highlights: 933 mb at Santo Domingo, DR (MWR, Connor). 
Regarding the intensity: A copy of a barograph trace, made by the instrument 
in charge of Mr. A. Ortori, observer at Santo Domingo, recorded a minimum 
pressure of 27.56 inches [933 mb] (MWR).  "While the storm was estimated to 
be of relatively small diameter, no direct evidence was obtainable of this 
detail until it had passed over Santo Domingo City on the 3rd.  Authentic 
reports place the destructive diameter at less than 20 miles…The Pan American 
Airways anemometer near by is reported to have recorded up to 180 miles per 
hour before it was carried away.  This instrument is a 4-cup Robinson, so its 
record must be discounted.  Wind velocities, estimated by those acquainted by 
long experienced in these areas, vary from…150 to 200 miles per hour
at Santo Domingo" (MWR).  "In Santo Domingo... 4,000 lives were lost and
property damage has been roughly estimated at $50,000,000" (MWR).  Pertaining
to ship reports from the 'Coamo': "At 9:30 am the Coamo was 5 miles southeast
of the city of Santo Domingo.  The harbor was too rough to venture for
anchorage.  At 11:30 am the pressure reached 29.45 inches [997 mb].  The wind
had attained a velocity of 125 mph.  At noon, the barometer registered 28.22
[956 mb], having fallen 1.23 inches [42 millibars] in 30 minutes.  The wind
was now blowing 150 mph.  At 12:25 pm the ship was in a calm.  Captain Evans
estimated the low point as 27.65 inches [936 mb] (although the lowest directly
measured was 27.70 inches [938 mb] at 1:01 pm.  A 1:25 pm a velocity of 150
mph was again experienced" (MWR).

September 4: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 18.5N,
76W.  HURDAT listed this as a 55 kt tropical storm at 19.6N, 73.8W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones showed a center near 19.2N, 72.5W with an 1008
mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 45 kt SE and 1012 mb at 17 UTC at
20.1N, 73.6W (COA); 35 kt ESE (MWR).  No other gales.  No low pressures.

September 5: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 18N,
81.5W.  HURDAT listed this as a 40 kt tropical storm at 21.3N, 78.7W.  The MWR
Tracks for Centers of Cyclones showed a center near 20.5N, 76W with an 1011 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.
Regarding the intensity: "After leaving the northwestern corner of Haiti
during the early night of the 4th, the tropical disturbance, which was now of
minor intensity, crossed the Windward Passage and moved west-northwest almost
the entire length of Cuba, passing into the Gulf of Mexico on the 6th.  No
damage has been reported from Cuba" (MWR).

September 6: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  HURDAT listed
this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 22.9N, 83.6W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of
Cyclones showed a center near 21N, 80W with an 1011 mb pressure.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.  
“September 6, Tropical Storm in Cuba” (Perez et al. 2000).

September 7: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day.  HURDAT listed
this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 24.7N, 84.9W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of
Cyclones showed a center near 22N, 83W, with an 1012 mb pressure.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 8: HWM does not analyze a closed low, but analyzes a SW-NE front
with the southwest end near 25N, 85W.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical
storm at 26.7N, 84.2W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones showed a center
near 24.8N, 84.8W with an 1011 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: No
gales or low pressures.

September 9: HWM analyzes a open low embedded in a front near 31N, 79W.
HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 28.4N, 82.4W.  The MWR Tracks
for Centers of Cyclones showed a center near 27.2N, 83W, with an 1011 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: 35 kt SSE at 21 UTC at 27.5N, 80.5W (COA).  No
other gales.  No low pressures.  Land highlights: 32 kt SE and 1006 mb at 09
UTC at Tampa, FL (Tampa OMR).  No gales or low pressures.  “The center of 
disturbance apparently what was left of the Santo Domingo storm, passed inland 
from the Gulf some distance south of Tampa, about 4 a.m. of the 9th, when the 
lowest barometer occurred 29.71.  Winds backed SE, E, NE, N, NW, W, SW.  
No damage was done by wind, but considerable by heavy rains in the southwestern 
part of Hillsborough County.  Newspaper estimates of damages $35,000 to crops 
and farms, $15,000 to roads and bridges” (Tampa OMR).  "The center passed inland 
over Florida near Tampa about 4 am [08 UTC] of the 9th" (MWR).  “Sep. 9-10, 
Northern Florida peninsula, Minor Intensity” (Dunn and Miller – “Minor” 
indicates tropical storm intensity).  “Damaging rains occurred over the 
southeast portion of Hillsboro County during the early morning of the 9th, 
as a greatly weakened tropical disturbance passed to the south and east of Tampa 
in its march northeastward, the torrential rains, approximating 8 to 9 inches 
over small areas, being the only evidence, however, that such a disturbance 
prevailed.  The winds were moderate to strong at Tampa, the rainfall was light, 
and the lowest barometer was 29.70 inches about 4 a. m. on the 9th.  Press 
reports indicated that the damage to highways, bridges, inundated fields and 
crops, - chiefly, on overflowed low lands and mainly to truck, approximated 
$75,000; the citrus crop sustained no serious damage” 
(Climatological Data - Florida).

September 10: HWM analyzes a trough of low pressure near 32N, 78W.  HURDAT
listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 29.5N, 80.8W.  The MWR Tracks for
Centers of Cyclones showed a center near 29N, 81.5W with an 1012 mb pressure.
Ship highlights: 35 kt SSE (Atlantic side of FL) (MWR).  No other gales.  No
low pressures.

September 11: HWM analyzes a weak closed low embedded in an occluded front
centered near 29.5N, 79W.  HURDAT listed this as a 45 kt tropical storm
centered at 31.0N, 79.0W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones showed a
center near 30.3N, 79.7W with an 1013 mb pressure.  Ship
highlights: No gales or low pressures.  Regarding the intensity: "The
steamship J. Fletcher Farrell which was east-southeast of the center during
the afternoon of the 11th reported heavy squalls with wind from the south-east
reaching gale force at times" (MWR).

September 12: HWM analyzes a low, not closed, embedded in an occluded front
near 33N, 77W.  HURDAT listed this as a 65 kt hurricane at 33.4N, 76.2W.  The
MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones showed a center near 32.5N, 77.5W with a
978 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 70 kt and 978 mb at 12 UTC at
33.8N, 77.9W (MWR); 35 kt SSW and 1012 mb at 12 UTC at 32.3N, 76.4W (COA); 984
mb at 07 UTC at 35.5N, 75.2W (MWR).  No other gales or low pressures.  Land
highlights: 31 kt E and 997 mb at 22 UTC at Cape Hatteras, NC at 35.2N, 75.7W
(MWR); 52 kt NE and 995 mb at 23 UTC at Cape Hatteras, NC at 35.2N, 75.7W
(MWR).  No other gales.  One other low pressure.  Regarding the intensity: "At
9:30 am [1330 UTC] the steamship Magmeric off Frying Pan Shoals reported a
pressure of 29.21 inches [989 mb], and that it had fallen to 28.89 inches [978
mb] with a wind of force 12 at 8:30 am [1230 UTC]" (MWR).  "About a dozen
small frame buildings were blown down at Cape Lookout and the Coast Guard
headquarters building was damaged, while power and lighting systems at
Beaufort and Morehead City were put out of commission for several hours and
communication systems were disrupted" (MWR).  Wilmington, NC: "Hurricane
warnings were received at 11:30 am [1530 UTC].  Hurricane warnings were
ordered lowered at Southport and Wilmington at 3:16 pm [1916 UTC]" (OMR).  
“A storm on the 12th caused some damage along the coast, mainly in Carteret 
County” (Climatological Data – North Carolina).

September 13: HWM analyzes a closed low embedded in an occluded front near
37N, 71.5W.  HURDAT listed this as an 80 kt hurricane at 36.7N, 71.7W.  The
MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones showed a center near 36.5N, 72.9W with a
995 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 70 kt SE and 986 mb at 00 UTC at
35.1N, 75.1W (COA/MWR).  No other gales.  One other low pressure.  Land
highlights: 50 kt N and 1000 mb at 00 UTC at Cape Hatteras, NC at 35.2N, 75.7W
(MWR); 31 kt NW and 1000 mb at 01 UTC at Cape Hatteras, NC at 35.2N, 75.7W
(MWR).

September 14: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb embedded in an
occluded front centered near 37N, 63W.  HURDAT listed this as an 85 kt
hurricane at 37.1N, 63.0W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones showed a
center near 38N, 65W.  Ship highlights: 50 kt S and 987 mb at 19 UTC at 36.5N, 
60.6W (MWR); 35 kt NW and 1013 mb at 08 UTC at 35.5N, 67.5W (COA).  No other 
gales or low pressures.

September 15: HWM analyzes an open low embedded in an occluded front near 35N,
55W.  HURDAT listed this as a 75 kt hurricane at 37.4N, 54.0W.  The MWR Tracks
for Centers of Cyclones showed a center near 38.5N, 54W with a 987 mb
pressure.  Ship highlights: 35 kt ENE and 1003 mb at 10 UTC at
39.2N, 55.1W (MWR); 35 kt NE at 12 UTC at 38.7N, 56.1W (COA).  No other gales
or low pressures.  Regarding the intensity: "On the 15th, the disturbance was
still attained by winds of hurricane strength as shown by a report from the
steamship 'City of Agra'" (MWR).

September 16: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb embedded in an
occluded front centered near 37.5N, 45W.  HURDAT listed this as a 55 kt
tropical storm at 37.0N, 45.1W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones showed
a center near 39N, 43W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 17: HWM analyzes an elongated open trough and a S-N front at 40W and
all north of 32N.  HURDAT listed this as a 35 kt tropical storm at 36.3N,
40.0W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.
Regarding the track: "During the next several days (after passing the Outer
Banks) the disturbance moved almost directly eastward, the center passing a
short distance north of Horta, Azores, on the 18th, after which the
disturbance apparently merged with a severe storm that reached Ireland on the
19th" (MWR).

Genesis for this system is begn on the 29th, just roughly have way between the 
Caribbean and West Africa - two days earlier than originally indicated in HURDAT.  
There are some indications – especially on the 25th and 26th – that genesis 
occurred closer to the Cape Verde Islands, but not enough data are available to 
show this with certainty.  Track changes were introduced to this cyclone for all 
days of its lifetime, except for the 7th, 9th-10th, and 16th.  All of the 
alterations were minor except for adjustments made on the last day of the system 
– the 17th – where the cyclone was much farther east than originally indicated.  
The cyclone moved over a datavoid region of the Atlantic on the 27th-28th and 
30th-31st, when positions and intensities are based mainly on persistence and 
continuity.  No inner core information was available between the 27th until 
the hurricane impacted the Lesser Antilles on the 1st.  Descriptions in MWR 
indicate that the cyclone’s center went over Dominica with roughly Category 1 
hurricane winds (80 kt at 12Z is unchanged).  The hurricane proceeded 
west-northwest and made landfall over Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic around 
17Z on the 3rd.  Along this track, the hurricane moved within 50 nm of the coast 
of southwestern Puerto Rico.  However, Perez (1971) and J. Colon (2010, personal 
communication) indicate that no significant impacts were observed in the island 
from this system.  A run of the Schwerdt et al. (1979) wind model with the slightly 
changed track and keeping the winds in HURDAT at 110 kt at closest point of 
approach to Puerto Rico (around 00Z on the 3rd) gives 83 kt at Cabo Rojo in 
extreme southwestern Puerto Rico.  Assuming a small RMW of 10 nm (see observations 
below near the Dominican Republic) still gives 68 kt.  Thus the winds at 00Z on the 
3rd are reduced to 100 kt, to produce winds below hurricane force in Puerto Rico.  
A central pressure of 933 mb suggests winds of 127 kt from the Brown et al. south of 
25N pressure-wind relationship (130 kt from the intensifying subset of hurricanes).  
The data from the steamship Coamo suggests that the center took roughly 90 minutes 
to cross the ship from RMW to RMW (150 mph estimated at 12 PM and 1:25 PM).  
The revised track suggests the hurricane was moving 8-9 kt, which in turn suggests 
the maximum wind ring was 12-13 n mi in diameter.  This would yield a RMW of 6-7 n mi. 
This is smaller than climatology (11 nmi) for this central pressure and latitude 
(Vickery et al. 2001).  A 156 kt wind measured by the old style 4 cup Robinson 
anemometer suggests an equivalent 1 min true wind of 125 kt (Fergusson and 
Covert 1924, Powell et al. 1996).  Winds at landfall are estimated to be 135 kt 
(5 kt higher for the 18Z 3rd value), making this a high end Category 4 hurricane 
in Dominican Republic.  (However, it is quite possible that this was a Category 5 
hurricane at landfall.)  The hurricane quickly weakened after landfall in this 
mountainous island.  Winds are estimated to 80 kt at 00Z on the 4th, as the original 
value of 60 kt was likely too much weakening (130 down to 60 kt in six hours).  The 
remaining intensity values on the 4th are unchanged (60 kt at 06Z, 55 kt at 12Z, and 
50 kt at 18Z).  Based upon analyses by Perez et al., the track of the cyclone is 
shifted south on the 4th-5th, with the center staying south of eastern Cuba, instead 
of moving over Cuba as originally indicated.  The cyclone made a landfall on 
westernmost Cuba around 12Z on the 6th as a minimal tropical storm.  The system may 
have weakened to a tropical depression on the 7th, but the data are inconclusive so no 
changes to HURDAT’s intensity are made on this date.  

The cyclone made landfall just south of Tampa around 09Z on the 9th.  32 kt SE wind and 
simultaneous 1006 mb pressure were measured at Tampa around the time of landfall.  This 
pressure suggests winds of at least 32 kt from the north of 25N Brown et al. pressure-wind 
relationship.  Peak winds at landfall are estimated to be 40 kt.  The system again weakened 
to a tropical depression late on the 9th.  Once back over the water in the Atlantic late on 
the 10th, the cyclone again began gradually reintensifying.  Hurricane force winds with 
978 mb peripheral pressure was reported by a ship at 12Z on the 12th, offshore from 
North Carolina.  This pressure suggests winds of at least 75 kt from both the Brown et al. 
north of 25N and the high latitude (north of 35N) pressure-wind relationships.  80 kt is 
selected for HURDAT at this time (up from 65 kt originally).  Late on the 12th and early 
on the 13th, the hurricane impacted North Carolina, with peak observed winds of 52 kt and 
lowest pressure of 995 mb at Cape Hatteras.  It is estimated that peak winds to impact the 
coast were close to – 60 kt – hurricane force, though the strongest winds in the hurricane 
(and the center of the cyclone) remained offshore.  The hurricane turned toward the east on 
the 13th and gradually weakened.  A 987 mb peripheral pressure with 50 kt S wind at 19Z on 
the 14th suggests winds of at least 66 kt from the high latitude pressure-wind relationship 
– intensity is unchanged at 85 kt.  No gales were recorded on the 16th or 17th and the intensity 
is estimated to have dropped below tropical storm strength at 06Z on the 17th, 12 hours earlier 
than originally indicated.  The original HURDAT indicated no transition to extratropical, despite 
traversing the Atlantic just north of 35N.  The Historical Weather Map, in contrast, showed frontal 
structures everyday from the 8th until the the 17th of September associated with this system.  
However, inspection of all available observations indicates that the original HURDAT’s assessment 
was correct – that no extratropical stage occurred in connection with this system.  The system 
dissipated after 18Z on the 17th.

This hurricane ranks as one of the strongest cyclones and largest impact for the country of the Dominican Republic.

*******************************************************************************

1930/03 - 2010 ADDITION:

25247 10/18/1930 M=4   3 SNBR= 562 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
25247 10/18*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*200 955  30    0*200 952  35    0
25247 10/19*200 949  45    0*201 947  60    0*203 945  60    0*205 943  60    0
25247 10/20*208 942  55    0*211 941  50    0*215 940  45    0*220 940  40    0
25247 10/21*226 940  35    0*233 940  30    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0
25247 TS

This is a new storm, previously not documented as a tropical cyclone in 
Neumann et al. (1999).  Evidence for this system comes from the Historical 
Weather Map series, the COADS ship database and Monthly Weather Review.

October 16:  HWM shows a broad low of at most 1010 mb centered over Mexico near 22N 100W.  
No gales or low pressures were observed. “The third cyclone [in the Northeast Pacific 
during October] was that of the 16th to 18th between Acapulco and Cape Corrientes.  
The storm caused strong to whole gales along a considerable stretch of the coast, and 
after leaving the vicinity of the cape, advanced inland and died out on the 20th in the 
Bay of Campeche” (MWR).  

October 17:  HWM shows a broad low of at most 1010 mb centered over Mexico near 22N 105W.  
Ship highlight:  40 kt S and 992 mb at 22 UTC at 17.9N 103.6W (MWR). “The lowest recorded 
barometer was 29.31 inches, reported by the American steamship American, in 17.9N., 103.6W, 
on the 17th” (MWR).

October 18: HWM analyzes a broad low of at most 1010 mb over Mexico centered 
near 21.5N, 101 W.  Ship highlights: Calm winds and 983 mb at 08Z at 18.4N 104.8W (MWR); 
50 kt WSW, no time, at 18.4N 104.8W (MWR); 50 kt S and 1002 mb at 06 UTC at 19.5N 105.4W 
(MWR); 45 kt NNE and 999 mb at 03 UTC at 18.5N 105.5W (COA); 50 kt SW and 
1004 mb at 03 UTC at 18.5N 104.5W (COA); 5 kt SW and 1004 mb at 22 UTC at 20.5N, 93.5W (COA).  
Station highlights:  Calm and 1006 mb at Veracruz at 12 UTC (HWM).  "From the 15th to 
the 18th low pressure prevailed in the southwestern part of the Gulf of Mexico, apparently 
being part of a general depression covering lower Mexico and adjacent waters of both the 
Pacific and the Gulf" (MWR).

October 19: HWM analyzes a closed low in the Bay of Campeche of at most 
1005 mb centered near 20.5N, 94.5W.  Ship highlights: 50 kt WSW and
1000 mb at 12 UTC at 19.7N, 94.2W (COA); 50 kt WSW wind and 997 mb at 08 UTC at 
20.0N, 94.4W (MWR).  "On the morning of the 19th a center developed on 
the Gulf coast and during the day moderate to strong gales were experienced 
by vessels in the vicinity" (MWR).

October 20: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 
21N, 93W.  Ship highlights: 15 kt N and 1002 mb at 00 UTC at 21.0N, 94.9W 
(COA).  "However by the morning of the 20th the disturbance had 
lost energy” (MWR).  “The third cyclone [in the Northeast Pacific during October] 
was that of the 16th to 18th between Acapulco and Cape Corrientes.  The storm caused 
strong to whole gales along a considerable stretch of the coast, and after leaving the 
vicinity of the cape, advanced inland and died out on the 20th in the Bay of Campeche.  
The lowest recorded barometer was 29.31 inches, reported by the American steamship 
American, in 17.9N., 103.6W, on the 17th” (MWR).

October 21:  HWM shows no features of interest in the Gulf of Mexico.  No gales 
or low pressures were observed.  “…on the 21st the entire Gulf, except the Bay of 
Campeche, was covered by the southern part of an extensive continental area of high 
pressure.  With the southerly advance of this area a heavy norther prevailed at 
Tampico on the 19th and 20th and vessels were unable to enter port.  Press accounts 
states that 10 vessels that had been held outside entered on the 21st" (MWR).

This new tropical storm likely formed along the end of a frontal boundary
that extended into the southwest Gulf of Mexico.  While significant cool
air advection was occurring off of the US southeast coast during the
lifetime of this system, the air mass modified enough to be uniformly
warm around the storm.  Simultaneous with the genesis of this system, 
a strong tropical cyclone was making landfall along the west coast of Mexico, 
about 600 nm to the east of the new tropical storm.  This Northeast Pacific 
system was likely a hurricane – 983 mb reported with a calm, two other reports 
of 50 kt max winds – that made landfall around 12Z on the 18th near 19.5N 105.0W.  
It is highly unlikely that the new Gulf system originated from the strong tropical 
cyclone in the Northeast Pacific.  After genesis, the Gulf tropical cyclone quickly 
became a high end tropical storm by the 19th.  A peripheral pressure of 997 mb with 
50 kt WSW winds on the 18th suggests at least 53 kt from the Brown et al. south of 
25N pressure-wind relationship - 60 kt chosen for HURDAT.  This was likely the peak 
intensity of the tropical storm, though it is possible that this reached hurricane 
intensity.  The system quickly weakened on the 20th over the open Gulf of Mexico - 
likely due to increasing cool air advection from the enhanced northeasterlies - and 
dissipated after 06 UTC on the 21st. 

*******************************************************************************

1930  Additional Notes:

1)  The Historical Weather Maps, Monthly Weather Review and COADS ships data 
show that a cyclone formed in the central Gulf of Mexico late on the 29th of 
May, moved northeastward and making landfall in Florida on the 30th, and merged 
with a strong baroclinic low on the 31st east of the U.S. mid-Atlantic states.  
While the system was organizing late on the 29th, a frontal boundary had moved 
into the Gulf of Mexico.  It appears that the system was extratropical throughout 
its short lifetime.  Highest winds observed were 30 kt from a ship and lowest 
pressure was 1001 mb, both on the 30th (though the environmental pressures were 
also quite low).  No Florida U.S. Weather Bureau land stations observed tropical 
storm force winds.  Given that the system did not have tropical storm force winds 
and that it was extratropical, the cyclone will not be added into HURDAT.

DAY    LAT   LON   STATUS
May 29 24N   92W   Extratropical low
May 30 27N   88W   Extratropical low
May 31 ---   ---   Merged with strong extratropical low


2)  The Monthly Weather Review and COADS indicate that tropical depression 
formed in the eastern Gulf of Mexico on the 14th of June, made landfall over 
South Florida on the same day, and meandered northward over the Florida 
peninsula during the next two days.  No gale force winds were reported from 
ships in the COADS data set, nor did any U.S. Weather Bureau stations report 
any tropical storm force winds.  Lowest pressure reported was 1010 mb on the 
14th. It is possible that this system reached tropical storm intensity, but 
with no observed winds higher than 25 kt, the cyclone will not be added into 
HURDAT.

DAY    LAT   LON   STATUS
Jun 14 25N   82W   Tropical Depression
Jun 15 30N   81W   Tropical Depression
Jun 16 31N   84W   Tropical Depression


3)  Historical Weather Maps, Monthly Weather Review and COADS indicate that 
an area of low pressure formed off of a frontal boundary off the US East coast 
on August 19th, traveled southwest for a day, then traveled north for the 
duration of its life cycle.  It attained a closed cyclonic circulation and 
moved north to to strike New York on the 23rd.  At its strongest, maximum 
winds observed by ships were around 50 kt and min pressure at 988 mb on the 
22nd.  On the 23rd, when the low approached the US Atlantic seaboard, New York 
City and Atlantic City recorded winds of 42 kt and Sandy Hook recorded winds 
of 48 kt.
   While most sources indicated that tropical storm force winds circulated 
around a center on the 22nd and 23rd, the temperature gradient indicates that 
the system was extratropical at that time.  On the 20th, the day the low 
structurally appeared closest to being a tropical system, no gale force winds 
were reported.  Thus this system will not be added into HURDAT.

DAY    LAT   LON   STATUS
Aug 19 33N   74W   Extratropical
Aug 20 31N   76W   Occluded Low/Tropical Cyclone
Aug 21 32N   75W   Occluded Low/Tropical Cyclone
Aug 22 34N   74W   Extratropical
Aug 23 39N   73W   Extratropical


4)  The Monthly Weather Review in September (as part of the article about 
the Santo Domingo Hurricane) wrote:  “No. III, which was reported but twice, 
first by a Pan American Airways plane on September 6 near St. Lucia, and 
again at midnight of the 7th by the steamship Rhodopis.  This disturbance 
dissipated before it reached proximity to any land station.”  A track map 
showed positions near 14N63W on the morning of the 7th and 15N69W on the 
morning of the 8th.  Later in the same edition of the MWR:  “On the 6th a 
Pan American airplane between St. Vincent and St. Lucia reported at noon:  
Gale 100 miles an hour, heavy rain, no visibility.  At St. Lucia, 
barometer 29.94 inches, wind NE., 3.  German S. S. Rhodopis, at 8 a. m. on 
the 8th in 15 deg 45 min N., 68 deg 40 min W., heavy squalls, force 10 with 
heavy rain from SE., confused sea up to 10 a. m., afterwards becoming east 
and diminishing.”  A review of both the Historical Weather Maps and the COADS 
ship data base indicate no gale force winds from either ships or coastal 
stations, nor no closed circulation, though a tropical wave was present on the 
days in question.  It is possible that a small tropical storm passed near 
St. Lucia or St. Vincent on the 6th and was reported again by the ship 
S.S. Rhodopis on the 8th.  However, given the lack of confirmation of a closed 
circulation (and somewhat dubious aircraft-based observation inconsistent with 
nearby island stations), this system is not added into HURDAT as a new storm.

DAY    LAT   LON   STATUS
Sep 6  ---   59W   Tropical Wave?
Sep 7  ---   63W   Tropical Wave?
Sep 8  ---   69W   Tropical Wave?


5) This system began as an extratropical low along a pre-existing frontal
boundary on the 1st of October.  By late on the 2nd, the surface temperature
gradient weakened and the system slowed its movement to the east.  Between 
late on the 2nd and during the 3rd, the system was closest to becoming a 
tropical cyclone (or subtropical cyclone).  The system accelerated to the 
north-northeast late on the 3rd and during the 4th and was clearly again 
extratropical by early on the 4th as it moved back into a region of moderate 
temperature gradients.  The system then reached a peak intensity (while of 
extratropical structure) of around 70 kt and lowest observed pressure of 
982 mb on the 5th.  The system then occluded and executed a counter-clockwise 
loop during the 6th and 7th.  During the next three days it meandered in a 
weakened state.  On the 10th and 11th, the system accelerated off to the 
east-northeast and intensified again as an extratropical storm.  The storm 
reached a second peak in intensity of around 70 kt and lowest observed 
pressure of 980 mb on the 14th.  The system slowed on the 14th and 15th and 
turned back to the northwest on the 16th as it was absorbed by a new extratropical 
cyclone.  However, given that the evidence is not conclusive enough that it 
had lost its frontal features on the 2nd and 3rd, this cyclone is not considered 
a tropical (or subtropical) cyclone and is thus not added into HURDAT.

September 30: HWM analyzes a stationary frontal system off of the Florida 
coast.  Ship highlights: 35 kt NE and 1014 mb at 12 UTC at 
32.8N, 77.3W (COA).

October 1: HWM depicts a closed extratropical low with at most 1005 mb 
pressure centered around 30N, 71W embedded in an occluded front extending 
SSW-NNE through the low.  The MWR Tracks of Centers of Cyclones show a center 
near 27N, 77W.  Ship highlights:  50 kt NNE at 31N, 75W (MWR); 25 kt SW and 
1003 mb at 12 UTC at 27.1N, 74.3W (COA).  "A moderate depression lay on 
the 1st between Bermuda and the Florida coast" (MWR).

October 2: HWM analyzes a S-N occluded frontal system at the longitude of 
Bermuda with an elongated low of at most 1005 mb centered near 27.5N, 71W.  
The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones show a center near 28.5N, 71.5W.  
Ship highlights: 45 kt NNE and 1010 mb at 12 UTC at 31.6N, 75.1 W (COA); 
10 kt NE and 996 mb at 12 UTC at 28.3N, 72.4W (COA); 10 kt NE and 
1000 mb at 27.5N 70.5W (COA).  (Note that the ship with 996 mb appears 
to have a bias of about 3-5 mb too low.)

October 3: HWM analyzes an extratropical low of at most 1005 mb near 
29.5N, 69.5W with an occluded front extending SSW-NNE through the low.  
The MWR Tracks of Centers of Cyclones show a center near 30.5N, 68.5W with 
992 mb pressure.  Despite HWM's analysis, the system had minimal temperature 
gradient present and instead likely was a tropical cyclone (as strong winds 
occurred near the center). Ship highlights: 50 kt NNE at 38.1N, 67.3W (MWR); 
NE wind and 999 mb at 17 UTC at 38.1N, 67.3W (MWR). (These positions are likely in 
error by 10 deg latitude and should be at 28.1N, 67.3W.) 

October 4: HWM analyzes an extratropical low near 33.5N, 66W with at most 
1005 mb pressure.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones show a center near 
32.5N, 66W.  Ship highlights: 45 kt W and 1003 mb
at 12 UTC at 34.8N, 69.9W (COA); 45 kt ENE and 1003 mb at 12 UTC at 
38.5N, 64.3W (COA); 45 kt E and 1014 mb at 12 UTC at 39.7N, 62.0W (COA); 
35 kt N and 998 mb at 20 UTC at 39.5N, 65.5W (COA).

October 5: HWM depicts an extratropical low attached to the west end of 
a warm front of at most 1005 mb near 42.5N, 59W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers 
of Cyclones show a center near 42N, 62.5W.  Ship highlights: 70 kt NW and 
987 mb at 02 UTC at 40.4N, 64.3W (MWR); 70 kt SSE and 
991 mb at 04 UTC at 39.5N, 61.2W (MWR); 70 kt SW and 
982 mb at 10 UTC at 41.4N, 61.5W (MWR).  "At the same time [1st to 5th] 
the depression in the western Atlantic moved northward with increasing 
intensity to the vicinity of Nova Scotia, where it prevailed on the 5th 
as a severe storm" (MWR).

October 6: HWM depicts an occluded low of at most 1010 mb pressure 
not attached to a front centered near 42N, 64.5W.  The MWR Tracks for 
Centers of Cyclones show a center at 42N, 62.5W.  Ship highlights: Several 35 kt
reports; 35 kt WSW and 991 mb at 18 UTC at 42.5N, 60.5W (COA).  "At least 
one casualty occurred in the fishing fleets of this region, the schooner 
Lake O'Law foundering on the 6th" (MWR).

October 7: HWM analyzes a low with at most 1010 mb pressure, re-attached to an 
occluded front, centered near 39.5N, 63W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of 
Cyclones show a center near 40N, 60.5W.  
Ship highlights: 45 kt N at 08 UTC at 40.5N, 66.5W (COA); 
35 kt NNW and 999 mb at 04 UTC at 44.2N, 63.7W (COA). 
"During the 6th and 7th the storm diminished in intensity and was forced to 
the southward apparently by the advance of a high pressure area from 
the continent" (MWR).

October 8: HWM analyzes an occluded low of at most 1010 mb near 35N, 63W.  The 
MWR Tracks for Center of Cyclones show a center at 37N, 59.5W.  
Ship highlights: 45 kt N at 12 UTC at 38.0N, 67.6W (COA); 20 kt NE 
and 1003 mb at 12 UTC at 37.8N, 64.6W (COA).

October 9: HWM analyzes an elongated extratropical low with at most 
1005 mb pressure, attached to the west side of a warm front, located 
near 35.5N, 61W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones show a center near 
33N, 62W.  Ship highlights: 45 kt ENE at 16 UTC at 39.5N, 58.5W (COA); 
45 kt E and 1002 mb at 18 UTC at 40.1N, 55.4W (MWR); 10 kt SE and 
1001 mb at 00 UTC at 35.5N, 65.5W (COA); 10 kt NNW and 
1001 mb at 12 UTC at 35.0N, 64.9W (HWM).  
(Both pressures are likely central pressures of the extratropical storm.)
"However, with some reinforcement from the southward it again acquired 
a northerly to northeasterly movement on the 9th" (MWR).

October 10: HWM analyzes an occluded low centered near 38N, 62W of at 
most 1000 mb pressure.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones 
show a center at 38.5N, 58W.  Ship highlights: 45 kt E and 1004 mb at 00 UTC at 
41.5N, 54.5W (COA); 45 kt and 1000 mb at 12 UTC at 41.5N, 61.5W (COA); 30 kt NE
and 992 mb at 12 UTC at 39.4N, 61.2W (COA).

October 11: HWM analyzes an occluded low of at most 1000 mb pressure 
near 42N, 49.5W with an occluded front extending SW-NE through the 
low.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones show a center near 41.5N, 51W 
with a 1000 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 45 kt NNE at 23 UTC at 41.5N, 52.5W 
(COA); 25 kt NNW and 992 mb at 18 UTC at 42.5N, 50.5W (COA).  "During the 
following days [the storm] moved slowly to a position in mid-ocean.  On this 
part of its path it was attended by gales, chiefly on its western side, and 
for the most part only moderate to fresh in force" (MWR).

October 12: HWM analyzes an occluded low near 47N, 35W of at most 990 mb 
pressure.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones show a center near 
44N, 43W.  Ship highlights: 60 kt SW and 988 mb at 16 UTC at 43.1N, 33.0W (MWR); 
20 kt W and 984 mb at 18 UTC at 53.5N, 40.5W (COA); 
20 kt NW and 984 mb at 22 UTC at 52.4N, 37.9W (COA).

October 13: HWM analyzes a deepening low of at most 975 mb pressure attached 
to a stationary front centered near 51N, 29W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of 
Cyclones show a center near 49N, 32W.  Ship highlights: 60 kts S at 13 UTC at 
50.5N, 20.5W (COA); 35 kt SW and 969 mb at 12 UTC at 50.8N, 24.1W (COA); 
45 kt SSE and 969 mb at 12 UTC at 50.5N, 21.5W (COA); 30 kt SE and 
969 mb at 12 UTC at 51.0N, 25.0W (HWM).

October 14: HWM analyzes a deepening low of at most 970 mb pressure at 
the southwest end of a stationary front extending SW-NE centered near 
53.5N, 28W.  The MWR Tracks for Centers of Cyclones show a center near 
53.5N, 23W.  Ship highlights: 70 kt N and 960 mb at 54.2N, 29.0W (MWR).

October 15: HWM analyzes a deep, non-tropical low of at most 965 mb pressure 
attached to the southwest SW end of a warm front extending SW-NE, centered 
near 58N, 22W.  Ship highlights:  Several 45 kt reports; 15 kt NNW and 966 mb at 
12 UTC at 56.0N, 26.0W (HWM).  "By the 15th it had again turned northward and 
had reached a position immediately to the south of Iceland" (MWR).

October 16: HWM analyzes a weakening occluded low of at most 980 mb pressure 
centered near 61N, 26W.  Ship highlights: 60 kt NW at 23 UTC at 48.5N, 38.5W (COA); 
35 kt NW and 969 mb at 10 UTC at 58.5N 34.5W (COA).

DAY    LAT   LON   STATUS
Oct 1  27N   76W   Extratropical Low
Oct 2  27N   70W   Extratropical Low/Hybrid
Oct 3  28N   68W   Extratropical Low/Hybrid
Oct 4  36N   66W   Extratropical Low
Oct 5  42N   61W   Extratropical Low
Oct 6  43N   63W   Extratropical Low
Oct 7  40N   63W   Extratropical Low
Oct 8  37N   64W   Extratropical Low
Oct 9  36N   63W   Extratropical Low
Oct 10 38N   62W   Extratropical Low
Oct 11 42N   51W   Extratropical Low
Oct 12 46N   35W   Extratropical Low
Oct 13 52N   28W   Extratropical Low
Oct 14 54N   26W   Extratropical Low
Oct 15 58N   26W   Extratropical Low
Oct 16 62N   30W   Extratropical Low


6)  Historical Weather Maps, Monthly Weather Review and COADS indicate that 
a low well east of the Bahamas traveled slowly west from November 20th until 
the 23rd and then turned abruptly north and recurved and weakened without 
making landfall.  Throughout the life cycle, the lowest observed pressure by 
a ship close to the center was 1008 mb on the 22nd.  The only gales were 
observed by ships on the 21st, but they came several hundred kilometers north 
of the center.  With the exception of the 21st, there are no gales anywhere in 
the vicinity of the low.  On the 22nd and 23rd, the low occluded and became 
somewhat close to obtaining tropical cyclone characteristics.  However, 
there are no wind velocities to support a tropical storm intensity on those 
dates. Thus this system will not be added into HURDAT.

DAY    LAT   LON   STATUS
Nov 20 28N   63W   Extratropical
Nov 21 25N   65W   Extratropical
Nov 22 26N   69W   Occluded Low/Tropical Cyclone
Nov 23 26N   72W   Occluded Low/Tropical Cyclone
Nov 24 32N   77W   Extratropical

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