Educational Resources for Particle Technology

Powder Bed Dynamics

Technical Areas: cascading, chute flow, screw conveying, bin / hopper / silo discharge
See Also: mixing, fluidized beds, powder mechanics

Latest changes: 07Apr18 - reformat, add Bates links / 07Aug05 - update Matcon link / 08Oct28 - hopper flow: preventing jamming /

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TOPIC AREAS

The Significance of PT
Formation from Gas
Formation from Liquid
Comminution, Attrition
Size Enlargement
Particle Physics
Particle Characterization:
   Non-Optical Methods
   Optical Methods
Storage / Discharge:
   Mechanics: wall stress
   Dynamics: flow
Pneumatic Conveying
Fluidized Bed
Mixing and De-mixing
Separation by Size
P./Gas Separation
P./Liquid Separation
Dispersion in Fluids
Rheology
Reaction
Heating, Drying
Safety
Simulation, Modeling
Specific Applications

ERPT Tutorials

Problems in Particulate Flow
      by Lyn Bates (Ajax Equipment Ltd.)
-- Part A: Flow Regimes ERPT 1999:2Q-Bates,

Hopper Flow (Laboratory Demonstrations) Funnel Flow, Mass Flow, Particle Dilation, Consolidation Effect of Powder Flow, Segregation during Hopper Flow, Flow improvement Due to Powder Agglomeration, Wall Friction
          by Simon M. Iveson and George V. Franks (Univ of Newcastle)
-- ERPT 2005:1Q-IvFr


Web Tutorials (not ERPT)

Design and Problems of Chutes and Feeders
          The Jenike & Johanson Co. site has several publications:
-- www.jenike.com/pages/education/papers/papers.html

Granular Flow
      by Sebastien Dartevelle (Univ. of Michigan)
an extensive Web site called The Granular Volcano Group. The tutorial on granular flow is at www.granular.org/granular_medium.html, with sections on
      I. Introduction
      II. Concentrated Flow
      III. General Case: Multiphase flow
      IV. The Problem of Granular Pressure
            1. General Overview of Gas Kinetics
            2. General Overview of Granular kinetics
A somewhat more advanced discussion is given at www.granular.org/granular_theory.html, with sections on
      I. Introduction
      II. Frictional Stress Formulation
      III. Kinetic-Collisional Stress Formulation
            1. Introduction
            2. Granular kinetic Theory Facts: Granular Pressure and Granular Viscosity
            3. Conservation of the Granular Temperature (or the Granular Fluctuating Energy)
            4. Kinetic-collisional Stress Tensor
      IV. Total Stress Tensor
      V. Practical Application to Granular Flow: Grain concentration and Grain-size effect

Flow properties and Silo Design
      by Dr.-Ing. Dietmar Schulze
Flow properties of powders and bulk solids and silo design for flow / Fließeigenschaften von Schüttgütern und verfahrenstechnische Siloauslegung (PDF file)
-- www.dietmar-schulze.de/info1e.html (English) / www.dietmar-schulze.de/info1.html (Deutsch)


Web Sites of Educational Interest

Hopper Flow:
      by Lyn Bates (Ajax Equipment Limited)
Condensed guides to industrial powder handling:
--- Ten Key Steps for Achieving Reliable Flow from Hoppers
--- The Flow Commandments (a humorous article)

The Particle Technology Forum (a division of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers) has published a number of short articles on practical aspects of particle handling.
--- Top Ten Tips For Reliable Flow From Hoppers, by Lyn Bates, Shrikant Dhodapkar, and George Klinzing -- PTF Newsletter, Winter 1998, 4:#2
--- Top Ten Tips To Prevent and Resolve Segregation Problems, by Lyn Bates, Shrikant Dhodapkar, and George Klinzing -- PTF Newsletter, Fall 2002, 8:#1
--- Guidelines to Prevent Particle Jamming or Structural Blockages, by Lyn Bates, Shrikant Dhodapkar, and George Klinzing -- PTF Newsletter, Fall 2008, 14:#1:17-19

Jenike and Johanson has posted a number of case studies of industrial processing problems involving particles. They offer courses and have posted a few on-line videos of particle flow concepts:
      arching (Shockwave video)
      ratholing (Shockwave video)
      sifting segregation [QuickTime]
      flooding [QuickTime]

Screw Conveying:
      by Lyn Bates (Ajax Equipment Limited)
Condensed guides to industrial powder handling:
--- Ten Key Steps to avoid Screw Feeder Discharge
--- Ten Key Steps for Reliable Screw Conveyor Performance

The Particle Technology Forum (a division of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers) has published a number of short articles on practical aspects of particle handling.
--- Top Ten Tips To Avoid Screw Feeder Discharge Problems, by Lyn Bates, Shrikant Dhodapkar, and George Klinzing -- PTF Newsletter, Summer 1999, 6:#2

Bouncing Bed
      by the Caltech Granular Flows Group
a video clip of a bouncing bed of particles
-- www.cco.caltech.edu/~granflow/homepage.html

Bin Discharge Control: Matcon has nicely illustrated product brochures that show a variety of methods for controlling the flow of tablets and friable (easy-to-break) particles as well as application sheets the describe specific cases of use. The site states "the cone valve - invented, patented and developed by Matcon ... solves all the typical flow problems - bridging, blockages, segregation, flushing, core-flow." You may request a solids handling CDROM from them.


Non-Web Resources

The Design of Hoppers for Strength and Flow -- see short courses by Glasgow Caledonian Univ's Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling
-- see ERPT's list of non-Web resources

Feeding Technology for Plastic Processing, by David H. Wilson (Hanser / Gardner Pub., Cincinnati, 1998) ISBN 1-56990-241-0 -- This has much helpful information on feeding solids to industrial processes [SD]

Explanations and Disclaimers
You may Email the ERPT Web Site Manager at
URL: http://www.erpt.org/technoar/powddyna.htm