Historical Timeline of the Auckland Islands

Thanks to Karl Gillies of the Southland Museum & Art Gallery for providing numerous corrections and additional events for this timeline.

A.D 1200 Auckland Islands discovered by East Polynesians, circa AD 1200. Significantly, this is the southernmost latitude ever recorded (to date) of East Polynesian/early Maori exploration.
August 1806 Cptn Abraham Bristow of the 401 ton whaler OCEAN rediscovered Lord Auckland's Islands.
  1807 Bristow returned in the SARAH belonging to the same firm Enderby that owned the OCEAN. He took formal possession of the Islands. Before departing he released several pigs.
December 1807 Cptn Sirone, COMMERCE arrived Auckland Is. from Sydney, procured 3000 seal skins. Pakeha Maori named John Marmon recounted two other gangs already present. Opposing parties were drugged with rum.
February 1815 Cptn Philip Good enough on BETSY lost one European Thomans Wilman, and a Lascar, from scurvy at Auckland Islands
  1817 The ENTERPRISE an American Whaling ship on a sealing expedition stopped at the Auckland Islands and the Snares, rescuing 3 seamen from the latter.
  1823 Schooner HENRY reported by Cptn Benjamin Morell to have taken 13,000 of the finest furs from the Auckland Is.
February 1825 Cptn R. Jameson on brig QUEEN CHARLOTTE secured 2200 and 2 tons oil at Auckland Islands. Reported seeing the WELLINGTON and the ELIZABETH AND MARY
June 1825 Cptn Thayer on the schooner YANKEE secured 2000 fur skins at Auckland Is.
November 1825 Cptn Lovett on the SALLY arrived to spend 3 months sealing in which she procured only 200 seal skins and lost 6 men.
November 1825 The SALLY lost two boats and six men at Auckland Islands. "By an untoward circumstance, two boats were lost and six seamen drowned, namely: John Cole, Edward Stowers, John Simons, Robert Hardy, George Howell and Rob Richardson.
December 1825 The SAMUEL left Auckland Islands for Sydney with 2000 skins
December 1829 Cptn Benjamin Morrell in US Schooner ANTARCTIC arrived Carnley. Returned glowing report of settlement prospects at Port Ross, no fur seals were sighted anywhere, only 5 sea lions living. Cptn's wife was on board. First recorded woman at Aucklands.
  1830 John Briscoe in TULA and LIVELY of Messrs Enderby made a remarkable journey in the years 1830-32. The cutter was wrecked and there is no mention by Fricker of a later expedition except the chance meeting between Briscoe and Balleny at Campbell in 1838
  1833 Reference to wreck of vessel in 1833. 'RIFFLEMAN ? 1833'. The site of the wreck is not shown.
March 1833 SYDNEY PACKET was purchased by George Bunn 1833.0300
October 1833 Cptn Joss SYDNEY PACKET left Campbell with shipwreck items from wreck on Auckland Islands given to him by Anglin of the CAROLINE.
November 1833 SYDNEY PACKET arrives Sydney with ship wreck remains from Auckland.
February 1834 Edwin Palmer of CAROLINE sealing at Auckland Is. examined recent wreck. He said no information could be got of vessels name. Many tons of wreck had been beached consisting of wool, oil, and shipping stores. He had charge of gang finding wreck.
March 1834 CAROLINE and SYDNEY PACKET returned from New Zealand.
August 1834 Captn Joss SYDNEY PACKET reported that there was not a vestige left of the wreck on Auckland Islands
May 1835 Capt Worth of the CAROLINE brought news of the Auckland Islands wreck
July 1838 John Balleny in ELIZA SCOTT belonging to Messrs. Enderby left London. On his voyage stopped at Campbel where he met John Briscoe also of Messrs Enderby on Jan17,1839. The SABRINA accompanying the ELIZA SCOTT disappeared after departing Campbell - CFM
March 1840 A Portuguese whaler, called SPECULACAO commanded by Englishman named Robinson anchored in the Head of Sarah's Bosom. Her whaling boats indicated her presence to D'Urville. She had come to Auckland after an unsuccessful cruise around NZ.
March 1840 Dumont D'Urville visited Port Ross in the ASTROLABE and the ZELEE, found graves of early whalers on Shoe Island. Stayed for 9 days. Saw PORPOISE and heard her guns as they arrived. Visited coast with whale boats from SPECULACO
April 1840 Three whalers anchored at the Auckland Islands. NORTH AMERICA, ROMAN, and the AMETHYST. The first sailed full on the same day and the other two a short time later for Bluff. Islands referred to as 'A whaling resort for Americans'
November 1840 Cptn James Ross visited Port Ross for 20 days in HMS EREBUS and HMS TERROR. Botanists Dr. David Lyall & Joseph Hooker collected 80 flowering plants. Released sheep, poultry, rabbits. Planted variety of vegetables and garden fruits.
  1841 150 Chatham Island Maoris landed about this time.
October 1842 HANNAH brought Maori people plus flax from Chatham Islands. Party of 30 Maori under Chief Matioro and 30 Moriori slaves settled at Crozier point.
December 1849 150 British settlers arrived at Port Ross in SAMUEL ENDERBY, BRISK adn the FANCY. Found over 60 Maori and Moriori already occupying the land.
January 1850 Hardwicke settlement officially named in honour of Earl Hardwicke governor of the company
November 1850 Isabel Younger, British settler died aged 3 months
November 1850 Governer General Sir George Grey visited Hardwicke on HMS FLY. He left pessimistic about the settlements future.
August 1852 HMS FANTOME sent to oversee disbanding of the shortest lived attempt at British colonisation. The last British settlers departed around this date. During settlement (2 years 9 months): 2 infant deaths, 5 weddings, 16 births.
  1854 Party of Maori and Moriori arrived at Port Adventure (Stewart Island, New Zealand) from Auckland Islands. The surviving 19 Maori and 11 Moriori. Its believed that their rescuers planted a Ngaio tree in port Adventure which can be seen today (1994)
  1864 The MINERVA of Leith was, according to newspaper accounts published at the time DUNDONALD survivors were rescued, wrecked on the Auckland Is this year. 4 survivors were rescued 25mar1865. Neither Dr T. M. Hocken or R. McNab or CJN could not substantiate this.
January 1864 GRAFTON driven aground in Carnley Harbour during violent storm. Cptn Thomas Musgrave + 4 companions survived at Epigwaitt. Brigantine believed to have been built from timbers of earlier wreck, possibly that of a Spanish Man of War. Was sealing out of Sydney. Crew spent 18 months on the Island before Captain Musgrave set sail in ships boat. Reached Stewart Island 6 days later.
May 1864 Cptn George Dalgarno INVERCAULD wrecked on western cliffs of Auckland Islands. 19 of 25 got to shore but only 3 survived in the following weeks, slowly starving and turning to cannibalism to stay alive.
May 1864 Musgrave recorded an earthquake lasting about a minute
  1865 Musgrave, Mate & one of the men sailed to Port Adventure Steward Island in the refashioned ships boat after 5 days of stormy weather.
  1865 Mr Cross of Stewart Island with his vessel FLYING SCUD from Port Adventure took Musgrave and his men, first to Invercargill where money and provisions were raised and then back to Carnley Harbour to bring back the two remaining Men
  1865 Cptn Raynal in the SWORDFISH concluded that the dead sailer was from the INVERCAULD (John Mahoney). Year of visit unclear. Did he modify the gravestone ?
  1865 Crew of paddle steamer SS SOUTHLAND replaced wooden plaque marking spot of John Mahoney body with Painted Marble headstone with his name on it - spelt wrong.
March 1865 4 survivors were supposedly rescued from the MINERVA. Neither Dr T. M. Hocken or R. McNab could substantiate that the wreck took place. CJN attributes this story to Roderick Carrick who also apparently invented the story about the lady of the heather
May 1865 Spanish Brig JULIAN which had sprung a leak stopped at Auckland and picked up the Cptn, mate and a seaman, survivors of the INVERCAULD, off Enderby Island
August 1865 On her return voyage the FLYING SCUD looking for castaways found the body of a sailor whom had died not more than three months previously with a slate in one of the huts at Port Ross. They buried the corpse and returned to Invercargill.
September 1865 GRAFTON survivors finally landed in Invercargill more than 20 months since they were castaway.
September 1865 Erected by the crew of the SS SOUTHLAND over the remains of a man who had apparently died from starvation and was buried by the crew of the FLYING SCUD - 3rd Sept 1865
October 1865 Inscription on Victoria tree by Cptn W. H. Norman reads "HMCS VICTORIA, Norman, in search of shipwrecked people, Oct 13th 1865". Cptn Musgrave was on board. Vessel sent from Melbourne. Castaway stores were left a suitable places around the Islands.
May 1866 GENERAL GRANT drifted into a cavern on the Western Cliffs of the Auckland Islands. 68 drowned, 15 landed in Port Ross, 10 survived including a woman.
  1867 Brig AMHERST instructed to maps and provision depots at the Aucklands. Three were built. Erebus Cove, the head of Saddle Hill inlet, and at Musgrave's hut site in Carnley Harbour. They also left a spar on Beacon Pt to serve as a ships Beacon.
January 1867 Chief Officer and 3 seamen from GENERAL GRANT set off in a small boat for NZ, never to be seen again.
January 1868 The whaling ship AMHERST (out of the port of Bluff, with Captain Paddy Gilroy) rescued the 10 survivors of the General Grant. Two woodhens were liberated on Enderby. First Castaway depot was built on Enderby but later burnt down. Was replaced by the SS STELLA hut in 1880.
  1869 BLANCHE Inscription in rock face at the head of Tandy Inlet dated 1869
May 1870 A whale boat of 6 from the DAPHNE was lost with all hands attempting and examination of the GENERAL GRANT site.
July 1870 HMS BLANCHE surveyed the Auckland Islands and prepared a chart of them. Probably left Blanche Triangle at this time
October 1874 German expedition landed Terror Cove Port Ross to observe the transit of Venus. They stayed 6 months.
  1880 Cptn McKenzie in the SS STELLA built a replacement Castaway Hut at Sandy Bay, Enderby
  1883 Cptn of SARAH W. HUNT sent two whaleboat loads of men ashore to search for herds of fur seals, and then sailed for NZ where he reported all hands lost. Govt Steamer STELLA rescued men in December
March 1887 DERRY CASTLE struck a reef of Enderby Island. 15 perished, 8 survived. The crew list from Archives had 13 named, one unknown and a statement that no passenger died CAM. Iron Barque 1317 tons 240 ft.
August 1887 8 survivors of the DERRY CASTLE were rescued by the AWARUA which was on an illegal sealing trip.
  1888 Rose Is, Ewing Is, Enderby boat sheds built and Norman Inlet Castaway depot built
  1890 Botanist T. Kirk visited all the Sub-Antarctic Islands on the Government Steamer. Since 1887 each Island was checked twice per year for Castaways.
  1891 GSS HINEMOA was twice sent in search of the KAKANUI with 19 hands apparently lost after departing Macquarie Island. HINEMOA stopped at Auckland Is. Campbell and Snares but found no trace.
March 1891 COMPADRE was wrecked on Auckland Islands, 15 survivors, 1 died after later. Survivors rescued by the JANET RAMSEY on 1891.0630
March 1891 COMPADRE caught fire to the north of Auckland Islands. She was steered to shore in the hopes of saving life. Oil was poured on the water from the stern to calm the water. The ship struck with great force, all hands climbed onto the jibboom and everyone jumped for the rocks.
June 1891 JANET RAMSAY rescued 17 survivors from the COMPADRE. The vessel caught fire and was beached. All hands were saved but 1 died later.
  1894 Subdivision of the Auckland Islands into 3 pastoral runs and offered for lease. Bought by W.J. Moffett, G.S. Flemming. Adams went to Joseph Hatch. Hatch's Cptn Drew was jailed for seal poaching and Hatch was not permitted to take his lease or similar
  1895 W.J. Moffett and Family of Invercargill took up lease and landed 9 shorthorn cattle, and 20 romney sheep on Enderby
  1895 Sir James Hector and Prof. T.J. Parker accompanied the Government Steamer to theAuckland Islands in 1895 and made collections.
  1895 HINEMOA discovers wreck of either STONELEIGH or MARIE ALICE. MARIE ALICE Steel Barque 999 tons 211 ft long. STONELEIGH was a wheat laden barque.
  1896 Loss of the Sally on Friday Island is shown on maps in both of these publications but no textual comments appear in PBMF1 the apparent source
  1900 G.S.Flemming established homestead in Carnley Harbour and landed 2000 sheep
December 1900 Lord Ranfurly in the Government Steamer made an excursion to the Auckland Islands for Captain Hutton of the Otago Museum
  1903 Dr. Cockayne visted all the Islands with the exception of the Snares due to bad weather making extensive and valuable collections
  1904 Cptn Scott (Sir Peter Scott’s father) landed at Enderby
March 1904 DISCOVERY on return from the National Antarctic Expedition rendezvoused with MORNING and TERRA NOVA in Port Ross. The officers of DISCOVERY made several more collections during their stay.
February 1905 Several inscriptions in Camp Cove Castaway depot with this as date of ANJOU wreck. Ran aground in thick weather. No lives lost but survivors spent 3 months before being rescued by GSS HINEMOA
March 1905 ANJOU was wrecked near Cape Bristow, all hands got to safetly to shore and made it to a castaway depot in Carnley harbour. The crew used boats to enter Carnley via the West Passage. Barque struck rocks hanging the bow. Listed to port and seas broke over her. Struck at 8:30pm. Crew stayed on board overnight by orders of the Captain. All hands left ship before she sunk. Hinemoa visited wreck shortly afterwards and saw little
May 1905 Cptn Bollons of the GSS HINEMOA rescued survivors of the French vessel ANJOU
February 1907 TUTANEKAI at the request of Lord Plunket visited the Islands with Prof. W.B. Benham and Mr. E.R. Waite who conducted extensive collections..
March 1907 DUNDONALD was wrecked on Disappointment Island, 12 drowned. The mate died a fortnight later from exposure. Eventually rescued from Erebus Cove by the GSS HINEMOA after 8 months. Vessel was on route from Sydney to Falmouth with a cargo of wheat.
October 1907 Some of DUNDONALDS crew manufactured a coracle and made their way to Port Ross returning with a boat left at the depot to rescue their companions
November 1907 Philosophical Expedition departed Bluff on HINEMOA, Cptn Bollons. Members included: C. Farr, H. Cook, L. Cockayne, J. Tennant, B. Aston, A Dorrien-Smith, R. Speight, A. Finlayson, W. Benham, G. Hudson, E. Waite, S. Page.
November 1907 HINEMOA arrives Port Ross. Found survivors of the DUNDONALD. After attending to needs of survivors proceed to drop Expedition party in Carnley Harbour. Landed at Camp Cove.
November 1907 Inscription in Camp Cove Depot by G.V. Hudson Entomologist from Philosophical Expedition with this date.
November 1907 HINEMOA collected members of Philosophical Expedition from Camp Cove and proceed to Port Ross. During the voyage L. Cockayne under instruction from the Governement collected 12 specimens of the Auckland Island flightless duck later released on Kapiti Is.
November 1907 HINEMOA visted Disappointment Island. While there also retrieved the remains of the DUNDONALDS first mate bringing him back for burial at the Hardwicke Cemetery
  1908 Mr B.C. Aston from Philosophical Team returned to Auckland Island in HINEMOA making further botanical collections.
  1910 Adams Island protected as a Nature Reserve
  1910 Flemming forfeited his farming lease
December 1912 Inscription in Rafter 3 of Erebus Depot "Instructors NZTS AMOKURA 10.12.12"
  1929 Servicing of Castaway Depots stopped
January 1929 Inscription in Castaway Depot on Enderby includes TUTANEKAI VI-I-XXIX
  1934 Whole of Auckland Islands protected as a Nature Reserve
August 1939 ERLANGEN departed Dunedin Harbour prior to the outset of war. She was beached in Carnley harbour and 250 tons of rata timber cut for fuel. Departed Oct 1939 She managed to evade two frigates which were searching for her and made a successful crossing to Valpariso, South America.
March 1941 TAGUA left Wellington with a complement of men to occupy 5 Coastwatcher stations positioned around Auckland Islands during World War Two. The posting became known as the Cape Expedition. Station 1: Stanaway, Mitchell, Wilson, Trustum. Station 2: Clifton, Sorenson, McDougall, Cameron, Cahill. Station 3: Knowles, Sorenson, Trigger, Duthie, Ineson. Station 4: Pollock, Balham, Stanbury, Oliver, Carlyle. Station 5: Sorenson, Atkinson, Copp, Sharman, Clinker
October 1943 CFR discovered the South Georgian Diving Petrel was nesting on Dundas
October 1945 Coastwatch stations from the Cape Expedition were demobilised
  1954 Campbell Islands protected as a Nature Reserve
  1961 Antipodes, Snares & Bounty Islands protected as a Nature Reserves
  1962 MacArthur visited Enderby and Rose and probably other Islands also.
    A pre-European Maori woodworking adze (displayed in the Southland Museum & Art Gallery was discovered on The Snares, north of the Auckland Islands, supporting the theory that Maori reached the Auckland Islands long before European discovery." (Thanks to Karl Gillies of the Southland Museum for providing this information)
  1966 Two groups scientists went to Adams Is + Main Is. Dropped and collected by USS KALKATERA
  1971 Sir Peter Scott & wife & daughter visited Auckland Islands on return from Antarctica
  1972 Dr. Balham (Coast watcher) made journey to Islands in 1972 on HMNZS CANTERBURY
  1972 ARCHERON & ST MICHAELS supported 1972-3 Scientific Expedition.
December 1972 KETIGA and Gerry Clark at Campbell
  1975 John Grattan's first attempt on the General Grant. Apparently a wreck was located which no-one could positively identify. Grattan returned the following year.
January 1975 "General Grant Expedition". Carved in Enderby Boatshed. RV ARCHERON
January 1975 McCormack brothers discovered the wreck of the Dundonald
January 1975 A wreck was discovered on west coast in 8 metres of water on rock and sand bottom - at the time thought to be that of the GENERAL GRANT but was identified as ANJOU in 1986
January 1976 "Commander Grant Expedition" Carved into Boatshed Enderby. RV ARCHERON, FV GOLDEN HARVEST
January 1976 General Grattan departed Dunedin to excavate wreck discovered the year before. Later identified as the ANJOU
  1985 General Grant expedition in LITTLE MERMAID. Spent several weeks at supposed site identifying it eventually as the ANJOU. They then found another wreck site but didnt have time to investigate
February 1986 Bill Day Expedition discovered 63 silver half crowns, 2 copper coins, 3 anchors
  1987 Management Plan for the Auckland Island reserves was published. See PAMB for more details.
  1989 Maori fishhook and stone tools were discovered in a living site on the Auckland Islands (Enderby Island). These artefacts are thought to have been left by Maori who lived on Enderby Island in the 1840s. (information provided by CGK)
January 1995 GEOMARINE departed Bluff for CAD Video trip. Director Southcoast Video filming expedition which produced "No Place for People"
  1997 EVOHE visited Islands with Deep Blue team.
  1998 Professor Atholl Anderson’s "Southern Margins" expedition discovers a pre-European (prehistoric) site at Sandy Bay, Enderby Island which proves to the most southern example of East Polynesian/early Maori exploration known and also the earliest recorded human presence (1200 A.D) at the Auckland Islands. (Thanks to Karl Gillies of the Southland Museum & Art Gallery for providing this information)
    From the same site on Enderby visited by Professor Atholl Anderson et al, a fireplace was uncovered the same year in 1998 that gave reliable radiocarbon dates which group between 1100 to 1300 AD.