Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus)

Javan Rhino

 Common Names

  • Javan rhinoceros
  • Asian lesser one-horned rhinoceros (in contrast to the greater one-horned rhino) because of the Javan's smaller size.

Scientific Name and Origin

  • Rhinoceros sondaicus 
  • “Rhinoceros” from the Greek “rhino”, meaning "nose" and “ceros”, meaning "horn" and “sondaicus” (Latin -icus indicates a locality) referring to the Sunda islands in Indonesia, "Sunda" meaning "Java"



IUCN Red List:   Critically Endangered
CITES:  Appendix I

The Javan Rhino is the rarest of the rhino species with 37-45 animals surviving only in Indonesia.  The last Javan rhino is believed to have been poached in Vietnam in 2010.  In Indonesia, Javan rhinos live only in Java’s Ujung Kulon National Park, where the population appears to have stabilized, largely because they are physically guarded from harm by Rhino Protection Units.  The continuation of this protection, combined with establishing a second population elsewhere in Indonesia, provides the best possible hope for the species’ survival.

Current Javan Rhino Numbers and Distribution

There currently are approximately 37-45 Javan rhinos surviving in in one country, Indonesia.


The Javan Rhino is found only in Indonesia’s Ujung Kulon National Park in west Java.

Javan rhinos appear to be more adaptable feeders than other rhino species: in the tropical rain forest where the species now survives, it is a pure browser, but it possibly was a mixed feeder (both browse and grass) in other parts of its historic range where the species is generally believed to have occupied more lowland areas, especially along watercourses.

Longevity is unknown, but Javan rhinos probably live to 30-40 years. 

Gestation is unknown but is presumed to be approximately 15-16 months, as in other rhinos. Inter-birth intervals are unknown, but mothers probably give birth to one calf every 1-3 years.

Females reach sexual maturity between 5 and 7 years of age; males mature at approximately 10 years of age.

Javan rhinos are solitary in nature and are rarely seen.

Additional Information

Physical Characteristics


  • Weight: 2,000 - 5,060 pounds (900 - 2,300 kg)
  • Height: 5 - 5.5 feet (1.5 - 1.7 m)
    tall at the shoulder
  • Length: 6-11.5 feet (2.0-.4 m)


Javan rhinos possess a single horn 10 in (25 cm) long, at least in males; females have a smaller or no horn.

Other Features

  • Gray, hairless; armor plates (actually skin folds) apparent but less so than in the greater one-horned rhino.