The Prajñ˜p˜ramit˜ Literature

` nmae -gvTyE AayR£à}aparimtayE

Note: To view this page correctly, you must have the following fonts: Sanskrit 98 and Translit 98. These fonts are also used with the freeware program Itranslator, available at the Okarananda Ashram site.
This page is an attempt to provide a basic bibliography of the Prajñ˜p˜ramit˜ literature with links to available web versions in Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese and Western languages.
It is based on the work of the great Buddhist scholar and transmitter of the Prajñ˜p˜ramit˜ to the West: Edward Conze.
What follows is a condensation of Conze's bibliography as it appears in his seminal "The Prajñ˜p˜ramit˜ Literature" (Indo-Iranian Monographs no. VI. 's-Gravenhage: Mouton, 1960), with some updates and additional information (I have updated the Tibetan titles into standard Wylie transliteration).
(many thanks to Christian Coseru of Sparsabhumi for providing me with a xerox of the updated 1978 second edition published by The Reiyukai, Tokyo. There is also a recent reprint available.)
Numbering and abbreviations follow Conze's usage.

As of now, Sanskrit Buddhist texts on the web are few and far between. Even hard-copy versions of this material are not easy to come by, in contrast to the Pali, Chinese and Tibetan Canons, which are easily aquired. In the spirit of trying to remedy this, I provide Conze's recension of the Heart Sutra, in several formats, as well as image files of his original presentation, complete with apparatus. I hope to make other Sanskrit Buddhist texts available in the future, as time permits. Of course, if anyone knows of available etexts that I have not linked to, please let me know so I can add the link.

The various Chinese translations are linked to the CBETA Taisho Tripitaka site in Taiwan. Each link takes you to the index page for the appropriate volume, where you can view or download the text in several formats. The encoding used there is Big5. At this page you can download entire volumes, zipped. 

The Tibetan translations link to the appropriate files, when available, on the Asian Classics Input Project website. To view the Tibetan script, you will have to download their fonts. The Wylie transliteration does not require a special font. Note that the ACIP transliteration standard is a modified Wylie. See the documentation on their website for more information.

We are truly entering a new golden age of Dharma transmission and study! May this small contribution be for the benefit of all beings!

1. The Perfection of Wisdom in 100,000 Lines.(þ)
    S:        þatas˜hasrik˜ prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-s¨tra
    S:         Manuscripts in Calcutta, Cambridge, New Delhi, Paris and Tokyo.
    s:          ed. P Ghosa, Bibl. Ind., I, 146-148 (1902-1913). ch 1-12
    Ch:       T2201-200, 201-400 -  Hsuan-tsang, A.D. 659-663.
                S. Lévi, Un fragment chinois de la S. P. In: A. F. R. Hoernle, Manuscript Remains, I, 1916, 390-395
    Ti:        shes-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa stong-phrag brgya-pa. 300 bampos. trsl.
                0 730.-To 8. - Cf also To 5574 (11). 5275 (122).
    ti:         Sher-phyin, ed. P Ghosa, 3 vols, Bibl. Ind. (Calcutta, 1888, 1890, 1891). pp. 511, 252,565.
               Up to bampo 78 = skr. vol. II pg. 39, 14 = middle of ch. 12 - Fragments IOSC no. 107-109.
               M. Lalou, Les Manuscrits tibétains des grandes Prajñ˜p˜ramit˜s trouvés à Touen-houang, Silver Jubilee Volume of the 
               Zinbun-Kagaku-Kenyusho Kyoto University
, 1954, pp. 257-261. - Les plus anciens rouleaux tibétains trouvées à 
               Touen-houang, Rocznik Orinetalistyczny xxi, 1957, pp. 149-152.  - Manuscrits tibétains de la S. P. cachés a Touen-houang, 
               JAs 252, 1964, pp 479-486. -- Inventaire des manuscirts tibétains de Touen-houang conservés à la Bibliotèque Nationale
               (Fonds Pelliot Tibétain)
, vol III, 1961, xix, 220 pp.
    Mo:     Ligeti no. 746-757. vol 26-37. - trsl. Siregetu guusi chorji (ca. 1600)
    e:        SS no. 11, 44-5, 49, 55, 66, 85, 91, 96, 105, 125, 127
               For ch. IX, pp. 1450-1453, cf. S Lévi, Ysa (1929), in Mémorial Sylvain Lévi 1937, pp. 355-363
               Sten Konow, "The Arapacana alphabet and the Sakas", Acta Orientalia, XII (1934), pp. 13-24
               F. W. Thomas, "A Kharoshthi document and the Arapacana alphabet", Miscellanea Academica Berolinensia, 1950, pp 194-207.

    CY1:    DharmaþrŸ (?), -vivaraõa (vy˜khy˜?)
        Ti: rnam-par bshad-pa. mdo-'grel XI 256a-331b. - To 3802
    CY2:   DaÕÿ÷rasena,  -b®ha÷÷Ÿk˜
                Ti:    rgya-cher bshad-pa. mdo-'grel XII, 1-392a, le'u 1-23; XIII 1-308a, le'u 24-52 - To 3807.
                        trsl. Surendrabodhi, Ye-shes-sde.
    CY3:    Sm®tijñ˜nakŸrti,  -traya-sam˜na-artha-aÿ÷a-abhisamaya-þ˜san˜
                Ti:    'bum dang nyi-khri lnga stong-pa dang khri-brgyad stong-pa gsum don mthun-par mngon-rtogs
                        brgyad-du bstan-pa. mdo-'grel II 207a-275a - To 3789
    CY4:    DaÕÿ÷rasena, ·rya-þatas˜hasrik˜-pañcaviÕþatis˜hasrik˜-aÿ÷˜-daþas˜hasrik˜-prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-b®ha÷÷Ÿk˜
                Ti:    rgya-cher bshad-pa. mdo-'grel XIV 1-333a. - To 3808. trsl. Surendrabodhi, Ye-shes-sde.
    CY5:    Ssa-by¨ryi mah˜prrajñ˜p˜r˜me hŸya hambeca
                Khotanese: "summary of the hundred-myriad Mah˜prajñ˜p˜ramit˜"
                ed: H. W. Baily, Khotanese Buddhist Texts (1951), pp. 54-61
    CY6:     þatas˜hasrik˜prajñ˜p˜ramit˜.
                Ti:    shes-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa stong-phrag brgya-pa'i don ma nor-bar bsdus-pa. ('bum chung).
                        mdo-mang no. 102, f. 322b-328a.
    CY7:    Klong-rdol bla-ma ngag-dbang blo-bzang, 'bum-gyi 'grel-rkang brgya-rtsa-brgyad ngos-'dzin.
                Ti:    To 6542, Da 1-16.


2. The Perfection of Wisdom in 25,000 Lines.  (P)
S:    pañcaviÕþatis˜hasrik˜ prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-s¨tra. Lost.

s:    The New Delhi Collection of Gilgit Mss contains folios 1 to 187 of P. The size of the leaves changes at folio 56. At folio 150,   although the pagination is continuous, the text breaks off in the middle of chapter 21 (=P, Add 1629, f.156 b) and is resumed again in chapter 30 (=P 301). Almost 30 folios have thus inadvertedly dropped out. At folio 188 (=P 361) the text changes without any warning into that of Ad (see no. 3).
s:    91 very short fragments from this, or another recension shorter than þ, are preserved in the Indikutasaya Copper Plaques in Sinhalese script of  the 8th or 9th century. The majority belong to P, ed Dutt, pp. 5-14. Epigraphica Zeylanica, iii (1928-1933), L 1933, pp. 200-212.
s:    Bongard-Levin, G.M., A fragment of the 'Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajnaparamita-sutra' from eastern Turkestan.
      The Journal of the American Oriental Society
Vol.114 No.3 Pp.383-385 July-Sep 1994
Ch:    T 221 xx 76 ch. Mokÿala, A.D. 291. T viii, 1-146. The prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-s¨tra which emits light.
ch:     T 222 x. Dharmarakÿa, A.D. 286. - T viii 147-216. - Incomplete, only up to ch. 27, i.e. the end of A ch. 2.
Ch:    T 223 xxvii (or xL). Kum˜rajŸva, A.D. 403-4. - T viii 216-424 (Mah˜prajñ˜p˜ramit˜s¨tra).
     T 220, 401-478. 85 Ch. Hsuan-tsang, A.D. 659-663. - T vii 1-426.
Ti:    shes-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa stong-phrag nyi-shu lnga-pa. 76 ch. trsl. Ye-shes-sde? 0 731. - To 9.
        Cf. To 5574(7). ACIP: Tibetan (First Part), Tibetan (Second Part)Wylie (First Part)Wylie (Second Part).
Mo:   Ligeti no. 758-761. vol. 38-41.

Cy 1:    (N˜g˜rjuna), Mah˜prajñ˜p˜ramitopadeþa.
           ch:     Ta-chih-tu-lun. T 1509 C. trsl. Kum˜rajŸva A.D. 405 (cy to T 223).
            f:       E. Lamotte, Le traite de la grand vertu de sagesse, I (1944), ch 1-15; II (1949), ch. 16-30.
            j:      Yamakami, Sogen, Kokuyaku Daichidoron, I-IV (1919-20).
                    Mano Shojun, Daichidoron, I-Vb (1935-6).
           e:       Kavalinka Dharma World
Cy 2:    Chi-tsang. Ch: T 1696 i.
Cy 3:    Yuan-hsiao. Ch: T 1697 i.

2A. A recast Version of No. 2.

S:     ˜rya-pañcaviÕþatis˜hasrik˜ bhagavatŸ prajñ˜p˜ramit˜ abhisamay˜-laõk˜ra-anus˜reõa saÕþodhit˜
S:     Nepalese manuscripts in Cambridge (Add. 1628, 1629; 18th and 19th century), Paris (Bibl. Nat. sanscrit 68-70, 71-73,
       19th cent.); Tokio Un. Library, Kawagucchi Ekai Nepalese Mss, vol. XXIX, 476 fols. Fragments in Kajiyoshi.
s:     ed. N. Dutt, Calcutta Oriental Series, no. 28 (1934, reprint 2000), 269 pp. (1st abhisamaya).
Ti:    mdo-'grel III-V. - To 3790. 3 vols. trsl. þ˜ntibhadra. Tshul-khrims rgyal-ba.
       Attributed to Haribhadra. This constitutes a different version which departs in many ways from the Sanskrit text of the
       Nepalese manuscrpts, and is obviously later than it.
Mo:  Xylographs (T'oung Pao, 27, 1930).
E:    "The Large Sutra of Perfect Wisdom"  trans. E. Conze

Cy1:    (Maitreyan˜tha), Abhisamaya-alaðk˜ra-n˜ma-prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-upadeþa-þ˜stra (or: -k˜rik˜) (AA)
    S:     ed. Th. Stcherbatsky and E Obermiller, Bibl. Buddh, 23 (Leningrad 1929), vol I, (xii) 40pp.
            ed:  G. Tucci, Abhisamay˜laõk˜r˜lok˜ (Baroda, GOS, 1932),
            ed:  U. Wogihara, Abhisamay˜laõk˜r˜lok˜, (Tokyo, 1932-35),
            ed:  Kajiyoshi, K., Genshi Hannya-kyO no kenkyU (1944), pp. 275-320
            ed:  C. Coseru, Abhisamay˜laõk˜r˜, (Internet, 1999)
    Ti:    (Byams -pa mgon-po), shes-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa'i man mga-gi bstan-bcos mngon-par rtogs-pa'i rgyan shes bya-ba'i tshig. trsl. Go mi-'chi-med, Blo-ldan shes-rab (1059-1109 A.D.).  mdo-'grel I, 1-15b. - To 3786. - Ed. Stcherbatsky, as S. 72 pp - To 6787, 1-16 ('bras-spungs pho brang edition), To 6793, 1-13 (Se-ra edition), To 6805, 1-46 (Mongolian edition) To 6804, 1-55 (an old Ms). 
        ACIP: Tibetan,    Wylie

    E:    E Conze, "Abhisamay˜laõk˜r˜", SOR, VI (1954) (Translation pp 4-106, Vocabulary pp 107-178,
           Tibetan-Sanskrit Index pp. 179-223).
    J:     Kajiyoshi, K. as S(4). - Also ibd, pp. 663-980: Detailed survey of divisions of AA.


3. The Perfection of Wisdom in 18,000 Lines. (Ad)
    S:     Aÿ÷˜daþas˜hasrik˜ prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-s¨tra    Lost.
    s:     One Gilgit Ms of this version i New Delhi extends from folio 188r (ch. 48, P 363a) to the end, i.e. folio 308r, edn of ch. 82. Folios 211r to 218r are lost. Folios 218v to 263v (ch. 55-69) are now in Rome. The New Delhi Collection of Gilgit Mss also contains another fragmentary Ms of Ad, of which 64 scattered leaves are preserved.
    s:    ed. Sten Konow, "Central Asian fragments of the Ad and of an unidentified text", Mem. Arch. Survey of India, 69 (1942).
    s:    ed Bidyabinod, Mem. arch. Survey of India, 32, (1927).
    s:    Ms Stein Ch 0079a, palm leaf, ca A.D. 600. 69 fols. - Described in E. Conze, "Preliminary Note on a Prajñ˜p˜ramit˜ manuscript", JRAS, 1950, pp. 32-36.
    Ch:  T 220, 479-537. Hsuan-tsang 659-663
    Ti:    shes-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa khri-brgyad stong-pa. 87 ch. trsl. Ye-shes-de? 3 vols. - To 10.
    Mo:  Ligeti no. 762-764. vols 42-44.


4. The Perfection of Wisdom in 10,000 Lines. (Da)
    S:    Daþas˜hasrik˜ prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-s¨tra. Lost.
    s:     ch. 1-2 (restored): Sten Konow, "The first two chapters of the Da", Avhandlinger utgift av det norske Videnskap-Akademi i Oslo, II, Kist. Filos. Klasse, 1941, no. 1, Oslo.
    Ti:    shes-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa khri-ba stong-pa. 33 ch. trsl. Jinamitra, Prajñ˜varman, Ye-shes-sde. 0 733 - To 11.
    Mo:  Ligeti no. 765. vol. 45 - trsl. Siregetu guusi (ca. A.D. 1600).


5. The Perfection of Wisdom in 8,000 Lines. (A)

    S:    Aÿ÷as˜hasrik˜ prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-s¨tra
           ed. R. Mitra, Calcutta, 1888, Bibl. Ind. 110, xxvi, 530 pp.
           ed. U Wogihara, Tokyo, 1932-35 (With Haribhadra's commentary, i.e. 5-cy 1)
           The palmleaf missing between Mitra pp 464 and 465 in E. Conze, BSOAS, XIV, (1952), pp. 261-2.
            Reprinted in TYBS, p. 183
    Ch:   T 224 x. Lokak.sema, A.D. 179-180. -   Prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-s¨tra of the practice of the Way.
          T 225 vi (or iv) Chih-Ch'ien, ca. A.D. 225. S¨tra of unlimited great-brightness crossing.
    ch:    T 226 v. Dharmapriya, A.D. 382. Only 13 ch. Extract (Mah˜prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-s¨tra)
    Ch:   T 227 x. Kum˜rajŸva, A.D. 408. T VIII pp. 536-586. (Mah˜prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-s¨tra)
            T 220, 4-5. Hsuan-tsang, ca. A.D. 660
            T 228 xxv. D˜nap˜la, A.D. 985. T viii pp. 587-676 (with chapters in Sanskrit). (The Prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-s¨tra,
       mother of the Buddha, who gives birth to the triple Dharmapi÷aka.)
    Ti:    shes-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa brgyad stong-pa.
            O 734 (enumerates many translators and revisors) (colophon trsl. in Beckh pp 8-9). - To 12 (Ka 1b-286a). -
           To 6758, Ka 1-428 (Tshe mchog gling edition).
            ACIP:  Tibetan  Wylie
    Mo:  Ligeti no. 766. vol. 46
            Also: Ms Royal Library Copenhagen, 159 fol, between 1593-1603. - Another translation by Bsam dan seng-ge,
             ca. A.D 1620, Blockprints Peking 1707, 1727, cf. W. Hessig, Ural-altaische Jahrbucher, XXVI (1954), p. 112.

    Cy 1:    Haribhadra, Abhisamay˜laõk˜r˜lok˜
                S:    ed. U. Wogihara (Tokyo, 1932-35), 995 pp. (with text of A)
                       ed. G. Tucci, GOS, 62 (Baroda, 1932).
                Ti:    rgyan-gyi snang-ba. mdo-'grel VI, 1-426a. vol. III, p 277
                        many translators and revisors - To 7391. 'grel-chen
    Cy 1-1:    Dbyangs-can dga'-ba'i blo-gros, 'phags-pa brygad stong-pa'i 'grel-chen rgyan snang-las btus-pa'i nyer
                    mkho mdo-don, Lta-ba'i mig-'byed. To 6578, Ka 1-63.
    Cy 2:    Ratn˜karaþ˜nti, -pañjik˜ S˜rottam˜ n˜ma
                 s:    S˜ratam˜ (S˜nk®ty˜yana Ms): ch. 2-7, 11 (in part), 15-32 (complete?)
                 Ti:    mdo-'grel X, 1-253a - To 3803, trans. Subhuutiþ˜nti, þ˜kya blo-gros.
    Cy 3:    Abhay˜karagupta, -v®tti MarmakaumudŸ n˜ma
                Ti:    mdo-'grel XI, 1-256a. - To 3805. trsl. Abhay˜karagupta Shes-rab dpal.
    Cy 4:    Jagaddalaniv˜sin, -˜mn˜y˜nus˜riõi n˜ma vy˜khy˜
             Ti:    man-ngag-gi rjes-su 'bran-ba shes bya-ba'i rnam-par bshad-pa. mdo-'grel XV, 1-371a. -
                        To 3811, trsl. Alaõk(˜r)adeva, Ga-rod tshul-khrims 'byung-gnas.
    Cy 5:    Dign˜ga,Prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-piõý˜rtha.
                S:    ed. G. Tucci, JRAS, 1947, pp. 56-59.
                       ed. E. Frauwallner, Wiener Ztschr. f. d. Kunde Sud- und Ostasiens, III (1959), pp. 140-4; cf. pp. 116-20.
                Ch:   T 1518D˜nap˜la, A.D. 982.
                Ti:    bsdus-pa'i tshig-le'ur byas-pa (samgrahak˜rik˜). mdo-'grel XIV 333a-336a, and CXXVIII no. 7 -
                        To 3809, trsl. Tilakakalash, Blo-ldan shes-rab. - Ed. JRAS, 68-75.


Verses on the Accumulation of Precious Qualities.

The Questions of

The Perfection of Wisdom in 700 Lines.

The "Diamond  ".

The Perfection of Wisdom in 50 Lines.

The S Which Gives the Direct Meaning of Perfect Wisdom.

The Heart S¨tra
S: prajñ˜p˜ramit˜-h®daya-s¨tra
                ed. E. Conze, JRAS, 1948, pp34-47.
                Reprinted in: Thirty Years of Buddhist Studies, Cassirer, 1967, pp149-154
                                 Itrans         Devanagari         Roman
                Scans from Thirty Years of Buddhist Sudies:
                 pg. 149    pg. 150    pg. 151  pg.152   pg.153  pg.154

Ti:    ed. Jonathan A. Silk "The Heart Sutra in Tibetan: A Critical Edition of the Two Recensions
        Contained  in the  Kanjur",  Wein, 1994
                Recension A:  Wylie   Tibetan

The Questions of N.

The Questions of Pravara, the Deva-King

Prajñ˜p˜ramit˜ S Explaining how Benevolent Kings May Protect Their Countries.

Explanations of the Five Perfections.

The P S, Spoken by the Buddha, Which Awakens to Enlightenment About One's True Nature.

S Which Deals with the Understanding of the Six Perfections in the M.

The Perfection of Wisdom in 150 Lines.

Perfect Wisdom in a Few Words.


Ch        Chinese
ch         Chinese in part
Cy        commentary
E           English
e            English in part
GOS        Gaekwad's Oriental Series
IOSC       India Office Stein Collection
JAs          Journal Asiatique
Ligeti        L. Ligeti, Catalogue du Kanjur mongol imprimé, I (1942)
mdo-'grel        P. Cordier, Catalogue du fonds tibétain de la Bibliothèque Nationale, II (1909), III (1915)
mdo-mang        M. Lalou, Catalogue du fonds tibétain de la Bibliothèque Nationale, IV 1. Les Mdo-Mang (1931)
Mo           Mongolian
S         Sanskrit
s          Sanskrit in part
SOR        Serie Orientale Roma
SS        Selected Sayings (Conze), 1955
Ti         Tibetan
ti          Tibetan in part
To        Tohoku Catalogue of Kanjur and Tanjur, ed. H. Ui, etc. (1934)
TYBS        E. Conze, Thirty Years of Buddhist Studies, 1967

Dr. Edward Conze


               mh£sÅv sae Aw iknaeCyit kar[en
                    mhtay A¢u Ayu -e:yit sÅv£raze
               †òI£gtan! mhit sÅv£xatae
                    mh£sÅv ten ih àvuCyit kar[en

-RGS I,17

                                What is the reason why 'Great Beings' are so called?
                                         They rise to the highest place above a great number of people;
                                And of a great number of people they cut off mistaken views.
                                         That is why we come to speak of them as 'Great Beings.'

This page maintained by Dante Rosati. All comments, corrections, additions, and suggestions are welcome.


free web counters