Head of state and government:
As 2010 began, Haiti seemed poised to continue the prior year’s progress in economic growth, poverty alleviation, and improved governance. Then, on January 12, a magnitude-7.0 earthquake shook heavily populated Port-au-Prince and environs, causing catastrophic death and injury, extensive population displacement, and severe damage to property, infrastructure, and an already weak economy. (See Sidebar.)
Demonstrations of solidarity within Haiti and by international donors, manifested through an outpouring of humanitarian aid, helped the country struggle through the quake’s immediate aftermath. When more than 4,000 prisoners escaped from the national penitentiary on January 12, security concerns heightened. Although the Haitian National Police captured many escapees, kidnappings increased and public safety concerns lingered. The UN authorized MINUSTAH, its Haiti stabilization mission, to grow by more than 3,000 peacekeepers and police officers, bringing its strength to nearly 13,000. In mid-October MINUSTAH’s mandate was renewed for an additional year. Haitians living overseas—including many of an estimated 200,000 living in the U.S. illegally at the time of the quake whom the administration of U.S. Pres. Barack Obama offered temporary protected status—increased remittances, providing a lifeline to family members in Haiti.
The natural disaster underscored man-made problems that threatened prospects for rebuilding the country to a state better than the one that had existed prior to the quake. Weak government institutions, unable to respond to citizens’ needs, had resulted in a parallel dependence on nongovernmental organizations to deliver basic services, albeit with uneven coverage, quality, and sustainability. The concentration of education and health services, investment, infrastructure, and job opportunities in the capital city, juxtaposed with an overall neglect of the rest of the country, had resulted in extreme overcrowding in Port-au-Prince and a country completely out of balance. The government’s postquake-recovery planning, supported by international donors, emphasized the need to strengthen public institutions, achieve greater decentralization, and heighten the emphasis on infrastructure, agriculture, diversified energy sources, and environmental rehabilitation. By year’s end initial progress toward achieving these objectives was being made.
The country suffered another setback when in October an outbreak of cholera, a disease that had not been seen in the Caribbean in many decades, occurred in the Artibonite valley in northwestern Haiti. Lack of sanitation infrastructure allowed the disease to spread quickly. It reached Port-au-Prince in November, and there were violent protests against UN peacekeeping troops after reports surfaced linking the outbreak to them. The death toll had passed 2,000 and was still quickly rising at year’s end.
Parliamentary and presidential elections initially scheduled for February 28 were rescheduled for November 28. Election officials announced in December that Mirlande Manigat and ruling party candidate Jude Célestin would advance to a runoff election on Jan. 16, 2011. Many believed that Michel Martelly had polled higher than Célestin, and riots erupted amid charges of fraud. The electoral council planned a recount, though many called for a new election.