Natural Resources Canada
Government of Canada

Geological Survey of Canada

Volcanoes of Canada
Map of Canadian volcanoes

Map of Canadian volcanoes

Map of Canadian volcanoes
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Welcome to the Volcano Map home

The volcanoes younger than about 5 million years in this region can be grouped into seven volcanic belts, shown on the maps below. Follow the 7 links to zoom in and explore individual volcanoes. Volcanoes older than about 5 million years aren't covered by this site.

If you just want to search through a list of the volcanoes, please go to the Catalogue of Canadian Volcanoes.



Volcanic belts
Anahim Volcanic Belt

Anahim Volcanic Belt

This nearly east-west line of volcanoes stretches from the west coast of B.C., just north of Vancouver island, and reaches into the Interior Plateau near Quesnel. The volcanoes generally get younger as you go from the coast to the interior. These volcanoes probably formed as a result of the North American continent sliding westward over a small "hotspot", like the one feeding the Hawaiian islands. Volcanoes in this belt include the Rainbow, Ilgachuz, and Itcha ranges, and the Nazko cone which is only 7200 years old.





Chilcotin Plateau Basalts

Chilcotin Plateau Basalts

A zone of small-volume basaltic lava flow eruptions about 150 km inland from and running parallel to the Garibaldi volcanic belt. Activity in this area is thought to be a result of extension of the crust behind the coastal subduction zone, a common phenomenon worldwide termed "back-arc extension volcanism". Chilcotin eruptions happened mainly 6-10 million years ago and 2-3 million years ago in the early stages of Garibaldi belt activity. In addition there have been a few eruptions in the Pleistocene (0.01 to 1.6 million years ago). The volcano maps show only the Chilcotin eruptions that are Pliocene and younger (younger than 5.3 million years).





Cascades Volcanic Belt

Cascades Volcanic Belt (also called the Cascades volcanic arc)

This belt of volcanoes stretches from northern California to the Canada-U.S. border, where the belt does not stop but changes name, to the Garibaldi volcanic belt. The volcanoes in this belt formed as a result of melting of the crust related to the subduction of the Juan de Fuca oceanic plate beneath the west coast of North America. Volcanoes in this belt are frequently active, and include Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Baker, Glacier Peak, Mt. Rainier, Mt. Hood, Crater Lake and Long Valley, plus others. Mt. St. Helens' most recent eruptive activity was in 1986. Many of these volcanoes exhibit frequent volcanic earthquakes.





Garibaldi Volcanic Belt

Garibaldi Volcanic Belt

The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is the northern extension of the Cascades Volcanic Belt in the northwestern United States and contains the most explosive young volcanoes in Canada. Its volcanoes are also the closest to British Columbia's densely populated southwest corner. These volcanos are the result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate beneath the North American tectonic plate; the plates meet just seaward of the west coast of Vancouver island. The volcanoes of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt generally are stratovolcanoes typical of subduction zones, and include Mt. Garibaldi, Mt. Cayley and Mt. Meager. Mt. Meager's eruption of 2350 years ago is the youngest explosive eruption in Canada. It was similar to that of Mt. St. Helens in 1980 and the ongoing eruption of Montserrat in the Caribbean.





Stikine Volcanic Belt

Stikine Volcanic Belt (also called the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province)

This large area of volcanism stretches from just north of Prince Rupert, into the Yukon Territory and the Alaska border. It is the most active volcanic region in Canada, containing more than 100 volcanoes, 3 of which erupted in the last few hundred years (2 witnessed by people). These volcanoes formed due to extensional cracking of the crust in response to the Pacific Ocean plate dragging northward along the edge of the North American plate, on its way to the Aleution subduction zone. This belt includes the volcanoes Volcano Mtn., Mt. Edziza, Level Mtn., and the extremely youthful Tseax Cone (240 years), Lava Fork (360 years) and Ruby Mtn. (103 years).



Wells Gray-Clearwater Volcanic Field

Wells Gray-Clearwater Volcanic Field

The Wells Gray-Clearwater Volcanic Field is a tight cluster of basaltic volcanoes, and includes the Quesnel Cone Group. The origin of this volcanism is not yet clear, but appears to be a result of local crustal thinning. Many of these eruptions occurred during periods of glaciation, so the eruptions interacted with the ice sheets in complex ways, forming distinctive volcanic forms. A number of these eruptions have occurred in the last 10 thousand years. The volcanoes included in this field are Pyramid Mtn. and Kostal Cone.





Wrangell Volcanic Belt

Wrangell Volcanic Belt

This belt of volcanoes lies largely in Alaska but extends across the border into southwestern Yukon Territory. It formed as a result of melting of the crust due to subduction of the Pacific Ocean plate beneath the North American plate at the Aleution arc. It includes the volcanoes Mt. Wrangell, which has been active historically, and Mt. Churchill, which has had 2 large-magnitude explosive eruptions in the last 2000 years that blanketed most of the Yukon with ash.

http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/volcanoes/map/index_e.php