Page last updated at 15:05 GMT, Wednesday, 19 October 2011 16:05 UK

Samoa country profile

Map of Samoa

The Independent State of Samoa, known as Western Samoa until 1997, is made up of nine volcanic islands, two of which - Savai'i and Upolu - make up more than 99% of the land.

It was governed by New Zealand until its people voted for independence in 1961.


Samoa has the world's second-largest Polynesian group, after the Maori. Its deeply conservative and devoutly Christian society centres around the extended family, which is headed by an elected chief who directs the family's social, economic and political affairs, and the church, which is a focus of recreational and social life. Many Samoan villages hold up to 20 minutes of prayer curfews in the evenings.

Politics: The governing Human Rights Protection Party has been the dominant party in the country since 1982
Economy: The economy is heavily dependent on agricultural exports, tourism and financial assistance from Samoans living abroad
International: Samoa continues to maintain close ties with former colonial power New Zealand, which is still its main trading partner

The economy revolves around fishing and agriculture, which is vulnerable to cyclones and disease.

Attempts at diversification have met with success. Tourism is growing, thanks to the islands' scenic attractions and fine beaches. Offshore banking spearheads an expanding services sector. Light manufacturing is expanding and has attracted foreign investment.

Despite this, many younger Samoans are leaving for New Zealand, the US and American Samoa. Money sent home by Samoans living abroad can be a key source of household income.


  • Full name: The Independent State of Samoa
  • Population: 179,000 (UN, 2010)
  • Capital: Apia
  • Area: 2,831 sq km (1,093 sq miles)
  • Major languages: Samoan, English
  • Major religion: Christianity
  • Life expectancy: 70 years (men), 76 years (women) (UN)
  • Monetary unit: 1 tala = 100 sene
  • Main exports: Coconut oil and cream, copra, fish, beer
  • GNI per capita: US $2,840 (World Bank, 2009)
  • Internet domain: .ws
  • International dialling code: +685


Head of state: Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi

Former prime minister Tupua was elected head of state by parliament for a five-year term in 2007 on the death of paramount chief Malietoa Tanumafili II, who had been in office since independence. With the election of Tupua, Samoa switched from being a constitutional monarchy to being a republic.

Born in 1938, Tupua is an academic historian and a member of one of the leading extended families of the country.

He entered parliament as a Christian Democrat MP in 1966, and served as prime minister in 1976-82 and deputy prime minister in 1985-88.

Prime minister: Tuila'epa Sailele Malielegaoi

Prime Minister Tuila'epa's ruling Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP) gained a landslide victory in parliamentary polls in March 2011, heralding a fourth term for the premier.

Samoan PM
Tuila'epa Sailele Malielegaoi, in office since 1998

The HRPP won 36 seats out of the 49 available in the Samoan parliament, the Fono. The opposition Tautua Samoa Party (TSP), contesting an election for the first time since its formation in 2008, won the remaining 13 seats.

Mr Tuila'epa won his seat unopposed, despite criticism over the government's handling of a deadly tsunami that struck the country in 2009. However, three of his cabinet ministers lost their seats in the election.

He first became prime minister in 1998 when his predecessor, Tofilau Eti Alesana, resigned on health grounds after 16 years in the job.

Born in 1945 and an economist by training, Mr Tuila'epa was educated in Samoa and New Zealand, where he gained a master's degree - the first Samoan to do so.

In 1978 he moved to Brussels to work for the European Economic Community. He entered the Fono two years later, while simultaneously working as a partner in the accounting firm Coopers and Lybrand.

All but two of the seats in the Fono are reserved for ethnic Samoans and only the heads of extended families, known as "matai", may stand for election to them. The Fono selects the prime minister.


Press freedom is "generally respected", according to US-based Freedom House (2009).

The government and private operators run TV and radio stations and outlets from American Samoa are readily available.

By June 2009 there were 9,000 internet users (InternetWorldStats). Internet cafes are widely used.

The press

  • Samoa Observer - private daily
  • Samoa Times - daily
  • Le Samoa - weekly, in Samoan and English languages
  • Savali - fortnightly, in Samoan and English languages
  • Talamua Magazine - monthly, in Samoan and English languages


  • Samoa Broadcasting Corporation (SBC) TV 1 - state-run, commercial
  • TV3 - private
  • Vaiala Beach Television (VBTV) - private


  • Magik FM - popular music
  • K-Lite FM - easy listening music
  • Talofa FM - Samoan language and music
  • Samoa Broadcasting Corporation (SBC) - state-run, commercial, operates mediumwave (AM) and FM stations

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Compiled by BBC Monitoring

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