A. J. John, Anaparambil, B. A., B. L. [എ. ജെ. ജോണ്‍, ആനാപ്പറമ്പില്‍, ബി. എ., ബി. എല്‍. / எ. ஜெ. ஜோண், அனாப்பறம்பில், பி. எ., பி. எல். / ए. जे. जोण्, आनाप्परंपिल्, बि. ए., बि. एल्.]

(18th July 1893 - † 1st October 1957)

Thalayolaparambu, Vaikom

  • Church of St. George, Thalayolaparambu
  • B. A.; St. Joseph's College, Trichinopoly
  • B. L.; Law College, Trivandrum
  • Advovate, High Court, Trivandrum, Kingdom of Travancore
  • Member, Managing Committee, All Kerala Catholic Congress
  • All Travancore Joint Political Conference [അഖില തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ സംയുക്ത രാഷ്ട്രീയ സമ്മേളനം] and `Nivarthanam' [നിവര്‍ത്തനം / Abstention] agitation for proportionate representation (1932)
  • Member, Travancore Legislative Council, Vaikom (1925, 1936)
  • Travancore State Congress [തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ സ്റ്റേറ്റ് കോംഗ്രസ്സ്] (23rd February 1938) and Utharavada bharanam [ഉത്തരവാദ ഭരണം / Responsible government] Struggle
  • Founding member, Travancore State Congress [Working Committee: Pattom A. Thanu Pillai (President); Parur T. K. Narayana Pillai; C. Kesavan; A. J. John, Anaparambil; T. M. Varghese, Thandaneth; K. T. Thomas (Secretary); P. S. Nataraja Pillai (Secretary); P. K. Kunju; K. P. Neelakanta Pillai; M. R. Madhava Warrier; N. K. Padmanabha Pillai; Annie Mascarene; E. John Philipose, Elanjickal; P. J. Sebastian, Pullamkalam; K. M. Korah, Karuvelithara; Kumbalam P. Sanku Pillai; A. Narayana Pillai; V. K. Velayudhan; K. Kesavan; Kannara Gopala Panicker; R. Vasudevan Pillai; M. N. Parameswaran Pillai; K. N. Kunjukrishna Pillai]
  • Imprisoned twice (1938-1939)
  • Struggle against the Education Bill on nationalising of primary schools (12 Sep. 1945) in the Kingdom of Travancore [വിദ്യാഭ്യാസ പ്രക്ഷോഭണം]

  • Independence for India (15 Aug. 1947)
  • Declaration of Responsible government and Travancore Constituent Assembly (4 Sep. 1947)
  • General elections in Travancore, the first based on universal adult franchise in India (Feb. 1948)
  • Total seats: 120; Indian National Congress: 97; Muslim league: 8; Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress: 14; Independents: 1; Communist party: 0.
  • Member, Travancore Constituent Assembly, Kaduthuruthy
  • President, Travancore Constituent/Legislative Assembly (20 Mar. 1948 - 17 Oct. 1948)
  • Park View Bungalow, Trivandrum
  • Prime minister: Pattom A. Thanu Pillai; Ministers: C. Kesavan; T. M. Varghese, Thandaneth; K. M. Korah, Karuvelithara; A. Achuthan; G. Ramachandran
  • Minister for Finance and Revenue, Travancore [Prime minister: Parur T. K. Narayana Pillai] (27 Oct. 1948 - 1 Jul. 1949)

  • Minister for Finance and Revenue, Travancore-Cochin [Chief minister: Parur T. K. Narayana Pillai] (1 Jul. 1949 - 1 Mar. 1951)
  • Minister for Finance, Revenue, and Public Health, Travancore-Cochin [Chief minister: C. Kesavan] (5 Mar. 1951 - 5 Sep. 1951)
  • Ministry of Finance, Government of Kerala

  • First General Elections of India, (10th December 1951 - 5th January 1952): Results for Travancore-Cochin State
  • Total seats: 108; Indian National Congress: 44; Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress (T. T. N. C.): 8; Socialist Party: 11; Communist Party: 25; Revolutionary Socialist Party: 6; Kerala Socialist Party: 1; Cochin party: 1; Independents: 12
  • Member, Travancore-Cochin Legislative Assembly, Poonjar
  • Election as Leader of the Congress Legislature Party (44 legislators), defeating Panampilly Govinda Menon by a margin of 2 votes
  • A. J. John invited by the Rajpramukh to form the government as leader of the largest single party in the legislature
  • T. T. N. C. (8 legislators under A. Chidambaranatha Nadar) offers support to the Congress in forming a coalition government. (57 vs. 51 among 108 legislators)
  • Chief Minister, Travancore-Cochin State (12th March 1952 - 24th September 1953, and as caretaker up to 16th March 1954)
  • Cabinet: T. M. Varghese, Thandaneth (Home Affairs); Panampilly Govinda Menon (Finance, Civil Supplies); Kalathil Velayudhan Nair (Public Works, Transport, Electricity); V. Madhavan (Medicine, Public Health); K. Kochukuttan (Local self-government); A. Chidambaranatha Nadar (Land revenue, Forests, 24 May 1952 - 15 Sep. 1953)
  • Employees Provident Fund Act 1952
  • T. T. N. C. withdraws support (demanding that Kanyakumari district be ceded to Madras state) and the government is defeated on the floor of the House when a confidence motion falls through (56 vs. 51) (23rd September 1953)
  • Assembly is dissolved on the advice of the C. M. and the government continues as caretaker
  • Resignation submitted to the Rajpramukh (3rd March 1954)
  • Longest serving C. M. of Travancore-Cochin and First leader of a coalition government in independent India (and Kerala)

  • Interim election of February 1954
  • Total seats: 118; Indian National Congress: 45; Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress (T. T. N. C.): 12; Praja Socialist Party: 19; Communist Party: 23; Revolutionary Socialist Party: 9; Kerala Socialist Party: 3; Independents: 6; Nominated Anglo-Indian member: 1
  • Member, Travancore-Cochin Legislative Assembly, Poonjar
  • Minister for Home Affairs, Food & Civil Supplies, and Forests, Travancore-Cochin [Chief minister: Panampilly Govinda Menon] (14 Feb. 1955 - 23 Mar. 1956)
  • Appointment (14 Feb. 1955)
  • Resignation (11 Mar. 1956)

  • Governor, Madras State (Tamil Nadu) (10th December 1956 - 1st October 1957 †)
  • Appointment as Governor (21 Nov. 1956)
  • Visit of Jawaharlal Nehru for the Centenary celebrations, University of Madras; Centenary building, University of Madras (31 Jan. 1957)
  • K. Kamaraj and Cabinet sworn in (13 Apr. and 26 Apr. 1957)
  • Electricity board, Madras (1 May 1956)
  • Visit of Jawaharlal Nehru for the inauguration of earth-moving operations under the lignite mining scheme at Neiveli (21 May 1957)

  • Death at General Hospital, Madras, 1st October 1957 (consequent to a peptic ulcer operation on 22 Sep.)
  • Tomb at San Thomé Cathedral Basilica, Mylapore, Madras (Funeral: 2 Oct. 1957)

  • Statue at Town Square, Thalayolaparambu
  • A. J. John Memorial Girls's High School, Thalayolaparambu
  • A. J. John Memorial High School, Chathankottunada, Kavilumpara, Thottilpalam, Calicut (1 Jun. 1968)
  • A. J. John Memorial High School, Kainady, Alleppey (1960)
  • St. Mary's High School, Madre de Deus Church, Vettucaud (1952)

    Bibliography

    1. `Travancore today: her struggle for freedom', Working committee, Travancore State Congress, Union press, Kingdom of Cochin, 1938.

    2. C. J. Varkey, Chunkath: `The Travancore question', in `Education question in Travancore: A symposium of the various pronouncements of the Government of Travancore and Sir C. P. on the subject and the criticism directed against certain details of policy by leading men in the state and outside', V. M. Marangoly (Ed.), Little Flower Press, Ernakulam, 1946.
    3. Mar James Kalacherry: `Pastoral letter no. 123 on the beginning of state socialism in Travancore', 15th August 1945; Vedaprachara madhyasthan, Sep. - Oct. 1945; reprinted: Mar Louis Memorial Press, 1945.
    4. Justice Joseph Thaliath [Thaliyath]: `Truth about the Travancore education policy', Trivandrum, Kingdom of Travancore, 1945.
    5. Cyriac Kandathil: `മര്‍ദ്ദനം നമ്മെ പിന്തിരിപ്പിക്കുമോ?' [Will beatings make us retreat?] (in Malayalam), Kottayam, Kingdom of Travancore, 1945.
    6. P. T. Chacko, Pullolil: `സര്‍ സി. പി.-യ്ക്കു് ഒരു് തുറന്ന കത്തു്' [An open letter to Sir C. P.] (in Malayalam), Kottayam, Kingdom of Travancore, 1945.

    7. M. O. Joseph, Nedumkunnam: `തച്ചില്‍ മാത്തു തരകന്‍' [Thachil Matthoo Tharakan] (in Malayalam), Kottayam, India, 1961.

    8. Jawaharlal Nehru: `Declaration on Purna swaraj [Complete Independence] at the 1929 Lahore session of the Indian National Congress, promulgated on 26th January 1930'; `Speech (ex tempore) on the eve of independence', `Message on the eve of independence', `First servant of the Indian people', New Delhi, India, 15th August 1947. [K. R. Narayanan, Kocheril: `Nehru's vision of India and the world', Nehru memorial lecture, 1997; Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, Teen Murti Bhavan, Teen Murti Marg, New Delhi]
    9. V. Lawrence Sundaram, S. J.: `A great Indian Jesuit: Fr. Jerome D'Souza (1897-1977), priest, educationist, and statesman', Gujarat Sahithya Prakash, Anand, India, 1986.

    10. K. R. Narayanan, Kocheril (4th February 1921 [27th October 1920] - 9th November 2005): `Midnight address to the nation by the President of India on the golden jubilee of Indian independence', New Delhi, India, 15th August 1997; `Address on the golden jubilee of the republic'; `Speech by the President of India while accepting credentials from the Apostolic Nuncio-Designate of the Holy See to India', New Delhi, India, 30th August 1999; `Letter on the burning alive of Graham S. Staines and his two minor sons', New Delhi, India, 24th January 1999; `Dalit Hindu or Christian?', Rediff, Jul. 1997; `From demon to god', Frontline, Nov. 1997; `Interview with K. R. Gowri and K. R. Bhaskaran', Rediff, Jul. 1997; `Interview with K. R. Narayanan', Maanavasamskruthi [മാനവസംസ്കൃതി], I(8), February 2005 (in Malayalam) in which K. R. Narayanan accused the A. B. Vajpayee Government of complicity in the 2002 Gujarat riots (by P. T. Thomas, Puthiyaparambil, the then Congress legislator from Thodupuzha); `Inaugural address'; `Address to Parliament on the golden jubilee of the republic'; `Speech on the visit of the US President'; `Speech on the inauguration of the Kerala Legislature Complex'; `Farewell address'; `A tribute to K. R. Narayanan' (V. B. Rawat); 34, Prithviraj Road, New Delhi.
    11. Vishwanath Pratap Singh [25th June 1931 - 27th November 2008]: `Statement to the press on the violence towards Christians in India', 1 Teen Murti Marg, New Delhi, India, 11th October 2008 (his last meeting with the press); `The 1985 budget'; `Speech in the Lok Sabha on 7th August 1990 announcing the implementation of the Backward Classes Commission Report'; `Address to the nation from the ramparts of the Red Fort on independence day'; `Reply to debates on the Confidence motion of 7th November 1990'; `Farewell address'; `Speeches in the Lok Sabha before and after the demolition of the Babri Masjid on 6th December 1992'; `Necrology on Chandra Shekhar' [Home page; Interview, 13th August 2007; Funeral; Chhotebhai Noronha: `V. P. Singh: An enigma or enema?', 5th December 2008]

    12. Stephen Collins: `The Cosgrave legacy' [Biographies of William T. Cosgrave [Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair] and his son Liam Cosgrave], Blackwater press, Dublin, Ireland, 1996.
    13. Hugh Kay: `Salazar and Modern Portugal', Hawthorn books, New York, USA, 1970.
    14. Konrad Adenauer: `Memoirs: 1945-1953', translated to English by Beate Ruhm von Oppen, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London, England, 1966. cf. also Paul Weymar: `Konrad Adenauer', authorised biography in English on the years up to 1945, Andre Deutsch, London, England, 1957; Hans-Peter Schwarz: `Konrad Adenauer', 2 volumes, translated by Louise Willmot, Stuttgart, Germany, 1991.
    15. Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn: `Commencement address at Harvard University', Cambridge, USA, 8th June 1978; `Ethics and politics on the eve of the twenty-first century', Address to the International Academy of Philosophy, Liechtenstein, 14th September 1993. [Home page; Interview with Yermolai Solzhenitsyn (s. of A. and Natalya Solzhenitsyna), 11th December 2008]

    16. C. Narayana Pillai: `തിരുവിതാംകൂരിന്റെ സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യ സമര ചരിത്രം' [History of the Travancore freedom struggle], 1972. Reprinted: C. Narayana Pillai foundation, Trivandrum, 2005.
    17. Idem: `പട്ടം മുതല്‍ പനമ്പിള്ളി വരെ' [From Pattom to Panampilly], D. C. Books, Kottayam, 1976.
    18. K. K. Kusuman: `The abstention movement', Kerala Historical Society, Trivandrum, 1976.
    19. Idem: `തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ സ്റ്റേറ്റ് കോണ്‍ഗ്രസ്സ്' [Travancore State Congress], Sarvavijnanakosham.

    20. C. Kesavan: `ജീവിതസമരം' [The struggle of life], 1971.
    21. E. M. Kovoor: `T. M. Varghese', National Book Stall, Kottayam, 1965.
    22. P. J. Sebastian, Pullamkalam: `എന്റെ ജീവിതം' [My life], Changanacherry, 1973.
    23. Kumbalam P. Sanku Pillai: `എന്റെ കഴിഞ്ഞകാല സ്മരണകള്‍' [Memories of my past times], 1985.
    24. Accamma [Rebecca] Varkey née Cherian Karippaparambil: `(1)114-ന്റെ കഥ' [The story of (1)114 (1939)], D. C. Books, Kottayam, 1977.
    25. P. Subbiah Pillai: `P. S. Nataraja Pillai', 1991
    26. Kalathil Velayudhan Nair: `എന്റെ സഞ്ചാര പഥങ്ങള്‍' [The paths of my journeys], 1978
    27. Vaikom Muhammad Basheer: `കമ്യൂണിസവും കണ്ണന്‍പഴവും', in `നേരും നുണയും' [Truth and lie], 1969.

  • `ഉദയമ്പേരൂര്‍ പഴയ പള്ളി നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle of the Old Church of Diamper / Udayamperoor / Udiamperur] (in Malayalam), Seat of the House of Villalvettam [വില്ലാള്‍വെട്ടം സ്വരൂപം] (variant spellings: Beliarte, Villarvattam [വില്ലാര്‍വട്ടം]).

    "The Christians were so powerful that they chose a king among themselves. The Christian dynasty was known as Villalvettam. In 1439 Pope Eugene IV sent a letter to the reigning prince which begins thus: `To my most beloved son in Christ, Thomas, the illustrious Emperor of the Indians, health and apostolic benediction. There has often reached us a constant rumour that your Serenity and all who are the subjects of your kingdom are true Christians.' (Travancore State Manual, vol. II, p. 143) This dynasty survived till a few years before the advent of the Portuguese." [Panjikaran 1926, p. 103]

    `വില്ലെടുത്തവരില്‍ വില്ലാള്‍വെട്ടത്തിനു് തുല്യനില്ല.'

    © Jan. 2006. David C. Kandathil, Chempu, Vaikom (kandathil@gmail.com). All rights reserved.


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