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1967: African American students strike, survive police riot to force change

A student protest 35 years ago can be seen as the birth of multicultural education in Philadelphia

by Ron Whitehorne

In 1967, African American students all across the nation’s college campuses were shutting down classes and sitting in administration offices to demand Black Studies and the recognition from university faculties that history is not synonymous with the doings and viewpoints of white Europeans.

The students were part of a broader movement for “Black Power”– for an end to the exclusion of African Americans from those institutions that control their lives.

Schools in big cities like Philadelphia were a case in point. By the late 1960s, the Philadelphia public schools were predominately African American, but policy-making remained largely in the hands of white elites and politicians. The overwhelming majority of African American students attended segregated schools, with inadequate resources and a curriculum that reinforced the racial and social status quo.

Students met with repression

Inspired by the activism on the campuses and in the community, African American high school students here organized to demand changes in their education.

On November 17, 1967, 3,500 students walked out of their classes and marched to the Board of Education to present their demands. The students called for the teaching of African American history, the right to wear African dress and the renaming of several predominantly Black high schools after African Americans who have contributed to our history.

They were met by what many observers later characterized as a police riot.

Assembling peacefully at the Board of Education headquarters at 21st and the Parkway, the students were confronted by two busloads of police, led by then Commissioner Frank Rizzo. Participants reported that Rizzo led the charge, telling his troops to “get their Black asses.”

The result was that 22 people were seriously injured and 57 were arrested. The police acted on the initiative of Rizzo, whereas the reform-minded superintendent, Dr. Mark Shedd, reportedly favored negotiations with the students.

While many leaders in the City spoke out against the unprovoked and /putal attack on the students, others defended Rizzo as the man who was “keeping the lid on” in Philadelphia. Rizzo rode this reputation to two terms as Mayor, becoming a darling of the Right across the nation.

Fruits of the struggle

The School District did respond positively to many of the students’ concerns. Following the student demonstration, an Ad Hoc Committee for the Infusion of African and Afro-American Heritage was created. The Committee made a series of recommendations which became the basis for School District policy.

In April 1969, a directive from the Deputy Superintendent of Instruction announced that “the policy of the School District of Philadelphia requires every school to provide a well-rounded program of African and Afro-American history and culture for every child as an integral part of his total school experience.” A nine-point plan for implementation included staff development, curriculum reform, courses for parents, and the production of instructional materials.

The District published a range of resource guides, model curricula, and other instructional material. Local activists and historians as well as scholars with national reputations were involved in creating these materials. A curriculum specialist position in African and Afro-American Studies was also created.

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Comments (2)

Submitted by Ken Heard (not verified) on Fri, 04/15/2011 - 15:10.

November 17th, 1967, or the 17th of November School Board Demonstration, Student Demonstrations

The demonstration, led by the African American Student Society (AASS)

,and a number of students who had long been instrumental in movements for peace, human and civil rights in the early and middle 1960's, brought to the front the demands made across the country at that time for better schools for African American, especially, and all students in Philadelphia for an end to the "tracking" and forced "vocational education system" visited especially upon African American students at that time. African American studies was near the middle of the list for the students involved in AASS, and was not a specific the students made as a priority over fully funding the public school system.

The 17th of November, 1967 Demonstration at the Philadelphia Public School Board, then located at 19th and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, was an amazing success for the entire youth movement and the civil rights movement as well.

The planning group of the African American Student Society (AASS) under the leadership of Hampton, Harvey, Edwards, et. al., was successful in the years before the 17th of November demonstration to bring officials of the Philadelphia Public School Administration to the table in a discussions of student rights and full school funding.

Lack of implementation needed from those discussions led to the demonstration.

The movement begun as a movement for student rights and blossomed into a full funding of and betterment of the Philadelphia Public School System.

Of course, the 17th of November School Board Demonstration was planned by the students to be a non-violent gathering.

Along with a number of other youth contingents and groups, religious (Catholic) high school students joined the public high school students in this demonstration for student rights and for full funding of public education.

But, the Philadelphia Police Riot of 1967, which ensued on that day, at the School Board, mightily challenged student leaders at the demonstration. Vast numbers of students, teachers, school administrators, and civil rights advocates were caught up in the riot and found that they were running, beaten and arrested on the scene.

The Philadelphia Police Riot was challenged in Federal Court by a number of attorneys (Earley, Gaskins, Akers and in a supporting role Coleman et. al.) and the affected students who came to the decision that the Philadelphia police force could not continue to impose on the rights of justified demonstrators who had nothing to lose but their health at the hands of the authorities (L. Staton, 04-08-11, Philadelphia, PA)

By 1970, the move to de-fund the Philadelphia public schools had just begun to taken visible bites in building and curriculum, assisting in largest advent of white-flight from Philadelphia in the history of the city.

Submitted by Ken Heard (not verified) on Thu, 05/05/2011 - 16:51.

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