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From Lads to Lord's


The History of Cricket: 1731 – 1740 | The History of Cricket: 1746 – 1750 | Index


The History of Cricket: 1741 – 1745

1741 | 1742 | 1743 | 1744 | 1745
Addington Cricket Club | Bromley CC and Bromley Common
The 1744 Laws of Cricket
William Anderson | Little & Tall Bennett | James & John Bryant | Robert Colchin | "Cuddy" | John Cutbush | Stephen Dingate | Tom Faulkner
John & Joseph Harris | William Hodsoll | George Jackson | Kipps | Robert Lascoe | John Mills | Adam Newland | John Newland | Richard Newland
Tom Peake | Ridgeway | Val Romney | William Sawyer | George Smith

1741

the history

28 July. Death of Antonio Vivaldi (1678 – 1741), Italian composer who is famous for The Four Seasons.

the cricket

A season notable for the first appearance in recorded matches of the famous Slindon Cricket Club.

Thu 9 July. In a letter to her husband, the Duchess of Richmond mentioned a conversation with John Newland re a Slindon v East Dean match at Long Down, near Eartham, a week earlier. This seems to be the first recorded mention of any of the Newland family.

Tuesday, 28 July. In two subsequent letters to the Duke of Newcastle, the 2nd Duke of Richmond spoke about a game on this date which resulted in a brawl with "hearty blows" and "broken heads"! The game was at Portslade between Slindon and unnamed opponents. Apparently, Slindon won the battle but the result of the match is unknown!

Richard Newland

The three Newland brothers of Slindon and Sussex were very famous players through the 1740s. They were Richard (1713–1778), John (1717–1800) and Adam (born 1719). By far the most famous of the clan was Richard, whom H S Altham described as "the most famous player in England" (i.e., during the 1740s). Their father, also called Richard, was a yeoman, a solid member of the Slindon community who is known to have been churchwarden, a position of trust and repute in Georgian society. Their mother was Elizabeth Hammond of Eartham and it would be interesting to know if her family later produced the great Sussex player John Hammond, who was active at the end of the 18th century.

This word "yeoman", now slightly outdated, was common at the time and, in the context of the time, it meant that Richard Newland senior was a farmer who cultivated his own land. He belonged to a class of freeholders that stood below the gentry in the social hierarchy but were entitled to certain political rights.

Richard Newland senior married Elizabeth Hammond in 1704 and they had a family of ten, five brothers and five sisters, all born in Slindon. One of the sisters, Susan, married Richard Nyren of Eartham and their eldest son Richard became the famous captain of Hambledon in the 1770s. It is said that Richard Newland junior taught his nephew to play cricket. Details of the Newland family can be seen in McCann, page lx, and Underdown, page 58.

Professor Underdown reminds us that Slindon was, like all Sussex villages, a violent place with smuggling connections. Slindon bowler Edward Aburrow was famously a smuggler, but it is more accurate to say that he was jailed in 1745 for bearing arms whilst landing "prohibited goods" at Elmer's Sluice on the Sussex coast. In 1749, Richard and John Newland were among a group of men indicted for assaulting one Griffith Hughes, though all were discharged, and this incident too may have been connected with smuggling.

Richard Newland was a left-handed batting all-rounder and, incidentally, the earliest known left-hander in cricket's history. Despite Altham's emphatic view, Newland was only one of the greatest players in England during the 1740s. Personally I think the greatest player at this time, certainly the most influential, was the disreputable Robert Colchin. But Newland was definitely the main reason for the fame of Slindon. He also played for various All-England teams, including the famous match versus Kent in 1744 which begins Arthur Haygarth's monumental collection of Scores and Biographies. He was a fine single-wicket performer. Along with Bedle, Waymark and Colchin, he was one of the greatest players of the whole pioneering period up to the early 1760s, when the introduction of the pitched delivery and the straight bat changed the game forever. Like all the pioneers, Newland played with a curved bat against a ball bowled all along the ground.

Newland must have been an active player through the 1730s but there is no mention of him in the sources during that decade. He relied for his opportunities on the 2nd Duke of Richmond, who evidently terminated his own team, the Duke of Richmond's XI, after breaking a leg in 1733. Newland would have been 20 at the time. TJM records that Richmond "now channelled his enthusiasm for the game through the team from the village that bordered on his estate at Goodwood". Slindon and Newland developed together until by 1741 the team was representative of Sussex as a county. This was emphasised in the famous match against Surrey at Merrow Down in September 1741 when, according to Richmond's letters, "poor little Slyndon" beat Surrey "almost in 1 innings".

There are references in 1742 to "the Sussex Man from Slending" and "the noted bowler from Slendon". It is not certain that Richard Newland was one or both of these great players but other writers have decided that he was. Personally, I doubt if he was "the noted bowler" because he was a batting all-rounder. According to TJM, it was Aburrow who was a noted bowler. No matter, the point is that Slindon was recognised by the London press and Newland was certainly Slindon's most famous player. At the end of the 1742 season, Slindon played two of its greatest matches against London at the Artillery Ground but lost them both, the second by a huge margin. In the first, several wagers were laid that one Slindon batsman, almost certainly Richard Newland, would obtain forty runs from his own bat – a feat he failed to perform.

In July 1743, the six players in a threes match between All-England and Kent at the Artillery Ground were stated to be "the best in England". Newland captained All-England, but Kent won by 2 runs before a crowd estimated at 10,000.

By 1744, Newland had a strong challenger as the best player in England following the rise of Robert Colchin (aka Long Robin), who organised a number of games between his own team and one picked by Newland. Slindon defeated London in June 1744 by 55 runs, its team including Newland, his brother Adam and two other noted Sussex players Aburrow and Ridgeway. However, the team contained given men including the great Addington player Joe Harris. The match is now famous because Richmond created what has become the world's oldest surviving scorecard. Two weeks later, Newland was described as "the champion" when he played for All-England against Kent in the match that begins Scores and Biographies, the accolade bestowed on him by the Richmond cricketer-poet James Love. Kent captain Lord John Sackville is reported to have held a remarkable catch in the second innings to dismiss Newland, who was the top scorer in the match with 18* and 15. Sackville's catch may have been the defining moment of the match, although Kent won by one wicket after Cutbush and Hodsoll managed to score the remaining few runs with nine wickets down.

After Slindon beat London again in September 1744, Richmond issued the audacious "Slindon Challenge" to play "any parish in England". The only teams to accept were Addington, which featured Tom Faulkner and the Harris brothers, and Bromley, famous for Colchin, Durling and the Bryant brothers. Sadly, details of the two challenge matches are lost, though it is believed they were both rained off.

There are few mentions of Slindon in 1745 or 1746 and Newland can be found playing for All-England or leading his own team, usually in opposition to Colchin's team. In July 1745, he scored what was then a massive 88 for All-England against Kent at the Artillery Ground. It is not absolutely certain that he did this in one innings (a parallel with Small in 1768) and it may have been his match total but, giving him the benefit of the doubt, it is the highest individual innings recorded during the pioneering period (i.e., to 1763). It may not seem a great achievement but, given pitch conditions at the time, it was the equivalent of a modern triple-century. Richard Newland and his contemporaries would have wept with joy at the sight of a modern flat track.

By 1747, single wicket had become the rage and the 1748 season was the halycon days of single wicket. Richmond orchestrated this fervour and his Slindon fives and threes were a regular feature of the great matches at the Artillery Ground. Interestingly, Newland did not always captain his team in 1747. There was a threes match in September in which he was again opposed by his rival Colchin, but the captaincy of his side had been given to Stephen Dingate, who was a regular fixture in Richmond's teams at this time. This could be evidence that Newland was past his best. In July 1747, he seems to be reconciled with Colchin because for the first time we find them on the same side but, significantly, it is Long Robin's XI that Newland is playing for. In 1749, Newland is a member of an All-England team captained by Colchin.

The last time we read of Newland is in 1751, the year after Colchin and then Richmond had died. He played in two matches for All-England against Kent and was on the winning team both times. Now 38, it can be assumed that, like Sussex cricket in general after the death of Richmond, he faded from the scene. There are different versions of Newland's own date of death but I have accepted 1778 because I think "1791 in Bath" probably relates to his namesake, the surgeon with whom some writers have confused him. I would think that Newland retired to Slindon where he farmed his land and taught his nephew Richard Nyren to play cricket.

My researches into 18th century appearances indicate that Richard Newland made 26 known appearances from 1741 to 1751: 18 in significant and 8 in single wicket matches. In a few cases, the primary source does not actually say he was playing but another writer has stated that he was, based on probability, so the secondary source provides the verification. There are of course numerous matches with no surviving data and we could point to any number of those and say with justification that a prolific player probably took part. The likes of Newland, Colchin, Hodsoll and Romney were especially prolific all through the 1740s. As I said in the introduction, it is a question of using the available data to best advantage to try and understand the big picture, even though most pieces of the jigsaw have been scattered.

significant matches

Surrey v London

Charlwood, Surrey

Monday, 1 June 1741

Surrey won (CS)

London v Surrey

Artillery Ground

Monday, 15 June 1741

result unknown (CS)

The second match was announced in the report of the first.

Kent v London

Chislehurst Common, Chislehurst, Kent

c. Friday, 26 June 1741

rained off (CS)

An interesting comment about the Kent team was that it was "eleven out of three parishes for the county". Expectations were high but the whole day was ruined by the rain.

London v Chislehurst

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Friday, 3 July 1741

Chislehurst by 60 runs (DC)

"One of the best matches that has been played these many years". However, Chislehurst seem to have won it easily enough by quite a large margin.

Surrey v London

Richmond Green, Richmond, Surrey

Wednesday, 22 July 1741

tied (CS)

This is the earliest known instance of a game being tied. Unfortunately the scores are not recorded but "the bets (were) drawn on both sides"!

London v Surrey

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

c. Friday, 31 July 1741

result unknown (CS)

Interest in this match must have been high after the previous one was tied but surprisingly there is no report.

Surrey v Slindon

Merrow Down, Guildford, Surrey

Monday, 7 September 1741

Slindon "almost in 1 innings" (TJM)

This match almost certainly marks the debuts of the Newland brothers: Adam, John and Richard.

The 2nd Duke of Richmond in a letter to Newcastle before the game spoke of "poor little Slyndon against almost your whole county of Surrey". Next day he wrote again, saying that "wee (sic) have beat Surrey almost in one innings".

Richmond's wife wrote to him on Wednesday, 9 September and said she "wish'd..... that the Sussex mobb (sic) had thrash'd the Surrey mob". She had "a grudge to those fellows ever since they mob'd you" (apparently a reference to the Richmond Green fiasco in August 1731). She then said she wished the Duke "had won more of their moneys". So she wasn't a big fan of Surrey, then?

London v Surrey

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 14 September 1741

result unknown (DC)

"Wickets to pitched at half an hour past 11 o'clock".

other matches

Slindon v Portsmouth

Stansted Park, Rowlands Castle, near Havant, Hampshire

Monday, 15 June 1741

Slindon won by 9 wickets (TJM)

This is the earliest report of a match involving Slindon, though the club must have been playing for some time beforehand. The 2nd Duke of Richmond in a letter said that "above 5000 people" were present. In a second letter, he gives the result.

Bedfordshire v Northamptonshire/Huntingdonshire

Woburn Park

Monday, 10 August 1741

result unknown (CS)

Woburn Cricket Club under the leadership of the Duke of Bedford was on the point of becoming a well known club (see 1742).

Northamptonshire v Buckinghamshire

Cow Meadow, near Northampton

Tuesday, 18 August 1741

result unknown (GB18)

The match was between two teams of amateurs and is the earliest known instance of cricket in Northamptonshire.

adam newland

Adam Newland (born 1719) was the younger brother of Richard and John. Born in Slindon, he played for the club through the 1740s, making 8 known appearances in significant matches and 2 in single wicket. He appears to have been a specialist middle order batsman.

john newland

John Newland (1717–1800) was the middle brother of Richard and Adam. Born in Slindon, he played for the club through the 1740s, making 8 known appearances in significant matches and 2 in single wicket. He was the first of the family to be mentioned in a surviving source. In a letter to her husband, the feisty Duchess Sarah of Richmond recounted a conversation she had with John Newland about a cricket match.

1742

Bromley Cricket Club and Bromley Common

The earliest mention of major cricket in Bromley was a match that did not pass without incident. Kent played London on Bromley Common on Wednesday, 30 July 1735 and won by 10 wickets. The report says that a large crowd attended and "a great deal of mischief was done". It seems that horses panicked and riders were thrown while some members of the crowd were "rode over". One man was "carried off for dead" as the Prince of Wales passed by at the entrance to the Common.

Bromley Common then became a regular venue for major matches and staged the first game known to have featured an All-England Eleven. This was the Kent v All-England match on Monday, 9 July 1739 which Kent, described as "the Unconquerable County" won by "a very few notches". The match was billed as between "eleven gentlemen of that county (i.e., Kent) and eleven gentlemen from any part of England, exclusive of Kent".

The Bromley club, famous for Robert Colchin, made its known bow in major cricket when it played against London at the Artillery Ground on Monday, 14 June 1742. The match ended in a tie, only the second known instance of this result after Surrey v London at Richmond Green on Wednesday, 22 July 1741.

Besides Colchin, Bromley had the Bryant brothers, James and John, playing for them through the 1740s. With these three players, Bromley at the time could rival Addington and Slindon. When Slindon issued its famous challenge in September 1744 to play "any parish in England", they received immediate acceptances from Addington and Bromley. Bromley was due to play Slindon at the Artillery Ground on Friday, 14 September 1744 but it seems that the game was rained off. Certainly the result is unknown.

The announcement of a match in 1745 gives a precise location for cricket on Bromley Common by stating that the venue was "behind the Bell Inn" while another in 1752 says that the venue was the "White Hart field".

The final mentions of Bromley and its common in major cricket are in 1752. Bromley played home and away against London on Tuesday, 30 June and Wednesday, 15 July 1752. Both games were inconclusive. Like all the great little clubs, Bromley faded due to the loss of its great players and the impact of the times. In Bromley's case, the early death of Colchin in 1750 could have decimated the club. Loss of manpower and investment during the Seven Years War will have played its part and Bromley was gone when the Hambledon era began in the mid-1760s.

the history

2 February. Sir Robert Walpole resigned from office after a split developed in the Whig party over conduct of the war with Spain. Walpole was later created Earl of Orford and continued to be politically active.

February. Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington (1673 – 1743; Whig): prime minister (to his death on 2 July 1743). After Walpole's resignation, Wilmington was a compromise between John Carteret and the Duke of Newcastle. He was a favourite of George II.

the cricket

The story continues across a decade that should be dedicated to F S Ashley-Cooper; he is our main source for the years 1742 to 1751 via his marvellous series of articles titled At the Sign of the Wicket (i.e., ASW where source) which appeared in Cricket Magazine during 1900.

A schoolteacher in New Romney made the earliest known use of the word "cricketer" when completing a diary entry. He bestowed the accolade upon one William Pullen of Cranbrook but it was in connection with Pullen's death. He had just been hanged on Penenden Heath near Maidstone for stealing a sheep and five bushels of wheat!

Thu 27 May. The poet Thomas Gray (1716 – 1771) wrote a letter to Mr Richard West and said: "There is my Lords ** and ***, they are Statesmen; Do not you remember them dirty boys playing at cricket"? The two noble lords are believed to have been the Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Sandwich.

Mr Waghorn in CS has London v Woburn at the Artillery Ground on Sunday, 13 June but he has the year wrong. The match was played on Monday, 13 June 1743 (see below) and the return match which he says was scheduled for 1 August 1742 was also in 1743. Correct information about both games is in ASW.

Similar errors were made re the Chislehurst & Bromley v London games on Friday, 24 June 1743 and Monday, 28 June 1743, Mr Waghorn in CS noting the year as 1742. As before, see ASW for correct versions.

significant matches

London v Bromley

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 14 June 1742

tied (ASW)

This is the second known instance of a tied match, following the Surrey v London game at Richmond Green on Wednesday, 22 July 1741.

ASW = At the Sign of the Wicket (Cricket Magazine 1900) by FS Ashley-Cooper.

London v Richmond

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Wednesday, 7 July 1742

result unknown (ASW)

This was "played for a considerable sum". Wickets were pitched at one o'clock.

London v Croydon

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 26 July 1742

result unknown (ASW)

This was "played for a considerable sum". Wickets were pitched at one o'clock.

Kent/Surrey/Sussex v London

Duppas Hill, Croydon, Surrey

Monday, 2 August 1742

result unknown (TJM)

The counties team is described as "the Gentlemen of Kent and Surry (sic) and the Sussex Man from Slending (sic)", the latter almost certainly Richard Newland.

London v Bromley

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 9 August 1742

result unknown (ASW)

This was "played for a considerable sum". Wickets were pitched at twelve o'clock.

London/Surrey v Kent/Croydon/Slindon

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 16 August 1742

result unknown (ASW/TJM)

It is known that two Kent players and "the noted bowler from Slendon (sic)" assisted Croydon; while two Surrey players were given men to London. Played for a "considerable sum of money" with the ground to be roped round. This was clearly a replay of the game on Monday 2 August (see above). The noted Slindon player was almost certainly Richard Newland.

Surrey v All-England

Moulsey Hurst, near Molesey, Surrey

Monday, 23 August 1742

Surrey won (ASW)

Mr Ashley-Cooper mentioned that the Moulsey Hurst ground was in 1900 held by the Hurst Park Racing Club.

London v Surrey

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Thursday, 2 September 1742

result unknown (ASW)

It is known that "a Kent player from Bromley" assisted London as a given man. The match was originally scheduled for 6 September and was rearranged because of the visit of Slindon to London on that date. The given man may have been Robert Colchin or one of the Bryant brothers.

London v Slindon

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 6 September 1742

London won "with great difficulty" (ASW)

ASW states: "London won with great difficulty. The wickets were pitched at twelve o'clock on the forfeit of 100 guineas. During the last innings of the match, the betting was as much as 20 to 1 in favour of Slindon so much praise must be given to London for winning. Before the match, the Slindon men had played forty-three games and lost but one (my italics). Several wagers were laid that one Slindon batsman, almost certainly Richard Newland, would obtain forty runs from his own bat – a feat he failed to perform. Had the match not been completed on the Monday play would have resumed on the Wednesday".

London v Slindon

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Friday, 10 September 1742

London by 184 runs (TJM)

ASW states: "The wickets were pitched at eleven o'clock on the forfeit of 100 guineas. This match was to have been played on Wednesday, 8 Sept, but was postponed to above date on account of rain. At the conclusion of the above match Slindon offered to play another match against London either at Guildford or on the South Downs for £100, but the challenge was not accepted".

There has been confusion about the dates of the two London v Slindon matches and the margin of victory in the second, due to Mr Waghorn's use of ambiguous reports in the London Evening Post dated 9 to 11 September. In TJM, the references to the second match make it clear that 6th and 10th are the correct dates for the two matches. Mr McCann has The Daily Advertiser of Saturday, 11 September 1742 reporting the margin in the second match as 184 notches and that it was "played yesterday".

It can be assumed that all three Newland brothers took part in the two matches against London.

Robert Colchin

Robert Long Robin Colchin was born in 1713 at Chailey in Sussex, was christened on 12 November that year; and died at Bromley in April 1750 (he was buried on 30 April). Colchin, evidently a very tall man, lived in Bromley for several years and was associated with the local club, which was prominent through the 1740s.

He thrived on the single wicket form of the game, though he did play eleven-a-side very well too and took part in the famous Kent v All-England match in 1744. Colchin had strong associations with the Artillery Ground and is known to have promoted many matches there.

In ASW, F S Ashley-Cooper states that Long Robin was probably the finest all-round player of his day and was called Long Robin because he was so tall: "And Robin, from his size, surnamed the Long".

ASW quotes from The Connoisseur (no. 132, dated 1746) an article about a young gentleman whose favourite amusement is attending the executions at Tyburn:

"A young fellow of family and fortune, who was born and bred a gentleman, but has taken great pains to degrade himself, and is now as complete a blackguard as those whom he has chosen for his companions. He will drink purl in a morning, smoke his pipe in a night cellar, and eat black puddings at Bartholomew Fair, for the humour of the thing. All the while he is reckoned by his friends to be a mighty good-natured gentleman and without the least bit of pride in him. In order to qualify himself for the society of the vulgar, Bob has studied and practised all the vulgar arts "under the best masters". He has therefore cultivated an intimacy with "Buckhorse" (i.e., John Smith, a noted prizefighter), and is very proud of being sometimes admitted to the honour of conversing with the great (Jack) Broughton himself (Broughton was probably the most famous prizefighter of the 18th century). He is also very well known among the hackney coachmen, as a brother whip ; but his greatest excellence is cricket-playing, in which he is reckoned as good a bat as either of the Bennetts; and is at length arrived at the supreme dignity of being distinguished among his breathren of the wicket by the title of Long Robin".

ASW ends with: "The performances of this player must not be confused (as was done by one of the numerous contributors to the "Jubilee Book of Cricket") with those of "Long Bob" (i.e., Robert Robinson, who commenced to participate in great matches in or about the year 1792). When matches were hastily got up Long Robin was generally left to make all the arrangements, &c., as Fuller Pilch was in his own district about a century later".

So Colchin had a taste for low company and it is not unreasonable to assume that he was involved in criminal activity. The circumstances of his early death are unknown but his chosen lifestyle may ultimately have brought about an untimely demise.

Colchin was one of the most prolific players of the 1740s. From his first recorded appearance in 1743 to his final season in 1749, he is known to have taken part in 18 single wicket events and 12 significant matches. Bromley Cricket Club had already risen to prominence by the time we first read of Colchin, but he was not playing for Bromley on that occasion. He was a given man playing for London against Richmond and Kingston at Richmond Green on Monday, 4 July 1743.

Colchin was given to London for a return match at the Artillery Ground two weeks later. London won both of these games but, when they played Addington on 25 July, they lost by an innings but Colchin was this time a given man to Addington. Very few details exist of the three games but it is clear that Colchin was both in demand and successful.

It is possible that there is an earlier reference to Colchin as, in September 1742, when London faced Surrey at the Artillery Ground, it is known that "a Kent player from Bromley" assisted London as a given man. This was probably Colchin or one of the Bryant brothers.

Colchin scored 7 and 9 for Kent against All-England at the Artillery Ground in June 1744. The scorecard as reproduced in Scores and Biographies lists him as "Long Robin" and Haygarth rather pedantically points out that this is "evidently a feigned name"! In August, Colchin and Val Romney were given men to London for two matches against Surrey and London won both games. At the end of the 1744 season, we read for the first time of Colchin the single wicket player and he became a noted performer in that form of the game. The first of the two matches (both "threes") was billed as Long Robin's Side v Richard Newland's Side and was played for a stake of 200 guineas. Colchin's team was himself, Romney and John Bryant; their opponents were Newland, Aburrow and Joe Harris. In the second match two weeks later, Colchin had James Bryant and Joe Harris on his side against John Bryant, Romney and Waymark.

Colchin was by 1745 established as one of the greatest players in the game, his main rival being Richard Newland. These two formed their own teams to contest perhaps the biggest match of the 1745 season, billed as Long Robin's XI v Richard Newland's XI at the Artillery Ground on Wednesday, 26 June. Long Robin's XI won by over 70 runs. The match was arranged by "the noblemen and gentlemen of the London Club" and the players involved were mostly the leading names of the time.

In 1747, Colchin and all three Newland brothers were playing for the same team but it was still called Long Robin's XI and the opposition was now William Hodsoll's XI. Later that season, Colchin led a Kent team against All-England at the Artillery Ground in a match which cost sixpence to see, instead of the previous admission of twopence. 1748 was the great year of single wicket with no less that 18 events on record. Colchin is known to have played in 11 of them but he had a formidable opponent in Tom Faulkner. There were two significant matches between Kent and All-England in June but no details of the personnel have survived.

In Colchin's final season, 1749, he led an All-England five against Five of Addington in a single wicket tri-series which his team won by two matches to one. He led All-England in two significant matches against Surrey but lost the first by two wickets and drew the second. His final known appearance in a significant match was for Long Robin's XI v Stephen Dingate's XI on 26 June at the Artillery Ground.

1743

the history

In July, the Whig politician Henry Pelham (1696 – 1754) became prime minister till his death on 6 March 1754.

the cricket

A significant development this year was the rise of a very strong club at Woburn who beat London 2-1 in a tri-series played in May and June.

The heavy modern-type ball with wound core and thick leather cover may have come into use about this time for ASW records that Mr Clout was by then active in Sevenoaks as "the first cricket ball maker of any pretention".

The well known painting The Cricket Match by Francis Hayman (1708 – 1786) dates from this year. It now hangs at Lord's. It apparently depicts a game at the Artillery Ground and shows a tall two stump wicket. The batsman has a bat that is distinctly hockey shaped; the ball has been trundled but appears to be above the ground so perhaps it was a quicker skimmed delivery; and in the foreground is a scorer notching the tally.

From the same year comes An Exact Representation of the Game of Cricket by Louis Philippe Boitard (c.1733 – c. 1767). This now hangs in the Tate Gallery.

Monday, 6 June. ASW reports a game between Shacklewell and Westminster played at The Cock in Shacklewell, near Stoke Newington. This is evidence of the involvement of the brewing industry in the sport; a number of grounds, ranging from Broadhalfpenny Down to Trent Bridge, were established on fields adjacent to inns and taverns.

Thursday, 16 June. ASW reports a game on Walworth Common in which Bermondsey defeated Deptford & King's Yard by an innings and 27 runs. Clearly a minor fixture but Mr Ashley-Cooper helpfully explains that Walworth Common was situated where Westmoreland Road, Faraday Street and Mann Street stood in 1900. The ground was about three quarters of a mile from where the Bee Hive Ground afterwards existed. At the end of the eighteenth century, Walworth was the home of the Montpelier Club who played on Aram's New Ground.

single wicket

Monday, 11 July. A three-a-side game was played at the Artillery Ground and the six players were stated to be "the best in England". They were William Hodsoll (Dartford), John Cutbush (Maidstone) and Val Romney (Sevenoaks) playing as Three of Kent; and Richard Newland (Slindon), William Sawyer (Richmond) and John Bryant (Bromley) playing as Three of All-England. Hodsoll and Newland were captains. Kent won by 2 runs. The London Evening Post says the crowd was computed (sic) to be 10,000. A return match was arranged at Sevenoaks Vine on Wednesday, 27 July but it did not come off.

In GB18, Mr Buckley quotes the Daily Advertiser of Thursday, 7 July saying that Ridgeway (of Sussex) was to play alongside Hodsoll and Romney. Then, on Friday, 8 July, John Cutbush, known to have been a clockmaker from Maidstone, was named instead of Ridgeway.

Tuesday, 16 August. ASW records a five a side game on Richmond Green between Five of Richmond and Five of London. Wickets were pitched at one o'clock on forfeiture of fifty pounds.

Monday, 29 August. ASW records a five a side game at the Artillery Ground between Five of London and Five of Richmond. Wickets were pitched at two o'clock and the prize was "a considerable sum".

significant matches

Kent v London, Middlesex & Surrey

Bromley Common, Bromley, Kent

Monday, 16 May 1743

LM&S won (Kent forfeited) (ASW)

Scores at eight o'clock pm: LM&S 97 & 112-3; Kent 69. Play was due to continue next day but Kent "gave it up". The LM&S team was also described as Lord Montford's XI. Lord Montford was a noted patron of the game. The Kent side was organised by Lord John Philip Sackville.

Woburn v London

Woburn, Bedfordshire

Friday, 27 May 1743

London won (ASW)

Woburn was the seat of the Duke of Bedford who was another noted patron.

Woburn v London

Woburn, Bedfordshire

Saturday, 28 May 1743

Woburn won (ASW)

This must have been arranged as soon as the previous game finished. The further game on 13 June may have been intended to be a decider.

London v Woburn

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 13 June 1743

Woburn won by 54 runs (ASW)

Note that Mr Waghorn refers to this game in CS but he has the year wrong: it was played in 1743, not 1742 as he has it. For correct information, see ASW. ASW reports that London were ante-post 11 to 8 favourites. The match may have been a decider following the two at Woburn on 27 and 28 May (see above).

Mr Waghorn includes a line in DC that the same two elevens were to play again at Rochester on Thursday, 23 June. This is an extremely dubious entry given the location and the dating errors already observed. No other report of such a match has been found.

Chislehurst & Bromley v London

Bromley Common, Bromley, Kent

Friday, 24 June 1743

C&B won "with difficulty" (ASW)

Note that Mr Waghorn refers to this game in CS but he has the year wrong: it was played in 1743, not 1742 as he has it. For correct information, see ASW.

It was specified beforehand that the game is to be played out, presumably to emphasise a main clause in the articles which were drawn up to define the terms of the wager. In any case, it was completed on the first day of play.

London v Chislehurst & Bromley

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 27 June 1743

result unknown (ASW)

Note that Mr Waghorn refers to this game in CS but he has the year wrong: it was played in 1743, not 1742 as he has it. For correct information, see ASW.

Addington Cricket Club

Addington is about 3 miles south-east of Croydon and its cricket club was based at nearby Addington Hill, though it played some home matches at Croydon's Duppas Hill. The earliest mention of the club was the match on Monday 25 July 1743 when the team played against London at the Artillery Ground. It was an auspicious first mention too because they won the game by an innings and 4 runs. For some years afterwards, Addington was one of the greatest teams in England and, in 1744, immediately accepted the famous Slindon challenge to play against any parish in England.

Addington's game against Slindon took place at the Artillery Ground on Wednesday, 12 & Thursday, 13 September 1744. It was affected by bad weather on the 12th and the result is unknown. It was probably abandoned because of more rain on the second day. At close of play on the first day, each side had completed its first innings and Slindon had a lead of just two runs.

Among Addington's best players were Durling, John and Joe Harris, Tom Faulkner, George Jackson, John Mansfield and Broad. John Frame seems to have played for the club in the early part of his career before he relocated to Dartford. The club had a top-class fives team and Faulkner in particular was a leading single wicket player. In July 1749, Addington's five of Durling, Faulkner, Joe Harris, John Harris and Jackson challenged any other five players in England to a series of three matches with a stake of fifty guineas a side in the first two games and 100 guineas a side in the decider. But this backfired and they were defeated 2-1 by a strong All-England team.

The last mention of Addington in major cricket is the home match against Dartford on Wednesday, 12 August 1752. The result is unknown but we do know that "our most humble servant George Williams would again provide the usual accommodation and victuals"! The club must have lost its great players in the 1750s and then struggled during the Seven Years War due to lack of manpower and investment. By the start of the Hambledon era in the mid-1760s, Addington had suffered the fate of all great little clubs.

Richmond & Kingston v London

Richmond Green, Richmond, Surrey

Monday, 4 July 1743

London won (ASW)

Robert Colchin of Bromley played for London as a given man.

London v Richmond, Kingston & Egham

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 18 July 1743

London won by 67 runs (DC)

Scores are known: London 57 & 117; Richmond &c 55 & 52.

This was a return to the match at Richmond Green on 4 July (see above). Robert Colchin of Bromley again played for London as a given man.

London v Addington

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 25 July 1743

Addington by an innings & 4 runs (ASW)

Scores are known: London 32 & 74; Addington 110

Robert Colchin of Bromley and Tom Peake of Chelsfield played for Addington as given men. William Sawyer of Richmond played for London as a given man.

Addington is about 3 miles south-east of Croydon and this was the club's first game in London. They had a very strong eleven for some years at this time and the club immediately accepted the Slindon challenge, in 1744, to play against "any parish in England".

Woburn v London

Woburn, Bedfordshire

Monday, 1 August 1743

London won by 3 runs (ASW)

Scores are known: London 46 & 60; Woburn 72 & 31.

Note that Mr Waghorn refers to this game in CS but he has the year wrong: it was played in 1743, not 1742 as he has it. For correct information, see ASW.

London v Woburn

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 8 August 1743

London won by 1 wicket (ASW)

Scores are known: Woburn 104 & 36; London 93 & 48-9.

Sevenoaks v London

The Vine, Sevenoaks, Kent

Tuesday, 23 – Wednesday, 24 August 1743

London won 6 runs (ASW)

Scores are known: London 41 & 54; Sevenoaks 49 & 40. Sevenoaks had been 24-6 in the second innings at close of play on the Tuesday, still needing 23 to win.

London v Sevenoaks

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 29 August 1743

London won (DC)

The match report states that London won "with great difficulty". The standards of journalism and editing at the time are self-evident when you read that: "the match played on Sevenoaks Vine, being won with great difficulty by London, has caused several considerable bets to be laid, between the noblemen and gentlemen then present; 'tis desired all persons will keep the utmost extent of the line".

London v Sevenoaks

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Wednesday, 14 September 1743

result unknown (DC)

Pre-announced as "the third great match of cricket" between the two sides. It followed the games on 23 & 20 August (see above). As London won the first two, the series as such was already decided. No report of the outcome of the third match could be found.

London v Middlesex, Bucks & Berks

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 19 September 1743

London won by 53 runs (DC)

Scores are known: London 70 & 97; MB&B 71 & 43

It was announced beforehand that: "The days being short, it is ordered that the wickets be pitched at 10 o'clock. This will be the last great match of the season".

James and John Bryant

James Bryant (died May 1755) and his brother John (c.1717 – 23 July 1772) were leading players through the 1740s and were especially adept at the single wicket version of the game which reached its peak of popularity during their careers. The Bryants were always associated with Bromley Cricket Club and Kent, regularly playing alongside the likes of Robert Colchin and Durling. It is believed, though not certain, that they were Bromley locals. According to Ashley-Cooper, John was a bricklayer but nothing else is known of the brothers outside cricket.

It is possible that one of the brothers took part in the London v Surrey game at the Artillery Ground on 2 September 1742 as "a Kent player from Bromley" assisted London as a given man, although Colchin is the more likely participant. The first definite mention of John Bryant is in 1743 and of James in 1744. John's known career spanned the 1743 to 1756 seasons and involved 19 single wicket and 13 significant appearances. James' known career spanned the 1744 to 1751 seasons with 11 single wicket and 11 significant appearances. In addition, there were two significant matches in 1744 which featured one player called J Bryant and it is not known which of them played in these games.

The first definite mention of John Bryant is in the single wicket "threes" match at the Artillery Ground on Monday, 11 July 1743. The six players involved were stated by the London Evening Post to be "the best in England". They were William Hodsoll (Dartford), John Cutbush (Maidstone) and Val Romney (Sevenoaks) playing as Three of Kent; and Richard Newland (Slindon), William Sawyer (Richmond) and John Bryant (Bromley) playing as Three of All-England. Hodsoll and Newland were the captains. Kent won by 2 runs. The crowd was computed (sic) to be 10,000. A return match was arranged at Sevenoaks Vine on Wednesday, 27 July, but it did not come off.

One of the Bryants played in each of the two great matches of 1744 from which the earliest scorecards have survived, but it is not known which one in each case. The games were London v Slindon on Saturday, 2 June, and Kent v All-England on Monday, 18 June. Later in the season, Bromley accepted the Slindon Challenge to play any parish in England but it is not known if the game took place. On Monday, 17 September, John Bryant was again named as one of "the best in England" when he took part in a "threes" match with Colchin and Val Romney against Richard Newland, Edward Aburrow and Joe Harris. On Monday, 1 October, another lucrative "threes" match involved both the Bryant brothers and this is the first definite mention of James. They were on opposite sides: James teamed with Colchin and Joe Harris; John with Romney and Thomas Waymark.

During the next three seasons, the Bryants were regularly involved in major fixtures, both significant and single wicket. In 1747, they played for Kent against All-England in the biggest significant match of the season. 1748 was the great year of single wicket, which has never been more popular before or since. There were five matches in which both Bryants took part and one which featured John only. In 1749, the brothers were "given men" playing for Surrey against All-England and then both played for Colchin's invitation XI against Stephen Dingate's team. There was a tri-series of matches between Kent and Surrey in 1750 with the brothers both playing for Kent, who won the first and third matches of the series, the decider by 1 wicket. Later in the season, they played for Dartford as given men against Addington, Dartford winning the match by 6 runs, and then for Dingate's "fives" team in a tri-series against Tom Faulkner's side.

James Bryant made his last known appearances in 1751 when he was in the Kent team that lost twice to All-England in May. John did not play in these matches. There were two Bromley v Dartford games later in the 1751 season but it is not known who took part. James Bryant died four years later.

John Bryant continued until 1756, the year in which the Seven Years War began. He was by then about 38 or 39 years old. Cricket was severely curtailed by the impact of the war and John Bryant's career probably finished within a year or two of the outbreak. He is not known to have played for Bromley again and the later mentions of him are as a given man for both Dartford and London. He was last recorded on Monday, 6 September 1756 playing for Dartford against London at the Artillery Ground. He died on 23 July 1772.

john cutbush

John Cutbush (dates of birth and death unknown) from Maidstone was a famous Kent player. By profession he was a clockmaker in Maidstone. He must have begun playing in the 1730s, or earlier, when match details are scarce but by 1743, when he is first mentioned in contemporary reports, he is included among the six best players in England. This was when he took part in a "threes" contest at the Artillery Ground alongside his Kent colleagues William Hodsoll and Val Romney against Richard Newland, William Sawyer and John Bryant.

In 1744, Cutbush played for Kent in the famous match at the Artillery Ground which forms the first entry in Scores & Biographies. He was involved in the final partnership with Hodsoll, scoring 7* as Kent won by that one wicket. Cutbush may have been a veteran by then because that is the last we read of him.

These two matches are the only mentions of Cutbush in surviving sources. There seems little doubt that he was a considerable player whose best years were behind him when reports of the matches became more informative.

william hodsoll

William Hodsoll was born in 1718 and baptised at Ash Parish Church in Kent on Tuesday, 28 October 1718. He lived at Dartford from 1742 to 1748 and was a tanner. According to the description of him in James Love's poem of 1744, Hodsoll was a fast bowler and also a useful batsman.

Hodsoll is recorded in 2 single wicket events and 11 significant matches. The 1743 single wicket event is the first mention of him and he was acclaimed one of the best six players. He was the outstanding bowler in the Kent v All-England match of 1744 when he took at least 8 wickets in the match. After those two references, his name appears only sporadically until his final recorded appearance for Dartford v All-England on Dartford Brent in 1752.

He died on Saturday, 30 November 1776, aged 58, and is buried in the chancel of Ash church.

tom peake

Tom Peake (died 1767, probably at Orpington in Kent) was a noted player of the mid-18th century. He is believed to have come from Chelsfield in Kent and is known to have lived there and at nearby Orpington. It is possible that he played for Dartford, which was a leading club at the time, as well as for Kent county cricket teams and All-England.

Peake is known through two appearances in significant matches. He was first recorded as a given man playing for Addington against the London Cricket Club in 1743, a game that Addington won by an innings. His second and last documented mention is six years later in June 1749 when he played for Stephen Dingate's XI in a challenge match against Robert Colchin's XI at the Artillery Ground.

ridgeway

Ridgeway (first name and dates of birth and death unknown) was a noted player for Sussex and All-England. He is first recorded in 1743 when he was reported to be one of the six best players in England. This was when he was due to play in a big "threes" match at the Artillery Ground that attracted high stakes and a crowd in excess of 10,000 (according to the London Evening Post). Ridgeway did not play in the match, however, probably due to injury, and he was replaced by John Cutbush.

In 1744, Ridgeway played for Slindon against London Cricket Club in the match from which the earliest known scorecard has survived.

In 1745, after Sussex lost to Surrey at Arundel, Lord John Philip Sackville in a letter dated 14 September to the Duke of Richmond, Sussex's patron, said: "I wish you had let Ridgeway play instead of your stopper behind it might have turned the match in our favour". That is the last mention of this considerable player, whose career probably began in the 1720s or 1730s when match reports did not include much detail.

william sawyer

William Sawyer was Richmond from beginning to end. He was born there on 3 December 1712; played his cricket there; was an innkeeper there; and died there on 2 April 1761. His best years were probably in the 1730s but unfortunately there are no contemporary mentions of him during that time.

There was a single wicket match in 1736 between two London players, Wakeland and Oldner, and "two famous Richmond players who are esteemed the best two in England". Unfortunately, the report did not name the Richmond duo but it is not unreasonable to suggest that Sawyer might have been one of them. He was 23 at the time and, seven years later, he was categorically described as one of the best six players in England.

Sawyer played in both of the famous matches in 1744 which have left surviving scorecards. He scored 4 and 4 for London against Slindon in the first match and then scored 0 and 5 for Kent against All-England. The last mention of Sawyer was in 1747 when he was again named in an All-England team to play Kent. He is definitely recorded in 4 significant matches from 1743 to 1747 and in the 1743 single wicket event; plus possibly the 1736 single wicket.

Val Romney

Valentine "Val" Romney was born c.1718 and died in 1773 at Sevenoaks in Kent. A specialist batsman, he was mainly associated with Kent but also represented All-England. Romney was lauded by James Love as a "mighty play'r" when he captained the Kent XI that played All-England in the great match at the Artillery Ground on Monday, 18 June 1744. Although information about his career is limited by a lack of surviving data, I have found that he made 11 single wicket and 14 significant appearances between 1743 and 1751. It is likely that he lived his whole life at Sevenoaks where he was employed by Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset, as head gardener at Knole House, a post later occupied by John Minshull. By 1768, the Sackvilles still rewarded him with a Christmas gratuity of two guineas.

The first definite mention of Val Romney is dated Monday, 11 July 1743, when he took part in a single wicket "threes" match at the Artillery Ground and the six players were stated to be "the best in England". They were William Hodsoll, John Cutbush (replacing Ridgeway, who could not play) and Romney playing as Three of Kent; and Richard Newland, William Sawyer and John Bryant playing as Three of All-England. Hodsoll and Newland were the captains. Kent won by 2 runs. The London Evening Post says the crowd was computed (sic) to be 10,000. A return match was arranged at Sevenoaks Vine on Wednesday, 27 July, but "it did not come off".

In 1744, Romney captained Kent to victory against All-England in the celebrated match on 18 June. In August and September, he played for London as a "given man" in three matches against Surrey and, at the end of the 1744 season, he played in two "threes" matches at the Artillery Ground. The first was billed as "Long Robin's Side v Richard Newland's Side", the teams being Robert Colchin (Long Robin), Romney and John Bryant against Richard Newland, Edward Aburrow senior (replacing John Mills of Kent) and Joe Harris. The stake was two hundred guineas and the players involved were stated to be the "best in England". In the second match on Monday, 1 October, the sides were Colchin, James Bryant and Joe Harris versus Romney, John Bryant and Thomas Waymark.

In the 1745 season, Romney again played in a major "threes" match at the Artillery Ground on Monday, 24 June, when he was teamed with Hodsoll and Newland against Colchin, John Bryant and one of the Harris brothers. Hodsoll, Newland and Romney won by 7 runs. The biggest match of the year took place two days later between Long Robin's XI and Richard Newland's XI at the Artillery Ground. Long Robin's XI, including Romney, won "by over 70 runs".

Romney is not mentioned in 1746 sources. In 1747 he played for Kent against All-England on Monday, 31 August, at the Artillery Ground; and on Wednesday, 2 September, on Bromley Common. On Saturday, 5 September, there was a "threes" game at the Artillery Ground billed as "Long Robin's Side versus Stephen Dingate's Side". The teams were Colchin, John Harris and Romney against Stephen Dingate, Richard Newland and Thomas Jure. It was played for sixty guineas per side and the players were specially chosen from those who had played in the two Kent v All-England games.

In 1748, Romney is recorded in two single wicket matches. On Monday, 8 August, he and Colchin opposed Tom Faulkner and Joe Harris at "twos" in the Artillery Ground for twenty guineas a side. On Monday, 29 August, he took part in a "fives" game at the Artillery Ground in which Tom Faulkner's Side defeated Long Robin's Side by four runs. The prize was 200 pounds. Romney was badly injured and could not run but, the rules being "play or pay", he was obliged to play as well as he could. The teams were Faulkner, Joe Harris, James Bryant, John Bryant and Durling versus Colchin, Romney, John Larkin, Jones of Kent and Maynard of Surrey.

In 1749, Romney made appearances for All-England against Surrey at Dartford Brent and for Long Robin's XI against Stephen Dingate's XI at the Artillery Ground. In July he played for All-England in a "fives" match" against Addington. There is just one mention of Romney in 1750 when he played in the Kent side that defeated Surrey by 3 wickets in a match at Dartford Brent.

1751 is Romney's last known season although he may have continued for a few years more. Surviving data about matches in the 1750s is scarce. There was a general reduction in matches through the decade caused initially by the deaths of key patrons and then compounded by the impact of the Seven Years War. Romney made two appearances in May 1751 when he played for Kent against All-England. Kent, weakened by the recent death of Robert Colchin, were well beaten in both games.

Val Romney's last recorded appearance was in a single wicket "fives" match for Kent against Surrey at the Artillery Ground on Monday, 3 June 1751. The Kent team was Tom Faulkner (given man), John & Thomas Bell, Stone and Romney. The Surrey team was Stephen Dingate, John Harris, Joe Harris, Stephen Harding and Perry. Kent won "although the betting was in favour of Surrey".

F S Ashley-Cooper, whose ASW is the main source for Romney's career, says of Romney that "he was a most famous player, his name being found in nearly all the great matches of his time" and that "as a batsman and single wicket player he was very celebrated".

other matches

Greenwich & Deptford v London

The Heath, Blackheath, Kent

Thursday, 9 June 1743

G&D won (DC)

Played for "a considerable sum".

Lewes v Pevensey

The Downs, near Lewes, Sussex

Wednesday, 3 August 1743

result unknown (ASW)

The venue was described as "on Lewes Down, near the Horse-Course".

London v Horsmonden & Weald

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 5 – Tuesday, 6 September 1743

London won by 1 wicket (DC)

Three runs were still required when the last man went in.

London v Horsmonden & Weald

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 12 September 1743

London won (DC)

No details were reported of this return match which London won perhaps without difficulty.

1744

the history

While war continued in Europe and India, yet another Anglo-French conflict erupted in North America. This was King George's War (1744 – 1748), the third North American war fought between 1689 and 1763. It focused on the French fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, which fell to the British in June 1745. Thereafter, France concentrated its efforts on retaking it but failed to do so.

George Smith

George Smith (date of birth unknown; died Monday 29 June 1761 at The Castle in Marlborough) will occur frequently in this narrative for some years as he was a most significant individual. He was both the "keeper" (i.e., strictly speaking a leaseholder) of the Artillery Ground and he was the landlord of the neighbouring Py'd Horse Inn, through which admittance to the ground was compulsory. He was an occasional player in significant matches but he seems to have been one who "made the numbers up".

Smith's real significance was in his role as groundkeeper through the 1740s until 1752. He had a number of well-publicised problems over the years, especially around admission fees and security. It is possible that several planned matches were cancelled whenever the Honourable Artillery Company demanded its ground back or, as may have occurred, simply took umbrage. Smith was sometimes accused of having breached the terms of his lease and these instances may have been due to crowd control issues, which was a frequent problem at big matches, or perhaps to do with excessive gambling. He had numerous problems with money. In 1747, he issued a statement that: ''These matches being attended with great Charge the Door, for the Future, will be Six-pence; Two-pence not being sufficient to defray the Expence''. Followed by another that: ''The Town may be certain that the taking Six-pence Admittance is out of no avaricious Temper. Two-pence being greatly insufficient to the Charge that attends the Matches, which Mr Smith is ready and willing to make appear to any Gentleman''.

In 1748, Smith declared bankruptcy. Evidently his pricing problems of previous years did have some basis in needing to balance the books after all. A number of notices appeared in the press during the first six months of 1748 but Smith eventually resolved his problems, perhaps through the sale of other property, and was able to retain control of the Artillery Ground until 1752. On Thursday 27 February 1752, the Daily Advertiser reported that ''George Smith of the Artillery Ground has taken the late Duke of Somerset’s house at Marlborough and intends to open it as an inn''. Smith offered the Artillery Ground and its dwelling house, etc. on lease for 7 years. He had evidently overcome his bankruptcy problems. On Saturday 30 May 1752, the Daily Advertiser carried another notice re the Artillery Ground that ''gentlemen may be supplied with bats and balls'' and that ''the ground is kept in good order for play by your humble servant William Sharpe''.

On Thursday 2 July 1761, the Whitehall Evening Post reported the death of Mr George Smith on Monday 29 June at The Castle in Marlborough. The report stated that he was formerly the keeper of the Artillery Ground and the landlord of the adjoining Py'd Horse in Chiswell Street.

the cricket

Monday, 23 April. Death of Sir William Gage (1695–1744) who was one of the greatest of cricket's early patrons, especially in his native Sussex.

Monday, 11 June. The Penny London Morning Advertiser announced a match on Walworth Common in Surrey between "11 gentlemen of the Borough of Southwark and 11 gentlemen of High Kent and Blackman; the wickets to be pitched at one o'clock". The announcement continued: "The gentlemen who play this match have subscribed for a Holland smock of one guinea value, which will be run for by two jolly wenches, one known by the name of The Little Bit of Blue (the handsome Broom Girl) at the fag end of Kent Street, and the other Black Bess of the Mint. They are to run in drawers only and there is excellent sport expected". So much for the fun. Next comes the serious stuff: "Captain Vinegar with a great many of his bruisers and bulldogs will attend to make a ring, that no civil spectators may be incommoded by the rabble".

If you are looking for a report that both illustrates and summarises the popular culture of Georgian times, this one is as good as any: you have sport, gentlemen, the rabble, jolly wenches and bruisers. Add some smugglers like Cuddy, alleged blackguards like Colchin, a few aristocrats like Richmond, a drop of alcohol (all right, a lot of alcohol), a regiment of redcoats, a gallows or two and, after making a suitable wager on the outcome, stir gently.....

The Penny London Morning Advertiser on Wednesday, 27 June advertised a match to be played next day on Woolwich Common between Woolwich and "the Club in Long Lane, Southwark". (GB18)

Here, courtesy of Ian Maun, is another minute of the Honourable Artillery Company:

"The Court being informed that Mr. Smith attended at the Door, it was moved that he should be called in, and the Question being put, it was carried, accordingly he was called in and informed by the Chairman that he was Ordered by the Court to tell him That the Company expected he should always Act according to the Tenures of his Lease. And also that the Court had appointed an Exercise on the Ground on Thursday next, the expected he should advertize the putting off of the Crickett Match before Advertized to be played that Day on account of the said Exercise. – Honourable Artillery Company, Minutes of the Court of Armory, Tuesday, July 17th 1744".

George Smith in his role of groundkeeper had a number of well-publicised problems over the years, especially around admission fees and security. It is possible that several planned matches were cancelled whenever the company demanded its ground back or, as above, simply took umbrage. It is not known how Smith had breached the terms of his lease on this occasion but it may have been a crowd control issue or perhaps to do with excessive gambling.

The First Laws of Cricket

Determined by "several cricket clubs" at the Star and Garter in Pall Mall, the earliest known code of Laws was enacted in 1744 but not actually printed, so far as it is known, until 1755. They were possibly an upgrade of an earlier code. The Laws were drawn up by the noblemen and gentlemen members of the London Cricket Club, which was based at the Artillery Ground, although the printed version in 1755 states that "several cricket clubs" were involved. The intention must have been to establish a universal codification. A general set of rules was in place subject to local variations but, apart from cases where Articles of Agreement were drawn up, as in Richmond v Brodrick in 1727, the laws as such were agreed orally. By and large, the same rules had existed since time immemorial.

The Game at Cricket

The Pitching the first Wicket is to be determined by the Toss of a Piece of Money.

When the first Wicket is pitch'd, and the Popping-Crease cut, which must be exactly Three Feet Ten Inches from the Wicket, the other Wicket is to be pitch'd directly opposite, at Twenty-Two Yards Distance, and the other Popping-Crease cut Three Feet and Ten Inches before it.

The Bowling-Crease must be cut in a direct Line from each Stump.

The Stumps must be Twenty-Two Inches long, and the Bail Six Inches.

The Ball must weigh between Five and Six Ounces.

When the Wickets are both pitch'd, and the Creases cut, the Party that wins the Toss-up, may order which Side shall go inn (sic) first, at his option.

Laws for the Bowlers

Four Balls and Over.

The Bowler must deliver the Ball, with one Foot behind the Crease, even with the Wicket; and when he has bowl'd one Ball, or more, shall bowl to the Number of Four before he changes Wickets, and he shall change but once in the same Innings.

He may order the Player that is inn at his Wicket, to stand on which Side of it he pleases, at a reasonable Distance.

If he delivers the Ball, with his hinder Foot over the Bowling-Crease, the Umpire shall call no Ball, tho' it be struck, or the Player be bowl'd out; which he shall do without being ask'd, and no Person shall have any Right to question him.

Laws for the Strikers, or Those that are Inn

If the Wicket is bowl'd down, it's out.

If he strikes, or treads down, of falls himself upon his Wicket in striking (but not in over-running) it's out. A Stroke, or Nip, over or under his Bat, or upon his Hands (but not Arms) if the Ball be held before it touches the Ground, though it be hugg'd to the Body, it's out.

If in striking, both his Feet are over the Popping-Crease, and his Wicket put down, except his Bat is down within, it's out.

If he runs out of his Ground to hinder a Catch, it's out.

If a Ball is nipp'd up, and he strikes it again wilfully, before it came to the Wicket, it's out.

If the Players have cross'd each other, he that runs for the Wicket that is put down, is out; If they are not cross'd, he that returns is out.

If in running a Notch, the Wicket is struck down by a Throw, before his Foot, Hand, or Bat is over the Popping-Crease, or a Stump hit by the Ball, though the Bail was down, it's out.

But if the Bail is down before, he that catches the Ball must strike a Stump out of the Ground, Ball in Hand, or else it's not out.

If the Striker touches, or takes up the Ball before it has lain quite still, unless ask'd by the Bowler, or Wicket-Keeper, it's out.

Bat, Foot or Hand over the Crease

When the Ball has been in Hand by one of the Keepers, or Stoppers, and the Player has been at Home, he may go where he pleases till the next Ball is bowl'd.

If either of the Strikers is cross'd, in his running Ground, designedly, the same must be determined by the Umpires.

N.B. The Umpires may order that Notch to be scored.

When the Ball is hit up, either of the Strikers may hinder the Catch in his running Ground; or if it is hit directly across the Wickets, the other Player may place his Body anywhere within the swing of the Bat, so as to hinder the Bowler from catching it; but he must neither strike at it, nor touch it with his Hands.

If a Striker nips a Ball up just before him, he may fall before his Wicket, or pop down his Bat, before it comes to the Wicket, to save it.

The Bail hanging on one Stump, though the Ball hit the Wicket, it's not out.

Laws for the Wicket-Keepers

The Wicket-Keepers shall stand at a reasonable Distance behind the Wicket, and shall not move till the Ball is out of the Bowler's Hand, and shall not, by any Noise, incommode the Striker; and if his Hands, Knees, Foot, or Head, be over, or before the Wicket, though the Ball hit it, it shall not be out.

Laws for the Umpires

To allow Two Minutes for each Man to come inn when one is out, and Ten Minutes between each Hand.

To mark the Ball that it may not be changed.

They are sole Judges of all Outs and Innings; of all fair or unfair Play; of all frivolous Delays; of all Hurts, whether real or pretended, and are discretionally to allow what Time they think proper before the Game goes on again.

In Case of a real Hurt to a Striker, they are to allow another to come inn, and the Person hurt to come inn again; but are not to allow a fresh Man to play, on either Side, on any Account.

They are sole Judges of all Hindrances; crossing the Players in running, and standing unfair to strike, and in Case of Hindrance may order a notch to be scored.

They are not to order any Man out, unless appeal'd to by one of the Players.

These laws are to the Umpires jointly.

Each Umpire is the sole Judge of all Nips and Catches; Innings and Outs; good or bad Runs, at his own Wicket, and his Determination shall be absolute; and he shall not be changed for another Umpire, without the Consent of both Sides.

When the four Balls are bowl'd, he is to call over.

These Laws are separately.

When both Umpires call Play three Times, 'tis at the Peril of giving the Game from them that refuse to play.

Interestingly, the Laws do not say the bowler must roll (or skim) the ball and there is no mention of prescribed arm action so, in theory, a pitched delivery would have been legal, though perhaps controversial. Equally, there is nothing to specify or even recommend the shape or size of the bat. As we shall see, the introduction of pitched deliveries brought about a revolution in batmaking and this foreshadowed controversy that later Laws (i.e., in 1774) were forced to address.

Also interesting is the consistent use of the plural when speaking of the wicket-keeper(s). This may indicate that the fielders close to the stumps were thought of as keepers and certainly they would have been subject to the same rules about noise, movement and encroachment.

single wicket

Monday, 20 August. There was a single wicket match "for a large sum" between a Sevenoaks player (perhaps Val Romney) and a London player. No other details are known. (ASW)

Monday, 17 September. A big game between two threes at the Artillery Ground. Billed as Long Robin's Side v Richard Newland's Side, the teams were Robert Colchin (Bromley), Val Romney (Sevenoaks) and John Bryant (Bromley) against Richard Newland (Slindon), Edward Aburrow senior (Slindon) and Joe Harris (Addington). Aburrow replaced John Mills of Horsmonden, the gamekeeper and "famous Kent bowler" who was originally chosen. The stake was two hundred guineas and the players involved were stated to be the "best in England". Once again, despite this being a major fixture, the outcome is unknown. (ASW)

Monday, 1 October. Another "threes" game was played at the Artillery Ground for a considerable sum and again the outcome is unknown. The sides were Robert Colchin (Bromley), James Bryant (Bromley) and Joe Harris (Addington) versus John Bryant (Bromley), Val Romney (Sevenoaks) and Thomas Waymark (Berkshire).

significant matches

"Little" and "Tall" Bennett

These two were probably brothers and played for the London club in the 1740s and 1750s. They also played for All-England teams and were prominent in single wicket, which was hugely popular at that time. Unfortunately, very little is known about the Bennetts outside contemporary match reports. Their first names are not recorded anywhere and they are consistently referred to as "Little" Bennett and "Tall" Bennett, so we do know that they were not the same height!

Both the Bennetts were acclaimed as great batsmen. ASW quotes from The Connoisseur (no. 132, dated 1746) an article about Robert Colchin and this includes: "....but his (Colchin's) greatest excellence is cricket-playing, in which he is reckoned as good a bat as either of the Bennetts...."

The Bennetts are first noted in 1744 when both played for London against Slindon. In 1745, we find "Little" Bennett twice playing for Surrey but as a "given man". In 1752, they both played for Westminster against the famous Addington club. In 1753, "Tall" Bennett played against London as a given man for a Marylebone XI.

The last we hear of them is in 1755 when they both took part in a "fives" match playing for London against Windsor & Eton on Kennington Common.

Surrey v All-England

Moulsey Hurst, near Molesey, Surrey

Monday, 14 May 1744

Surrey won by 4 runs (ASW)

The Prince of Wales was involved in the promotion of this match and arranged the next match the following Monday at the Artillery Ground.

All-England v Surrey

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 21 May 1744

result unknown (ASW)

All it is known is that it started at 11 o'clock and was completed in one day.

London &c. v Slindon &c.

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Saturday, 2 June 1744

Slindon won by 55 runs (TJM)

Slindon &c. 102 (G Jackson 19, John Harris 18) & 102-6d (John Harris 47, A Newland 22); London &c. 79 (Butler 18) & 70 (S Dingate 19, T Waymark 16)

The Daily Advertiser carried various notices from Thursday 31 May until Sunday 3 June which announced that two untitled sides would play in the Artillery Ground on Saturday 2 June. On 31 May, the paper said that the teams would consist of "four gentlemen from Slindon, one from Eastbourne, two from Hamilton (sic) in Sussex, one from Addington and three from Lingfield in Surrey" against "four gentlemen of London, one from Richmond, one from Reigate, three from Addington in Surrey, one from Bray Wick in Berkshire and one from Arundel in Sussex". This was followed by the usual reminder about no dogs and the need to obtain a pass ticket if leaving the ground during play.

There is no such place as Hamilton in Sussex and it is possible that the reporter was referring to Hambledon, which is close to the Sussex border. If so, this may be the earliest reference to Hambledon in terms of major matches.

The Daily Advertiser changed its notice on Friday 1 June through 2 and 3 June by confusingly announcing the names of the players on each side. However, the names in the paper are not the same as those on the scorecard kept by the 2nd Duke of Richmond. The same (i.e., incorrect) names were also reported on 3 June, the day after the match. The paper announced that the two teams would consist of: Cuddy (i.e., Edward Aburrow senior), Richard Newland, Adam Newland, John Newland, Ridgeway, Green (all of Sussex); William Sawyer, Stevens, Stevens, Collins (all of Surrey); and Norris of London versus Stephen Dingate, John Harris, Joe Harris, Tom Faulkner, George Jackson, Maynard (all of Surrey); ? Bryant (Bromley), George Smith, ? Bennett, Howlett (all of London); and the famous Thomas Waymark, now of Berkshire. No titles were given to the teams.

The inclusion in the former team of two players named Stevens from Surrey would suggest that the famous Edward "Lumpy" Stevens had forebears in the sport. Lumpy's career must have begun in the 1750s.

According to the 2nd Duke of Richmond's papers, which are now in the possession of the West Sussex Records Office, including the recorded scores of this match, the teams were somewhat different to those advertised. The scorecard is currently the earliest known in which individual and team scores are recorded but it lacks details of dismissal.

Slindon: Edward Aburrow senior (aka Cuddy), ? Bryant, Richard Newland, Adam Newland, – Ridgeway, Joe Harris, George Jackson, John Harris, – Norris, – Andrews, George Smith.

London: – Howlett, Stephen Dingate, William Sawyer, – Maynard, ? Bennett, Tom Faulkner, Thomas Waymark, – Butler, – Green, – Hodder, – Collins.

There were two players called Bryant (James and John) and two called Bennett who were always referred to as "Little" and "Tall". It is not known which player in each of these pairs took part. Note also that there were two Harrises, John and Joseph, who both played; and of course the three Newland brothers of whom John did not play. Edward Aburrow senior, alias Cuddy the notorious smuggler, was the father of the later Hambledon player of the same name.

Thomas Waymark was formerly employed by Slindon's benefactor the 2nd Duke of Richmond but he is here given as a Berkshire resident and playing for the London XI.

The match included a declaration by the Slindon team in their second innings at 102-6. They made 102 & 102-6d against London's scores of 79 & 70.

This was also the first game it is known of at which tickets for readmission were issued to the spectators.

Stephen Dingate

Stephen Dingate is reported in one source to have been a barber. It is known that he was born at Reigate in Surrey and was employed by the 2nd Duke of Richmond in some capacity. He was a prominent single wicket player in the 1740s but it is possible his career began a decade or more earlier and he may have been contemporary with Thomas Waymark who began in the 1720s. Sadly, very little is known of this leading player and even the spelling of his name is uncertain as, in a few sources, he is called Dungate.

Dingate's known career consists of 14 single wicket and 12 significant matches starting with the two scorecarded games in 1744. He was prolific in single wicket during 1746 to 1748 when this form enjoyed its halcyon days and frequently played for threes subscribed by Richmond. He made more significant match appearances in the early 1750s and was last recorded playing as one of several given men for Westminster against Addington on 20 July 1752.

Kent v All-England

The Heath, Coxheath, Kent

Friday, 15 June 1744

result unknown (MW)

In his Index to Waghorn, Martin Wilson states that the famous match at the Artillery Ground on Monday, 18 June (see below) was the return of a match played at Coxheath on Friday 15 June.

Kent v All-England

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 18 June 1744

Kent won by 1 wicket (SB1)

All-England 40 (Richard Newland 18*; William Hodsoll 4w) & 70 (Richard Newland 15; William Hodsoll 4w); Kent 53 & 58-9 (John Cutbush 7*, William Hodsoll 5*)

Kent: Lord John Philip Sackville, Robert Colchin, John Mills, William Hodsoll, John Cutbush, William Sawyer, Val Romney, Kipps (wk), ? Bartram, ? Danes, ? Mills.
All-England: Stephen Dingate, John Harris, Joe Harris, Adam Newland, John Newland, Richard Newland, Edward Aburrow senior, J Bryant, Thomas Waymark, George Smith, ? Green. It is not known which of James or John Bryant was playing.

This is the first match for which a full scorecard including dismissals has survived and it is the opening entry in Scores & Biographies. It is a singularly famous game, which for a long time had the earliest known preserved score until publication of the score from the earlier trial match on 2 June 1744.

Arthur Haygarth says the score was taken from The Gentleman's Magazine but apparently for 1746 as he dated the match in that year. In fact, it took place on 18 June 1744 as shown above.

The game was arranged by Lord John Philip Sackville who challenged "All-England" to play against his county, Kent. The match was extremely close and must have had an exciting finish. It was low scoring and the two not out batsmen at the end scored 5 and 7, so Kent must have needed at least 5 to win when their 9th wicket fell.

Sackville himself is reported to have held a remarkable catch in the second innings to dismiss All-England's best player, Richard Newland of Slindon, and that may have been the defining moment of the match. Newland was the top scorer in the match with 18* and 15. The leading wicket taker was William Hodsoll who took 8 in the match, 4 in each innings, for Kent.

The game is a statistician's nightmare given the number of players sharing names and not being differentiated by the scorers, whom Haygarth denounced for their "laziness". But the fact is that we are very lucky to have any details at all. It was not until 1772 that scorecards began to be kept on a regular basis.

The poet James Love (1722 – 1774) commemorated the above match in his Cricket: An Heroic Poem. There is a reference in GB18 (on p. 19, under 1745) to the first publication of this poem. As announced in the Daily Advertiser on 4 July 1745, it was priced 1/- and "illustrated with critical observations of Scriblerus Maximus (!)". A footnote says: "Printed for W Bickerton at the Gazette in the Temple Exchange near the Inner Temple Gate, Fleet Street". Love was himself a cricketer and a member of Richmond Cricket Club in Surrey.

On Saturday, 30 June, the Daily Advertiser reported the following observation about the match:

"It was observed by the noblemen and gentlemen there present that there was great disorder so that it was with difficulty the match was played out. It is ordered for the future that each person pay for going into the Ground sixpence, and there will be for the better conveniency (sic) of all gentlemen that favour me with their company, a ring of benches that will hold at least 800 persons. And it is further desired that no person whatever, except those appointed to keep order and the players engaged for the day, be admitted to walk within the ring". (GB18)

Two Elevens

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Thu 5 July 1744

result unknown (DC)

Described as "a scratch match between 22 picked players from Kent, Sussex, Surrey and London and all the most-famed places in England". It was postponed from the previous day because of the weather (Daily Advertiser: Thursday, 5 July).

The Penny London Morning Advertiser on Friday, 6 July observed that: "the small appearance of the company is a plain proof of the resentment of the Public to any imposition, for the price on going into the ground being raised from twopence to sixpence, it is thought there were not 200 persons present when before there used to be 7000 to 8000; which plainly verifies the old proverb – all cover, all loose (sic)". (GB18)

Two Elevens

Moulsey Hurst/Artillery Ground

Friday, 6 – Saturday, 7 July 1744

result unknown (ASW)

Tom Faulkner

Tom Faulkner, known as Long Tom, was a prominent single wicket player who frequently played in challenge matches at the Artillery Ground. He was a member of the Addington club in Surrey and appears in the records from 1744 until 1761. He was also a well-known prizefighter under his sobriquet of Long Tom. Unfortunately, very little is known of his personal details.

It is known that this was a return game to the one played on 5 July and that it was unfinished at Moulsey Hurst on Friday 6 July, so the players continued at the Artillery Ground on Saturday 7 July. The state of play on Friday night was that one side led by 31 runs with 2 second innings wickets standing. On the Saturday, price of admission was reduced to the "as usual" two pence.

London v Richmond

Kennington Common, Kennington, Surrey

Monday, 9 July 1744

result unknown (GB18)

Advertised in the Daily Advertiser same morning but no match report was found.

London v Woburn

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Saturday, 21 July 1744

result unknown (ASW)

This match was postponed from Thursday 19 July because the Hon. Artillery Company required the ground.

London v Addington

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 30 July 1744

result unknown (ASW)

"The wickets were pitched at one o'clock".

Surrey v London

Moulsey Hurst, near Molesey, Surrey

Friday, 24 August 1744

London won (ASW)

Robert Colchin of Bromley and Val Romney of Sevenoaks were given men for London. Played for £50 a side.

London v Surrey

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 27 August 1744

London won (ASW)

Robert Colchin of Bromley and Val Romney of Sevenoaks were given men for London.

London v Bromley

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 3 September 1744

result unknown (ASW)

Bromley was a leading club at the time and later in the month was one of two (Addington being the other) to accept Slindon's challenge to play any parish in England.

London v Surrey

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Friday, 7 September 1744

result unknown (ASW)

Val Romney of Sevenoaks was a given man for London.

London v Slindon

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 10 & Tuesday, 11 September 1744

Slindon won (ASW)

The three Newland brothers and "Cuddy" (Edward Aburrow senior) all played for Slindon. Play commenced at 12 noon on the first day but was affected by bad weather. Play on the Tuesday commenced at ten o'clock.

It was at the conclusion of this game that Slindon issued its famous challenge to play "any parish in England". They received immediate acceptances from Addington and Bromley who played Slindon in the next two matches.

Slindon v Addington

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Wednesday, 12 & Thursday, 13 September 1744

result unknown (TJM)

This was affected by bad weather on the 12th. At close of play each side had completed its first innings and Slindon had a lead of just two runs. Unfortunately, it is not known if this great match was completed on the 13th.

Slindon v Bromley

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Friday, 14 September 1744

result unknown (ASW)

As with the first challenge game, details of the result are unknown. Possibly it was rained off.

Two Elevens

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Wednesday, 19 September 1744

result unknown (ASW)

Described as a "scratch match" but between 22 of the "best players in England". No post-match reports were found.

"cuddy"

Edward Aburrow senior (dates of birth and death unknown) was a Sussex man, believed to have been a native of the famous village of Slindon where his son Edward "Curry" Aburrow was born. Aburrow senior was a smuggler and operated under an alias of "Cuddy" to disguise himself. This pseudonym has sometimes been used in cricket reports and scores.

Aburrow first appears in the records as a member of the Slindon team against London Cricket Club in the 1744 season. Later that season, he played for All-England against Kent in the famous match at the Artillery Ground. These two games have the earliest known scorecards.

Aburrow continued to play until at least the 1751 season. He is frequently found in single wicket contests and seems to have been very popular with the gamblers who frequented that form of cricket.

john and joseph harris

The brothers John Harris (dates of birth and death unknown) and Joseph Harris (dates of birth and death unknown) were famous players in the 1740s and 1750s. They both played for the Addington Cricket Club which had one of the strongest teams in England at the time. With the Harris brothers playing, the Addington club first came to prominence on 25 July 1743 when its team defeated London Cricket Club at the Artillery Ground by an innings & 4 runs (see ASW). London made 32 & 74; Addington 110.

Addington is in Surrey, about 3 miles south-east of Croydon, and that was the club's first game in London. They had a very strong eleven for some years at this time and the club immediately accepted the Slindon challenge, in 1744, to play against "any parish in England".

John Harris top scored with 47 for Slindon against London in the famous 1744 match from which the earliest known scorecard has survived. Later that season, the Harrises played for All-England against Kent in the second match that has a surviving scorecard (see S&B, page1).

The single wicket form of the game was very popular in the 1740s and the Harris brothers were frequently involved in matches that attracted high stakes, which underlines what good players they were. They continued playing into the 1750s but unfortunately very little is known about them outside contemporary match reports.

george jackson

George Jackson (dates of birth and death unknown) was a noted player for the famous Addington Cricket Club and for Surrey. Known to have been a good batsman, he also featured in single wicket matches and for All-England. Jackson is first recorded on 2 June 1744 when he played for Slindon against London Cricket Club in the famous match from which the earliest known scorecard has survived.

Jackson's name occurs in numerous teamsheets until the 1752 season when his last known appearance was for Addington against a Westminster XI. After 1752, the number of match reports decreased and cricket was badly affected by the Seven Years War, so it can only be guessed when Jackson and other players of that time ended their playing careers.

kipps

Kipps aka Kips was the earliest noted wicketkeeper in Georgian cricket. He was from Eltham in Kent but other personal information about him, including his first name, is unknown. Kipps played for Kent county cricket teams and also for All-England. He is first recorded in the famous Kent v All-England match at the Artillery Ground on 18 June 1744, though it is believed he had already had a long career before that. This match is the opening entry in Scores & Biographies. Kipps was top scorer in both innings for Kent, who won by 1 wicket, and he completed one stumping and took a catch. He continued to play until 1747 when he is last recorded.

john mills

John Mills (dates of birth and death unknown) was referred to in the sources as the "famous Kent bowler". He is known to have been a gamekeeper and he came from Horsmonden, where he played for the local cricket club. John Mills is first mentioned as a member of the Kent team that played against All-England in the famous match at the Artillery Ground on 18 June 1744 which became the first entry in Scores & Biographies. His brother, whose first name is unknown, also played.

Mills was selected to take part in a major "threes" contest at the Artillery Ground on 17 September 1744 along with Robert Colchin, Val Romney, John Bryant, Richard Newland and Joseph Harris. The stake was two hundred guineas and the players involved were stated to be the best in England. Unfortunately, Mills could not play due to injury and this is the last mention of him.

1745

the history

18 March. Death of Sir Robert Walpole (1676 – 1745), recognised as the first British Prime Minister, in London.

Great Britain's military involvement in Europe, India and North America presented an opportunity to the Jacobite faction that was dedicated to restoration of the Stuart dynasty to the British throne. The Jacobites recognised the claim of the exiled Prince James Francis Edward Stuart (1688 – 1766), known as the Old Pretender, who was the son of the deposed King James II and VII. In December 1743, Stuart named his son Charles Edward Stuart (1720 – 1788), known as the Young Pretender, as his Prince Regent and gave Charles full authority to act in his name. On Tuesday, 23 July 1745, "Bonnie Prince Charlie" landed with his companions on Eriskay in the Hebrides and set about raising an army in Scotland. On Monday, 19 August, he raised his standard at Glenfinnan, which is at the head of Loch Shiel between Fort William and Mallaig, to begin the '45 Rebellion.

Saturday 21 September. The first battle of the '45 rebellion was fought at Prestonpans in Lothian. The Jacobite army defeated the only government force in Scotland. It is believed about 2500 soldiers fought on each side. The government commander, General Sir John Cope (1690 – 1760), had been left by the foreign wars with an inexperienced force. The Jacobites attacked at dawn by staging a "Highland Charge" and the Hanoverian troops broke at once and fled. Over 300 deaths were recorded.

the cricket

Friday, 10 May. The Ipswich Journal reported that: "All lovers of Cricket are hereby desired to meet at Gray's Coffee House (in Norwich) on Friday 17th inst. at 6 pm to settle rules for that manly diversion". A version of the The Laws of Cricket having been published the previous year, was this a meeting of dissenters, perhaps? (PVC)

Friday, 26 July. A ladies match took place on Gosden Common, near Guildford, between "XI Maids of Bramley" and "XI Maids of Hambleton". They all dressed in white but the Hambledon lasses wore red ribbons on their heads and the Bramley lasses wore blue. This is Hambledon near Godalming in Surrey, incidentally. Bramley is another Surrey village, also close to Godalming. The report is in CS and ASW. A further report in GB18 says the ladies played a return match at Hambledon, Surrey on Tuesday, 6 August.

single wicket

Monday, 24 June. A game between two threes in the Artillery Ground. The teams were William Hodsoll (Dartford), Val Romney (Sevenoaks) and Richard Newland (Slindon) versus Robert Colchin (Bromley), J Harris (Addington) and John Bryant (Bromley). It is not known which of John or Joe Harris was playing. Hodsoll's side won by 7 runs.

significant matches

London v Addington

Kennington Common, Kennington, Surrey

Monday, 6 May 1745

result unknown (PVC)

Reported in the Penny London Post dated Monday, 6 May. Stakes were one guinea a man and the wickets were to be pitched by 1 pm.

Addington v London

Addington Hill, near Croydon, Surrey

Thursday, 23 May 1745

Addington won (ASW)

No details are known except the result.

Bromley v London

Bromley Common, Bromley, Kent

Friday, 24 May 1745

Bromley won (ASW)

The precise venue was "behind the Bell Inn".

London v Addington

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 27 May 1745

London won (ASW)

The return game to the one on 23 May. The matches were probably arranged as a pair in advance.

London v Bromley

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 10 June 1745

London won by 10 runs (ASW)

The return game to the one on 24 May. London scored 23 and 75; Bromley scored 52 and 36.

London v Bromley

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 17 June 1745

London won by 7 wickets (DC)

Probably arranged after 10 June as a decider. The prize was 200 guineas. Bromley scored 65 and 29; London scored 48 and then "got the match and had only three hands out".

Long Robin's XI v Richard Newland's XI

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Wednesday, 26 June 1745

Long Robin's XI won "by over 70 runs" (ASW)

The teams are known but no details of the scores.

Long Robin's XI: Robert Colchin, Tom Faulkner, James Bryant, Joe Harris, – Broad , – Hodge, Val Romney, George Jackson, Robert Lascoe, John Harris, John Bowra.

Richard Newland's XI: Richard Newland, John Bryant, – Norton, Jacob Mann, "Little" Bennett, – Martin, – Howlett, "Tall" Bennett, William Anderson, – Norris, – Howard.

The match was "arranged by the noblemen and gentlemen of the London Club". Wickets were pitched at noon but play did not commence until one o'clock.

Two Elevens

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Friday, 5 July 1745

Sevenoaks &c. won by 5 wickets (ASW)

Effectively the same fixture as the previous one but it was advertised rather wordily as Sevenoaks, Bromley & Addington versus Slindon, Horsmonden, Chislehurst & London! As before, the match was "arranged by the noblemen and gentlemen of the London Club". There are no details of the players.

Kent v All-England

Bromley Common, Bromley, Kent

Friday, 12 July 1745

Kent won (ASW)

Played for a thousand guineas.

Trial Match

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Saturday, 13 July 1745

unknown (ASW)

Advertised simply as "a trial match, those cricketers participating who were down to play in the Kent v All-England match on the following Monday".

All-England v Kent

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 15 & Tuesday, 16 July 1745

All-England won by 119 runs (ASW)

Played for a thousand guineas. Richard Newland made 88 for All-England but it is not known if this was in one innings or if it was his match total. It was certainly a very high score either way given pitch conditions at the time.

Addington & Lingfield v Surrey

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 22 July 1745

unknown (ASW)

John Bryant and "Little" Bennett played for Surrey as given men.

Addington v Lingfield

Addington Hill, near Croydon, Surrey

Saturday, 3 August 1745

unknown (ASW)

No details of the match are known but a report states that "there was a cold Collation and the best of Liquours at George Williams' Red Cap Tent".

London v Addington

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 12 August 1745

unknown (ASW)

The report simply says that this was third match played this season between Addington and London.

Surrey v Sussex

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 19 August 1745

Surrey won "by several notches" (GB18/TJM)

Reported in the St James Evening Post on the same and the next day. Richard Newland played for Sussex.

It was on Monday 19 August that Charles Edward Stuart raised his standard at Glenfinnan to formally begin the '45 Rebellion.

Surrey v Sussex

Moulsey Hurst, near Molesey, Surrey

Wednesday, 21 August 1745

unknown (TJM)

The Daily Advertiser on Wednesday, 21 August announced: "The Streatham Captain (i.e., George Williams), with his Flying Squadron of Red Caps, will attend at his grand Tent, to entertain Gentlemen with a cold Collation, the best French Wines, and other Liquours".

Sussex v Surrey

Berry Hill, Arundel, Sussex

Monday, 26 August 1745

Surrey won? (TJM)

Berry Hill was also called Bury Hill.

It would seem that Surrey won the game in view of a comment made by Lord John Philip Sackville in a letter dated Saturday, 14 September to the 2nd Duke of Richmond, Sussex's patron: "I wish you had let Ridgeway play instead of your stopper behind it might have turned the match in our favour".

Addington & Lingfield v Surrey

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Monday, 16 September 1745

tbc (ASW)

John Bryant and "Little" Bennett played for Surrey as given men.

william anderson

William Anderson (dates of birth and death unknown) was a noted player of the mid-18th century who was principally associated with the famous London Cricket Club. He first appears in the records on 26 June 1745 when he played in a big match at the Artillery Ground for Richard Newland's XI versus Robert Colchin's XI along with nearly all the best players of the day. Anderson was a good single wicket player who made frequent appearances in that type of cricket, often playing for high stakes. His last recorded appearance was in 1752 playing for London in a single wicket match.

A match on 15 August 1753 between two unnamed elevens at the Artillery Ground was reported as a benefit match "for Mr Anderson of the Dial in Long Alley, Moorfields". This was presumably William Anderson and if a benefit was held, it is likely that his career had ended and perhaps in unfortunate circumstances. The two elevens were made up of various players from the general London area "with the best bowlers to be parted" (sic).

robert lascoe

Robert Lascoe (1715–1771) was a native of Bromley in Kent. He was a noted English cricketer of the mid-18th century who played for the Bromley club and for Kent. He also represented All-England. Lascoe is known to have made horse collars for a living. He is first recorded in June 1745 when he played for Robert Colchin's XI versus Richard Newland's XI at the Artillery Ground, his team winning by "over 70 runs". He is last heard of in 1748 when he was part of a Bromley team taking part in a "fives" tournament at the Artillery Ground.

other matches

Croydon v Lambeth

Kennington Common, Kennington, Surrey

Tuesday, 23 July 1745

unknown (ASW)

Played for "a great sum".

It was on Tuesday 23 July that Charles Edward Stuart and his companions landed on Eriskay in the Hebrides with the intention of raising an army to overthrow the House of Hanover.

Kingston v Lambeth

Kennington Common, Kennington, Surrey

Wednesday, 24 July 1745

unknown (ASW)

Played for "a large sum".

London v Kingston

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Wednesday, 7 August 1745

unknown (ASW)

No details reported.

Hills of Kent v Dales of Kent

Artillery Ground, Bunhill Fields, Finsbury, London

Saturday, 28 September 1745

tbc (ASW)

This match was originally arranged for Monday, 23 September and it was stated to have been the third between these sides, each having previously won once. In one report, the venue was given as Mr Smith's, a reference to George Smith who was the keeper of the Artillery Ground.

The History of Cricket: 1731 – 1740 | The History of Cricket: 1746 – 1750 | Index

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