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USAID: From The American People

USAID's 50th Anniversary

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[Congressional Presentation]

HAITI

  FY 1998
Actuals
FY 1999
Estimate
FY 2000
Request
Economic Support Funds $70,021,000 $70,000,000 $70,000,000
P.L. 480 Title II $24,908,000 $25,579,000 $26,432,000
P.L. 480 Title III $10,000,000 $10,000,000 ---

Introduction

Starting in FY99, the U.S. assistance program in Haiti has sought to move further along the spectrum from an emergency response to a long-term development program which establishes the foundation for poverty alleviation in the context of an evolving inclusive democracy. USAID's program is designed to ameliorate the worst effects of poverty: high fertility, poor education, malnutrition and environmental degradation. It also strengthens the rule of law by supporting elections, police training and development of local government and civil society. Haitians from all levels of society throughout the country continue to participate in the implementation of USAID's strategy. The USAID program directly supports U.S. national interests as identified in the Mission Performance Plan (MPP) by "promoting economic development and reducing poverty which will improve the quality of life in Haiti and help consolidate the country's democracy, thereby ameliorating conditions that contribute to illegal emigration to the United States."

The Development Challenge

Haiti is a complex development challenge, with a history of political instability and repression, widespread poverty and illiteracy, and weak government institutions. As the World Bank's poverty study indicates, 65% of Haiti's people live in rural areas and two-thirds of them live below the absolute poverty line -- i.e. unable to meet minimum daily caloric requirements. The overall situation is slightly better in the cities where "only" 53% of the population lives below the poverty line. Overall, many Haitians are living at a level of economic vulnerability seen only in war-torn countries. The Government of Haiti (GOH) has, since 1995, tried to manage its fiscal and monetary policies within the framework of donor-financed International Monetary Fund (IMF) structural/financial reform programs. In 1995 and 1996, the GOH failed to fully carry out tariff, budget and decentralization reforms. It did not comply with the second year of the IMF/ESAF (Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility). In 1997-98 the IMF shifted to staff-monitored programs, organized around fiscal discipline, privatization and civil service downsizing. The GOH met prudent fiscal and monetary policies under this staff-monitored program which has stimulated economic growth and reduced inflation to 8.2 percent in 1997 and 1998. In addition, government and para-public employment levels were down-sized by 16%. Under the GOH's privatization program, the state-owned flour mill was privatized and is now fully operated by private interests.

Haiti has made some progress in poverty alleviation, with the total fertility rate dropping from 6.3% in 1987 to 4.8% in 1994. Haiti's progress toward establishing a foundation and commitment toward democracy based on the 1987 Haitian Constitution has achieved mixed results. The military was disbanded and a civilian police force created, which U.S. assistance continues to professionalize. Human rights issues are being addressed. Civil society is increasingly active and vocal over public priorities and concerns, and is putting increased pressure on the government to "transform the state" through decentralization--with an enhanced role in the system for civil society and private business--and through credible elections. Although there is a fledgling democratic framework in Haiti, the process of institutionalizing good electoral processes remains tenuous. The most recent results from the 1997 election have been questioned. In June 1997 Prime Minister Rosny Smart resigned in protest over alleged fraud in those elections, which continues to be a key part of the political crisis. The inability to come to a reasonable compromise between differing positions produced the confrontation between the President and Parliament and led to the current confrontation.

More recently, the refusal to extend the expiring terms of parliamentarians exacerbated the political crisis. Strongly held opposing legal and constitutional interpretations of that decision have increased divisions with the populace as well. That decision was challenged by the political opposition, many local officials, including Haiti's Federation of Mayors, and many members of civil society. Nevertheless, there is a continuing dialogue between those groups and the central government on ending the crisis. Those groups, with support from the international community, are insisting on a role in the creation of a provisional electoral commission to conduct the next round of elections.

Another challenge facing Haiti is dealing with the aftermath of Hurricane Georges, which passed through the heart of the country in September 1998. The hurricane caused an estimated 400 casualties and direct losses to crops, agricultural infrastructure, livestock, housing, schools, water and sanitation of over $80 million. With indirect and secondary losses included, damage totals over $180 million. This amounts to almost five percent of Haiti's current Gross Domestic Product. If the aftermath of this disaster is not adequately addressed, the current cycle of political, social, and economic decline in Haiti could be exacerbated by its devastating effects. Thus, USAID proposes to support the rehabilitation or reconstruction of critical infrastructure that was lost in the hurricane, including some roads, irrigation and flood control systems, and health facilities; as well as support the reactivation of lost agricultural production. Additional resources will be needed to support these activities.

Other Donors

Donor grants declined from $293.1 million in FY 1996 to $200 and $204 million in FYs 1998 and 1999, respectively. Similarly, loan disbursements (gross) tapered off from $121.5 million in FY 1996 to $91.1 and $71.7 million in FYs 1998 and 1999, respectively. The net amount of public funds disbursed to the Haitian public sector also declined by $129 million between FYs 1996 and 1998-- going from $389.6 million to $260.6 million, or a 33.1% decline. In FY 1998, the United States was Haiti's largest disbursing donor: $128.1 million, compared to $58.7 million by the IDB, $48.8 million by the EU, and $39 million by the IBRD. Other major donors included Canada, the IMF, France, Germany and United Nations agencies.

FY 2000 Program

In FY 2000, most of USAID's program resources will be devoted to reducing family size, improving health and education, assuring access to family planning information and services, reducing environmental degradation, increasing income, and promoting more inclusive democratic governance. With $70 million ESF and $26.4 million in P.L. 480 Title II resources, USAID will also be able to support elections, political party development, modernizing customs, as well as activities in secondary cities and their environs. It will also support new environmental activities such as development of alternative energy sources and expansion of microenterprise programs.

USAID works with public and private groups, including labor, to improve the environment for economic growth and increased real incomes. Through its secondary cities program, USAID will support efforts by local governments, business groups, civic groups, and Parliament to promote private sector investment in areas with economic growth potential, thereby creating job and revenue enhancement opportunities for the poor. USAID's democracy and governance programs will focus on strengthening the rule of law by supporting elections, Parliament, political party development and judicial reforms, as well as strengthening the police. Health, population and nutrition programs will enable Haitian women to have smaller, healthier families. USAID supports development of quality education networks which bring together public and private schools to jointly undertake teacher training, participate in distance learning programs, and encourage greater parent involvement in the education process. The GOH is expected to continue privatization of state-owned enterprises.

HAITI

FY 2000 PROGRAM SUMMARY
($000s)
USAID Strategic and Special Objectives Economic Growth & Agriculture Population & Health Environment Democracy Human Capacity Developmnt Humanitarian Assistance TOTALS
S.O. 1
Sustainably Increased Income for the Poor
- ESF
- P.L. 480/II
22,320
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
3,000
22,320
3,000
S.O. 2
Environmental Degradation Slowed
- ESF
--- --- 2,230 --- --- --- 2,230
S.O. 3
Healthier Families of Desired Size
- ESF
- P.L. 480/II
---
---
22,370
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
8,500
22,370
8,500
S.O. 4
Increased Human Capacity
- ESF
- P.L. 480/II
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
6,340
---
---
14,932
6,340
14,932
S.O. 5
More Genuinely Inclusive Democratic Governance
- ESF
--- --- --- 12,240 --- --- 12,240
Sp.O 1
Streamlined Government
--- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Sp.O 2
Police Better Protect and Serve Haitians Nationwide
- ESF
--- --- --- 4,500 --- --- 4,500
Totals
- ESF
- P.L. 480/II
22,320
---
22,370
---
2,230
---
16,740
---
6,340
---
---
26,432
70,000
26,432
USAID Mission Director: Phyllis Forbes


ACTIVITY DATA SHEET

PROGRAM: HAITI
TITLE AND NUMBER: Sustainable Increased Income for the Poor, 521-S001
STATUS: Continuing
PROPOSED OBLIGATION AND FUNDING SOURCE: FY 2000: $22,320,000 ESF; $3,000,000 P.L. 480 Title II
INITIAL OBLIGATION: FY 1999 ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE: FY 2004

Summary: Sixty-five percent of the Haitian population lives in rural areas and more than 80% of the rural population lives below the poverty line. The majority attempt to eke out a living from the severely-eroded slopes of the steep hills that cover much of Haiti. Farm holdings generally are neither large enough nor fertile enough for successful subsistence farming. Rural emigrants flow to Port-au-Prince and swell the already large ranks of the unemployed. Capital flight drains the national investment pool. Limited access to credit and technology, a complicated legal system that makes land titling difficult and deters land improvements, and the lack of public investment and basic infrastructure in rural and urban areas all contribute to low productivity and incomes.

USAID's strategic objective (SO) "Sustainable Increased Income for the Poor" aims to induce growth at the farm and microenterprise levels and in the formal sector. In the near term (1999-2001), USAID will target major segments of the poor population. It will increase income available to small hillside farmers and informal sector partners, and deliver immediate results to alleviate the worst problems. Through this objective, program beneficiaries are expected to see their incomes increase by 10%, and by 2003, investment in Haiti is expected to increase to 10% of GDP. It will create market-driven models of income generation--including increased agricultural productivity, informal sector credit plans and assistance to high potential zones outside Port-au-Prince--in an environmentally sustainable fashion so as to build the foundation for long-term growth.

Key Results: Four major results are considered essential to achieving this SO: 1) Increased environmentally sustainable agricultural productivity through increased planting and improved production, processing/storage, and marketing of multipurpose trees, coffee, cocoa, and other high value crops using appropriate soil conservation practices; 2) Small and micro-entrepreneurs economically empowered by establishing a financial network of institutions lending to the working poor and an integrated support system providing technical assistance for both production and business management for the small- and micro-entrepreneurs; 3) Investment climate improved through appropriate banking regulation, urban property titling, and support to both Parliament and civil society allowing them to effectively advocate for economic reform and improved services; 4) Strengthened zones of high potential growth (beginning in FY 1999) through a municipal development fund which will support market-driven solutions to public sector issues such as energy, potable water, solid waste collection, and community management of infrastructure such as the rehabilitation of roads linking secondary cities to areas of great tourist and agricultural potential and the supply of electricity.

Performance and Prospects: The USAID program continues to lead in improving agricultural productivity and income through the promotion of value-added activities, identification of new markets for tree crops, distribution of improved plant materials and promotion of bio-intensive gardening. A total of 152,000 farmers have participated in these activities and have seen their incomes increase by 20%. The development of new markets for tree crops (e.g., mango and cocoa), and assistance to 20,000 farmers producing the premium "Haitian Bleu" coffee have contributed to renewed interest in the cultivation of these crops on degraded hillsides. The Federation of Coffee Growers Associations doubled its coffee export earnings in 1998. Many more farmers will be joining this new coffee marketing network. Other donors, such as the IDB, are replicating these successful models in other areas of the country. ServiCoop, a new marketing cooperative underwritten by USAID, is now fully operational and has helped 20 farm groups market sour oranges and quality cacao to U.S. buyers and has begun to export regular as well as specialty coffee. By FY 2000, this approach will have increased agricultural yields for 180,000 farmers by an average of 10%.

The USAID micro-credit program continues to expand access to credit among small borrowers through formal and informal institutions, thus creating a more dynamic informal trading sector and fueling an expansion in the microenterprise sector. In the past year, USAID's micro-credit programs have expanded access to credit for over 7,379 clients and disbursed 13,289 loans; and expanded the village banking program, which has made 5,277 loans to 3,985 clients through 53 village banks in three regions. In January 1999, the village banking program will expand further with an additional 1,539 new clients. Commercial banks interest in the program has increased and, with their participation, micro-enterprise development loans are now available to informal sector clients in peri-urban areas. Loan volume is expected to increase by 25% in the year 1999 and 2000.

USAID support to investment promotion continues to focus on privatization, investment policies, microenterprise and institutionalization. Aggressive marketing efforts are attracting interest in Haiti as a tourist destination by major cruise lines and will increase tourists to Haiti by 10% in 2000. USAID is also concentrating on the introduction of new artisan product lines to meet the demands of an increasingly sophisticated domestic market and a very quality-conscious international one. The volume of sales are expected to increase by 25% in 1999 and 2000.

Efforts to formalize informal urban property rights have moved forward with completion of an initial study by the Center for Free Enterprise and Democracy (CLED) and the Institute for Liberty and Democracy (ILD). The study, which determined that the value of the informal property and homes in Port-au-Prince and the three next largest cities exceeds $2 billion, is now ready to move into the pilot implementation phase.

Possible Adjustments to Plans: On September 22-23, 1998, Hurricane Georges significantly damaged Haiti's productive capacity. In an effort to respond to the damage, personnel were engaged in "Operation Bounce Back" activities funded through Haiti's Title III program and supplemental funding. This event led to delays initiating new efforts to secondary cities in the Cape Haitian and Jacmel areas. The Mission brought in additional personnel to assist with Hurricane efforts and is now proceeding with design activities for the secondary cities program. Additional delays could result if 1999 funding cuts result in downsizing or eliminating this component intended to significantly contribute to decentralization in Haiti. Measured program results will include kilometers of road, megawatts of electricity, and number of cruise ship visits.

Other Donors Programs: The IDB, IBRD, EU, Canadian Government, and United Nations Development Program (UNDP) are assisting in institutional reform, encouraging private investment, and supporting the agricultural sectors in Haiti. The IDB, IBRD, and EU plan to each invest over $100 million in sup-port of activities that impact this SO. USAID's Agribusiness Guarantee Fund has already leveraged an additional $4.5 million from the European Investment Bank. The GOH programs P.L. 480 Title III local currency in support of irrigation interventions and secondary road rehabilitation ($10 million per year).

Principal Contractors, Grantees, or Agencies: Under the Program for the Recovery of the Economy in Transition: Development Alternatives Inc., Société Finançière Haitienne de Développement (SOFIHDES), and CLED/ILD. Under the Agriculturally Sustainable Systems and Environmental Transformation program: Southeast Consortium for International Development, CARE, Pan American Development Foundation (PADF), and Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) in partnership with many indigenous NGOs.

Selected Performance Measures:
  Baseline
(1997)
Target
(2001)
Target
(2004)
Increase in private investment as percentage of GDP 5% 7% 10%
Increase in income for customers (percentage) N/A 10% 10%


ACTIVITY DATA SHEET

PROGRAM: HAITI
TITLE AND NUMBER: Environmental Degradation Slowed, 521-S002
STATUS: Continuing
PROPOSED OBLIGATION AND FUNDING SOURCE: FY 2000: $2,230,000 ESF
INITIAL OBLIGATION: FY 1999 ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE: FY 2004

Summary: Haiti is increasingly losing its productive potential. Due to the loss of its vegetative cover, it is also beginning a process of desertification. Only 1.5% of Haiti's natural forest remains and 25 to 30 watersheds are denuded. Deforestation of Haiti's mountainous countryside has resulted in extensive soil erosion. An estimated 15,000 acres of top soil are washed away each year, with erosion also damaging other productive infrastructure such as dams, irrigation systems, roads, and coastal marine ecosystems. The growing gap between fuel-wood supply and demand is exacerbating environmental degradation as peasants cut the few remaining trees to produce charcoal.

USAID's objective is to slow the disastrous pace of environmental degradation in Haiti. The direct beneficiaries include small agricultural producers, urban slum dwellers, urban charcoal users, and residents along several strategic watersheds. In the strategic period, direct interventions are expected to improve environmental practices in soil and water conservation, land/waste management, and energy efficiency for almost 450,000 households and businesses; to reduce wood/charcoal consumption by five percent; and to result in the planting of 35 million additional trees.

Key Result: The major result considered essential to achieving this SO is civil society and government implementing environmental solutions. USAID's environmental team, through the strategy period, will nurture this result by support to community-based endeavors to sustainably manage natural resources, to encourage effective advocacy for improved policies, and to promote economically viable productive enterprises (such as improved stoves) which reduce fuel consumption. In addition, USAID will support the implementation of the National Environmental Action Plan through NGOs; the Ministry of Environment's ability to meet demands for improved environmental services (if difficulties with the government are resolved); policy reform/restructuring for energy and environment sectors (e.g. environmental awareness campaign, conditionality, policy dialogue, analyses); the establishment of a Haitian Environmental Foundation; and the development of strategies for improving the supply and management of electrical power in secondary cities.

Performance and Prospects: USAID promotes conservation and sustainable utilization of natural resources in order to reverse the trend for Haiti to become the first "eco-catastrophe" country in the Western Hemisphere. The USAID program continues to lead in soil conservation and tree-planting efforts to protect the environment: with over 172,000 hillside farmers and coffee growers planting 4.8 million multipurpose and coffee trees in 1997 and practicing soil and water conservation techniques. These practices slow soil erosion and increase water retention while fostering community action through 2,179 farmer and community groups.

A community training program (watershed protection/agro-forestry) is now underway that encourages community action and organization along strategic watersheds: the Riviere Grise and Blanche watersheds (which supplies the drinking water for the capital), Camp Perrin, and the Jacmel region. A comprehensive eco-tourism plan has been developed for the Bassin Bleu site near Jacmel supporting soil conservation, beautification, and local organization capacity building.

In 1997, community groups in Cité Soleil, one of the worst slums in the Western world, are now managing, through 76 community-operated fountains, the sale of clean water for over 175,000 people. The organization fully recovers its recurrent costs and has created 124 sustainable jobs while using the proceeds to manage the collection of solid waste. An improved stove pilot program targeting small enterprises and schools has begun that will eventually reduce wood consumption for energy which led to Haiti's massive deforestation.

A National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) national conference, led by the Ministry of Environment's Secretariat, was held in December 1998. The NEAP is expected to be finalized shortly. This conference was a culmination of a participatory process that mobilized 93 communes, 660 grassroots organizations, and was debated both regionally and nationally by civil society and local government. The NEAP will set the priority environmental agenda for action for the next 15 years and can be used to coordinate the efforts of all groups. Efforts have also begun to support a civil society initiative to begin a Haitian Environmental Fund.

By the year 2000, 215,000 households and businesses will be using improved environmental practices in solid waste disposal, soil and water conservation, energy efficiency, and tree planting (thousands); wood/charcoal consumption will be reduced by 2.5%; environmental awareness will increase by 10%; 6 million trees will be planted per year; and 20,000 hectares of land will be protected with sustainable natural resource management practices. The results of the implementation of the NEAP through NGOs will contribute to this performance.

Possible Adjustments to Plans: None.

Other Donors Programs: The IDB, IBRD, Canada, and the EU have substantial investments planned (approximately $345, $65, $48, and $40 million, respectively) to support environmental activities (including the water and energy sectors) in Haiti. Due to the political crisis in Haiti, disbursement of funds channelled through the Central Government (i.e. loans) has been significantly delayed. The IBRD, UNDP and Canada have been active in the support of the NEAP. The IBRD Park program ($22.5 million) was built on USAID lessons learned in Park Macaya and successes in hillside agriculture (i.e. PLUS Project).

Principal Contractors, Grantees, or Agencies: Under Agriculturally Sustainable Systems and Environmental Transformation: Winrock is the prime environmental contractor with contributions from CARE, the Pan American Development Foundation, and Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, in partnership with many indigenous NGOs.

Selected Performance Measures:
  Baseline
(1997)
Target
(2000)
Target
(2004)
Households and businesses using improved
environmental practices in solid waste
disposal, soil and water conservation,
energy efficiency, and tree planting (000s)
150 190 215


ACTIVITY DATA SHEET

PROGRAM: HAITI
TITLE AND NUMBER: Healthier Families of Desired Size, 521-S003
STATUS: Continuing
PROPOSED OBLIGATION AND FUNDING SOURCE: FY 2000: $22,370,000 ESF; $8,500,000 P.L. 480 Title II
INITIAL OBLIGATION: FY 1999 ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE: FY 2004

Summary: Although most Haitians want fewer children, according to the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (1995) and other scientific studies, the population continues to grow at the high annual rate of 2.3 percent. At the current total fertility rate (TFR), Haitian women will give birth to an average of 4.8 children during their reproductive years. Today's population of eight million is expected to double by the year 2027. If all unwanted births were avoided, the TFR would be three--nearly two children less than the actual rate. About 10% of Haiti’s urban population is infected with HIV and almost half the women of reproductive age currently have an untreated sexually transmitted infection. Haiti has the highest child mortality rate in the Western Hemisphere. One in eight children will not live to the age of five, and one in three children is chronically malnourished. Maternal mortality is estimated at 1,000 per 100,000 live births.

According to official statistics, 60% of the population has access to health services; but for practical purposes, only 25% has access to family planning services. Only eight specialized institutions, concentrated mostly in the capital city, offer more than three modern contraceptive methods and 78% of health facilities do not offer assistance for childbirth. Services offered do not adequately address the behavior and health care needs of young adults aged 12-24 who make up one-third of the population. Child survival programs are equally deficient. Full childhood immunization coverage is only 30%, one in five children receive no immunizations by age one, and only 31% of diarrhea cases are treated with oral rehydration solution.

USAID's strategic objective (SO) in the health sector aims to improve the health and well-being of Haiti's children and to address the country's rapid population growth rate. Cost-effective child survival interventions which reduce infant and child mortality and morbidity, and voluntary reproductive health services which permit women and men to delay or space births, are essential to achieving desired family size and health. USAID-financed health programs in Haiti cover a population of 4.7 million people, with USAID funds directly contributing to over half of the country's family planning (modern methods) acceptors. USAID's food aid will reach approximately 120,000 people through the nutrition programs which target women and children.

Key Results: The key intermediate results anticipated for this objective include: (1) increased use of quality child survival and nutrition services to reduce infant and child mortality rates; (2) increased use of quality reproductive health services to increase contraceptive prevalence; (3) improved public policy environment for child survival and reproductive health, including greater and more effective involvement of civil advocacy groups in public health issues; (4) women empowered, so that more girls complete primary school and more women have access to economic opportunities; and (5) youth better prepared for and men more engaged in responsible family life by modifying sexual behavior.

Performance and Prospects: This SO builds on the recommendations of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and focuses on improving child, maternal and reproductive health services. Interventions target the major causes of infant mortality in Haiti (diarrhea, fever, acute respiratory infections, malaria, measles, malnutrition) as well as maternal health needs (prenatal, delivery and postnatal care), and reproductive health care (family planning information and services, HIV/AIDS prevention, and sexually transmitted infection prevention, detection and treatment). In addition, USAID provides assistance to the department-level Ministry of Health (MOH) management units to improve supervision, management and financial systems. Support for services is provided to NGOs and to a few MOH facilities, and is focused in three of Haiti's 10 departments. USAID also provides support for service delivery to select NGOs located in Haiti's seven other departments, complemented by targeted assistance to the MOH management units in these departments. Despite challenges and constraints, USAID's 22 NGO partners have succeeded in expanding access to many priority services to 4.7 million beneficiaries nationwide. The contraceptive prevalence rate in several program target areas is nearly double the national average (36% vs 18%); in FY 2000, the contraceptive prevalence rate for all methods will increase from 36% to 40% in USAID-financed sites. A social marketing program, financed by USAID and other donors, sold 7.5 million condoms in 1997 and increased sales of oral and injectable contraceptives.

Top MOH officials are committed to addressing several topics of critical importance to service delivery and management including decentralization of services and decision-making, improved management of essential drugs, including contraceptives, Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses, and development of a national "master plan" for GOH and donor financing. However, the health system has been impacted by the erratic political situation in the country. This has made it problematic to address, in a systematic and comprehensive manner, major systemic shortcomings (i.e., the lack of access to services for 40% of the population, the inequitable distribution of services and health care providers, and the poor quality of many health services). Nevertheless, results achieved by USAID and partners to date demonstrate that progress and success is possible.

Possible Adjustments to Plans: USAID's health activities are implemented primarily by NGO and private voluntary organizations (PVO) partners; only about 15% of funds are used to support GOH entities and/or activities. USAID does not envision significant revisions in strategy or activity implementation and anticipates that the current modus operandi -- through which private sector service delivery capacities are strengthened and the public sector oversight and regulatory roles reinforced -- will continue for the foreseeable future.

Other Donor Programs: Key donors in the health sector are the IDB, EU, IBRD and UNICEF. Other players include the World Health Organization and United Nations Population Fund. Donors in food aid and food security are the World Food Program, the EU and the Canadian International Development Agency. The Japanese and Taiwanese also contribute modest food aid. Representatives of all donors meet with top officials of the Ministry of Public Health and Population on a regular basis to coordinate activities, exchange information, and discuss critical sector and policy issues.

Principal Contractors, Grantees or Agencies: USAID administers its maternal-child health and family planning program primarily through a U.S. firm, Management Sciences for Health, which in turn negotiates sub-grants and contracts with U.S. PVOs and Haitian NGOs. A separate grant program which focuses exclusively on reproductive health and family planning is managed by the Haitian NGO Association of Private Health Works. The food aid program is implemented through three U.S. PVOs: CARE, Catholic Relief Services and the Adventist Relief and Development Agency. A U.S. contractor, Chemonics, manages the food policy information system, and a local Haitian firm, International Maritime Transport, was contracted for warehousing services.

Selected Performance Measures:
  Baseline
(1999)
Target
(2000)
Target
(2004)
Total Fertility Rate 4.8 4.3 4.0
Infant Mortality Rate
(< 12 mos. age)
74/1000 61/100 50/1000
Child Mortality Rate
(< 5 years of age)
131/1000 123/1000 12/1000
Malnutrition rate
(children < 5 years)
24% 23% 20%


ACTIVITY DATA SHEET

PROGRAM: HAITI
TITLE AND NUMBER: Improving Human Capacity, 521-SOO4
STATUS: Continuing
PROPOSED OBLIGATION AND FUNDING SOURCE: FY2000: $6,340,000 ESF, $14,932,000 P.L. 480 TII
INITIAL OBLIGATION: FY 1999 ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE: FY2004

Summary: Education in Haiti remains the weakest in the Western Hemisphere. The national adult literacy rate is 35% and fewer than 75% of school-age children are enrolled. The poor quality of education is the result of inadequate learning materials, unqualified teachers, and the Government's inability to provide resources to improve primary education.

To compensate for deficiencies in public education, a system of private primary school education-- supported primarily by religious, philanthropic and community organizations--has evolved in Haiti. The quality of instruction at the majority of these schools is far below the minimal acceptable standards for the hemisphere. Two out of three students drop out before finishing school, and more than half of those remaining will repeat at least one grade before passing the sixth-year exam.

USAID's strategy for assistance seeks to alleviate poverty by improving the capacity of Haitians to seize or create economic opportunities. The Human Capacity SO aims at improving the quality of instruction and administrative efficiency in primary schools serving rural and depressed urban areas, and helping establish a sustainable primary education system in Haiti. Also, to offer the majority of Haitian possibilities to learn continuously about educational, economic and political opportunities, USAID will seek to expand access to communication technology.

Key Results: With Haiti's bleak human capacity statistics in mind, this SO will address three intermediate results (IRs): (1) Improved quality of primary education: Quality improvements will include improved instruction in 1000 primary schools, which will require training 3,354 teachers and 559 directors. Distance education radio lessons in math and Creole will be provided to 240,000 pupils. Community support is also essential for school improvements, measured by community activities that improve the quality of education. Greater collaboration between the public and private education sectors is a third focal point to improve quality, measured by a growing percentage of targeted private schools seeking public sector accreditation. (2) Improved quality of services for orphans and at-risk children: A USAID-supported Haitian NGO (Haitian Chamber for Needy Children--CENH) has just been created as an umbrella organization to coordinate donor assistance to institutions serving orphans and other at-risk children. CENH presently has 20 orphanage members but aims to increase this number by more than 25% annually. (3) Improved access to information and communication technology: This IR will rely principally on private sector enterprise for impact by strengthening existing private sector service providers and developing rural telecommunication centers. It is expected that the present base of less than 1000 internet subscribers will double each of the next four years.

Performance and Prospects: Performance over the past year has been satisfactory, but some constraints have developed.

The planned start-up of various activities under USAID's Education 2004 project (Ed2004) was delayed because formal Ministry of Education (MENJS) recognition and approval of the project was not obtained until the signing of the USAID/MENJS Memorandum of Understanding of September 1998. Introduction of ED2004's network and cluster approaches also has taken longer than anticipated, since such innovations are completely new in Haiti. Programmed information efforts at the community level, targeting specific geographical areas, have been developed to sensitize stakeholders to the benefits of such approaches.

USAID's Cooperating Sponsors implementing the P.L. 480 Title II program are utilizing their school feeding programs to leverage improvements in the quality of education in their client schools. This has proved to be a complex task. The Cooperating Sponsors are now coordinating their activities smoothly with the ED2004 project and with one another.

The lack of reliable local data on at-risk children and orphans made planning assistance to orphans difficult. The USAID-supported creation of an umbrella organization will provide for systematic collection of such data and also help deploy resources from donor agencies equitably among member orphanages.

Possible Adjustments to Plans: None.

Other Donor Programs: The IDB funds teacher training, curriculum development, and textbook distribution for the public sector. A joint IDB/World Bank project will finance school construction, teacher training, textbook distribution in both the public and private sectors as soon as the project is ratified. The EU provides budget support to the MENJS for institution strengthening of the central and regional offices. Cooperation Francaise funds a training program of MENJS technical staff in central and regional offices.

Principal Contractors or Agencies: Academy for Educational Development; CARE International; Catholic Relief Services; Adventist Development and Relief Agency; Haitian Chamber for Needy Children; Haitian Foundation for Private Education.

Selected Performance Measures:
  Baseline
(1998)
Target
(2000)
Target
(2004)
Percentage of school children completing
primary school (passed primary school exam)
60.5% 63.5 67%


ACTIVITY DATA SHEET

PROGRAM: HAITI
TITLE AND NUMBER: More Genuinely Inclusive Democratic Governance, 521-S005
STATUS: Continuing
PROPOSED OBLIGATION AND FUNDING SOURCE: FY 2000: $12,240,000 ESF
INITIAL OBLIGATION: FY 1999 ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE: FY 2004

Summary: Although Haiti has taken strides along the road to democracy, its citizens are not yet convinced that elected officials represent public views and interests. Many believe that the judicial system is deeply flawed, lacks independence and is susceptible to widespread corruption and inequity. Prospective foreign and local investors express the need for a strengthened rule of law that provides a stable legal environment for commercial activities, protects property and promotes trade.

USAID's SO aims to increase Haitian citizens' participation in governance at all levels: elections, justice, national and local government and civil society. Each of Haiti's citizens should benefit from achievement of this objective, and is therefore considered our ultimate customer. It is these people who have identified their top priority need--for genuine inclusion in democratic governance. There are important subsets of individuals who are more closely linked to USAID's activities, and as a result are considered primary customers.

Key Results: There are four key results leading to more genuinely inclusive democratic governance: (1) civil society organizations that positively influence policies and oversee public institutions; (2) elections that are more credible and participatory; (3) more responsive governance by elected local officials; and (4) people increasingly treated according to the rule of law.

Performance and Prospects: The current program builds upon activities initiated since return of the constitutional government. It focuses on the problem of ensuring greater and more meaningful inclusion of citizens in the process of democratic governance. Over the last year, it helped Haitians to realize a number of achievements and positive trends. More than 1,200 civil society organizations in all nine departments have constructively engaged in policy discussions and debates on the topics of decentralization, poverty alleviation and the environment. Associations and federations of local officials exist and are spearheading important decentralization initiatives.

USAID will continue to assist Haitians in holding free and fair elections, strengthening elections administration, providing oversight and monitoring mechanisms to deter fraud, with special emphasis on voluntary citizen observers. To make future elections more credible and participatory we are strengthening political parties through the development of party platforms that accurately reflect the views of the people they represent. USAID will also focus on civic education, to ensure that citizens understand the importance of elections and of credible candidates. USAID will continue to work with organizations in all development sectors to build their advocacy skills so that they may positively influence government policies and oversee public institutions. Networks and coalitions of civic organizations with common interests in areas such as the environment, business, education, and health are being strengthened. USAID's planned efforts in justice will focus on strengthening the local constituencies interested in judicial independence and reform (such as judges associations and human rights groups) while improving training of judicial and legal personnel. Absent a Ministry of Justice (MOJ) strongly committed to implementing judicial reforms, USAID will continue to work with the judiciary at the local level, supporting streamlining to reduce case backlog, training to improve performance, and legal assistance for the poor to ensure their access to justice. If, in the future, the MOJ demonstrates more commitment to reform, then greater emphasis will be placed on activities to strengthen the Ministry's ability to lead the judicial reform effort (e.g., proposing and implementing reform legislation, developing a judicial supervision unit & support). USAID is encouraging a Haitian human rights monitoring and oversight capability to ensure that government abuses of human rights are documented and publicized, and that greater deterrents to abuse are established. Finally, through ICITAP, USAID will strengthen the police's ability to respond to complaints, thereby improving its image and reducing public perceptions of impunity.

Possible Adjustments to Plans: None.

Other Donor Programs: Donors coordinate closely in the democracy arena in three general categories. In terms of justice programs (also including police and prisons), Canada, the EU, France and the UNDP are the principal donors. USAID regularly collaborates with these donors to ensure complementarity of program implementation, planning, and policy discussions. In elections, the United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti provides a forum for information exchanges among the donors, including France, Canada, the EU, Germany, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, the UNDP and MICIVIH. And in the broader area of governance, UNDP coordinates the donors, including USAID, the IDB, EU, Canada and France.

The Haitian public and private sectors are USAID's partners in the democracy program. In terms of the GOH, the Ministries of Justice and the Interior, and the Prime Minister's Office are USAID's principal counterparts and partners. In the private sector, Haitian NGOs, bar associations, law schools, citizen groups, popular movements, and rural and inner-city low-income people are directly involved, particularly through USAID's various small grants programs.

Principal Contractors, Grantees, or Agencies: National Democratic Institute; International Republican Institute; International Foundation for Electoral Systems; U.S. Department of Justice (OPDAT and ICITAP); America's Development Foundation; Associates in Rural Development; Checchi and Company Consulting, Inc. and numerous local and U.S. NGOs.

Selected Performance Measures:
  Baseline
(1999)
Target
(2000)
Target
(2004)
Percentage of participation in the
Presidential elections of 2000 and 2005
25 40 N/A
Percent of citizens who say that their
local and parliamentary elected officials
care a great deal or a fair amount about the
problems facing people in their localities
12 20 37
Percent of citizens who say they have
a great deal or a fair amount of confidence
in the justice system
24 28 40
Number of public policies on critical areas
for development that are changed based
on CSO advocacy
7 4 6


ACTIVITY DATA SHEET

PROGRAM: HAITI
TITLE AND NUMBER: Streamlined Government 521-SpO1
STATUS: Continuing
PROPOSED OBLIGATION AND FUNDING SOURCE: FY 2000: None
INITIAL OBLIGATION: FY 1991 ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE: FY 2003

Summary: Since the return of constitutional rule in FY 1995, the Government of Haiti (GOH) has had a comprehensive donor-financed financial/structural reform program. Working either jointly or in complementarity with other donors, USAID has actively supported this program. USAID also provided substantial budget support to assist the GOH to preserve fiscal balance and avoid inflationary financing. All disbursements of budget support funds had conditionalities tied to either the privatization of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) or civil service downsizing/reform. The objective of the Special Objective (SpO) "Streamlined Government" is to contribute to the maintenance and improvement of the macroeconomic environment by inducing reform in the policy areas of: privatization of SOEs, civil service downsizing (CSD), civil service reform (CSR) in general, and improvement of GOH public resource management.

Key Results: USAID's Streamlined Government SpO has four expected results: (1) reduce size of para-public sector; (2) reduce size of civil service; (3) civil service reform implemented; and (4) improve management of GOH revenue. While USAID has been providing funding for these activities since FY 1991 under the Policy and Administrative Reform project, this SpO was created in FY 1998 under USAID's Country Strategy for FYs 1999-2003,

Performance and Prospects: FY 1998 performances have been significantly higher than expected in the CSD area, as expected in the SOE privatization and GOH public resource management areas.

In FY 1998, USAID worked closely with the IMF to coordinate actions in support of CSD, and coordinated with Canada, the EU and Switzerland in facilitating disbursements of some $20 million in budget support which GOH needed for severance/pension payments. With USAID support in general organization and planning, and day-to-day technical and personnel support by an USAID-financed management/audit firm, the GOH began the effort to downsize the Haitian civil service in March 1998. As of October 1998, 3,110 "irregular and zombi" checks were removed from the payroll yielding an annual budgetary savings of $8.3 million and 5,179 civil servants voluntarily opted for either separation or early retirement yielding another $10.6 million in annual budgetary savings.

In FY 1999, USAID will continue to work with the GOH, IMF and other donors to consolidate the FY 1998 CSD results and to make the transition from CSD to CSR. USAID will, working jointly with donors, support GOH efforts in the: (1) update and implementation of existing procedures and regulations to hire civil servants; (2) introduction of efficiency-based sectoral salary increases for civil servants; and (3) creation and operation of a short-term training program for both departing civil servants and employees of privatized SOEs.

With USAID-financing, the GOH privatization board (CMEP) selected, under IBRD rules, three U.S. firms to prepare the bid documents and related materials for the privatization of the Port-au-Prince seaport, Port-au-Prince airport and the telephone company. An Information Memorandum for Potential Investors and the Request for Bids documents for the seaport "modernization" is expected by end-January 1999, with final negotiations and turnover of management during Summer 1999. Preparatory work on the "modernization" of the airport will begin in early 1999, with a contract awarded by the summer. Privatization of the telephone company, Téléco, is expected to occur in late 1999. In addition, with donor-financed technical assistance, the restructuring of the Banque Nationale de Crédit (BNC) began in FY 1998 -- a new Board of Directors was installed, the work-force was drawn down and the restructuring of the balance sheet and information system was initiated. The GOH met all the privatization benchmarks established under the IMF FYs 1997-98 Shadow Programs.

The technical assistance provided by the U.S. Treasury and U.S. Customs to the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Customs Services respectively during FYs 1997-98 has been instrumental in enabling the GOH to both better control public expenditures and enhance tax collection. The GOH met all the fiscal targets established under the IMF FYs 1997-98 Shadow Programs.

Other Donor Programs: Donors' support of the GOH structural economic reform program has been significant since late 1994. During FYs 1994-96, approximately 27% of the GOH annual Operating Budget has been financed by donors each year to assist the GOH in the inflation-free financing of its wage bill and non-salary operating costs. That ratio dropped to seven to eight percent in FYs 1997-99 after the resignation of the Prime Minister in June 1997. Donors' commitment to the areas of CSD, CSR and privatization has always been significant. Since FY 1995, all IMF financial stabilization/structural adjustment programs have required the GOH to implement civil service reform-related and privatization actions. Canada and EU disbursed some $20 million of budget support in FY 1998 against achievement of agreed-upon CSD and privatization results. The IMF FY 1999 Shadow Program, with $21 million of balance of payments disbursed by IMF and some $30 million of budget support committed by Canada and EU, calls for consolidation of CSD results achieved to date and further privatization progress.

The IDB has prepared a $20 million Administrative Reform loan, and the IBRD has prepared a $12 million Second Technical Assistance Project. France and UNDP also have programs in the CSR area. With respect to the privatization program, the IDB is financing the transactions involving the electric parastatal, the BNC and the Banque Populaire Haitienne (BPH) under its $50 million Investment Sector Loan (ISL). The Canadians are providing partial financing for CMEP's operating costs and the IBRD serves as the primary technical advisor to CMEP. Donors, such as the IMF/UNDP, Canada and the EU, have also been providing significant technical assistance (TA) to the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) and the Central Bank. The USAID-financed Treasury TA to the Ministry of Economy and Finance, as well as the U.S. Customs training of Haitian Customs Officers, are integral parts of donor assistance to the GOH to strengthen its capacity to implement macroeconomic policies in a timely fashion. The IBRD is planning a sizeable TA grant to MEF for the initiation of the establishment of an integrated financial management system in FY 1999.

Principal Contractors, Grantees, or Agencies: The World Bank received a $3.5 million grant to procure the technical assistance needed by CMEP to execute the seaport, airport and Téléco privatizations. Under the IBRD privatization grant, Nathan Associates and consortia led by Citibank and Sterling Merchant Finance have been assisting CMEP in the execution of the seaport, airport and telecommunication privatization transactions, respectively. A Haitian financial/management firm (subsidiary of Price Waterhouse/Canada) has been executing the technical assistance contract to assist the GOH implement its CSD program. The Training and Technical Education Center has won the contract to design and administer the GOH short-term training program for departing employees of the Haitian civil service and para-public sector.

Selected Performance Measures:
  Baseline
(1995/97)
Target
(2000)
Size of para-public sector (% of GDP) 7-8% 2-3%
Number of civil services employees 52,192 44,692
Increase of GOH revenue (% of GNP) 8.7% 11.5%


ACTIVITY DATA SHEET

PROGRAM: HAITI
TITLE AND NUMBER: Police Better Protect and Serve Haitians Nationwide 521-SpO2
STATUS: Continuing
PROPOSED OBLIGATION AND FUNDING SOURCE: FY 2000: $ 4,500,000 ESF
INITIAL OBLIGATION: FY 1994; ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE: FY 2004

Summary: Under this USAID Special Objective "Police Better Protect and Serve Haitians Nationwide", the U.S. Department of Justice's International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) supports USG policy related to law enforcement development in Haiti through planning, implementing and coordinating project plans that focus available resources on key training and development needs of the Haitian National Police (HNP). U.S. policy and goals related to the HNP are based in the interest of enhancing what is becoming a credible, responsive civilian law enforcement agency, delivering basic law enforcement services pursuant to the rule of law, accountable to the public and subscribing to internationally-accepted standards of human rights.

Many of the deficiencies in police capabilities can be attributed to inadequate numbers of supervisory personnel, insufficient logistical capabilities which lead to too few officers in rural areas, and problems in managing personnel and finance. However, operating expenses, for such things as fuel, and limited capital investments, including policy station refurbishment, are not adequately provided for in the HNP's budget. Therefore, it has been necessary for the police to "borrow"from its salary line item to cover these costs. This is not a long-term solution, and without increased resources, budget concerns will continue to plague the HNP. ICITAP's support has been for technical assistance, training and equipment.

Key Results: There is one key result leading to Police Better Protect and Serve Haitians Nationwide: People Feel There is More Personal Security.

Performance and Prospects: ICITAP is in the fourth year of its five-year plan and there are several accomplishments, including: separating police function from those of the Haitian Armed Forced (FADH), defining the role of the police in the context of Haitian society and local needs, and instituting a basic training program that provided vetted members of FADH with immediate police skills so that they could perform as Interim Police (IPSF). Simultaneously, international police monitors were trained and deployed with ICITAP assistance as a method to deter violence during the transition period. In the second phase of ICITAP's effort it focused on institution building. This stage was central to the development of a professional civilian police force and included training and assistance in establishing police administrative and management capabilities, as well as specialized skills such as investigative and police forensic capabilities.

ICITAP has worked in close collaboration with the Haitian Secretary of State for Public Security of the Ministry of Justice, the HNP Director-General, the Chief Inspector General and their respective staffs to develop an HNP Development Plan to the year 2000. At the invitation of Haitian counterparts, ICITAP worked with Haitian officials to define achievable goals and objectives. This plan remains the corner stone of HNP development. The GOH and the international community rely on the plan as the blueprint for all coordination efforts. The HNP Development Plan is divided into short and long-term components. The first segment presented emergency measures to be implemented by July 1997 and the second addresses measures for HNP development through the year 2000. The immediate objective addressed quality-of-life issues for HNP agents, management issues, and sought to consolidate HNP training programs, while modeling HNP operational readiness to be able to confront and effectively deal with a public order crisis or a criminal incident of national proportions.

ICITAP will continue to assist the GOH to improve and formalize HNP management, including HNP executives, managers and supervisors to guide and direct, all aspects of the HNP operations to ensure it can fulfill its law enforcement mission. Management issues being addressed include acquisition, deployment and preservation of human and physical resources, including in rural areas. ICITAP has a major interest in assisting the GOH in formulation of policy related to the new rural police including authorities to be delegated, jurisdictions and career paths.

ICITAP is also assisting the GOH in strengthening the HNP in both patrol and investigative operational capabilities and to improve the delivery of law enforcement services. Areas important to Haitians, such as theft and property crimes are emphasized, along with transnational criminal issues such as auto-theft, contraband and narcotics. This is helping to establish a predictable environment of community-wide safety and security. It is also assisting the GOH to institutionalize a sustainable law enforcement training capability to continue the professionalization of the HNP at all levels. Funding is also being provided to assist in equipping a new rural police.

Possible Adjustments to Plans: Although ICITAP is in the fourth year of a five-year plan, it will need to continue its activities over the next five years focused primarily on three major themes, including: (1) Specialized Training; (2) Police Management; and (3) Operational issues. The specialized training program will support the long-term development plans of the HNP by continued teaching of management and leadership skills, as well as the continued professonalization of the police at all levels of the institution. It is quite likely that this training will include supervision courses for new rural police. In addition, human rights training for officers at all levels, as well as training on womens' rights and domestic violence will be included in both the initial training program and the continuing education program.

The indicators, both baseline and targets, for this SpO need to be revisited to ensure that they are still relevant and accurate reflection of progress in achieving intermediate results (outcomes) and the strategic special objective.

Other Donor Programs: ICITAP coordinates its activities with other international donors to maximize the impact of available resources. The French are working exclusively with the judicial police, including training; developing a criminal investigation and record system; establishing a medical examiner's office; and strengthening a unit which will investigate dangerous crimes committed by gangs. The Canadians support is mostly in mid-level management training, as well as work with the judicial police in crime scene analysis. They also provide training and technical assistance in areas such as logistics and motorpools. The UNDP has five technical advisors who work with local commissariats and headquarters and UNCIVPOL mentors the new police. Finally, the Taiwanese have contributed commodities, including vehicles.

Principal Contractors, Grantees, or Agencies: U.S. Department of Justice (OPDAT and ICITAP).

Selected Performance Measures:
  Baseline
(1999)
Target
(2000)
Target
(2004)
Percentage of people who believe
police are responsive to their
request for help.
TBD* 5% over baseline 5% over baseline
* These indicators are being finalized for inclusion in Performance Monitoring Plan that will be submitted along with the R4 for FY 1998.

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Last Updated on: July 14, 1999