The Great Archbishop Mar Augustine Kandathil, D. D.

The outline of a vocation

George Thalian, D. D.

`Neither do men light a candle and put it under a bushel, but upon a candlestick, that it may shine to all that are in the house.'
Matt. 5:16.

`This light of the world, and city on a mountain, and candle upon a candlestick, signifieth the Clergy, and the whole Church, so built upon Christ the mountain, that it must needs be visible, and cannot be hid nor unknown. Aug. cont. Fulg. Donat. c. 18. Li. 16. cont. Faust. c. 17. And therefore, the Church being a candle nor under a bushel, but shining to all in the house (that is) in the world, what shall I say more (saith St. Augustine) than that they are blind which shut their eyes against the candle that is set on the candlestick? Tract. 2. in ep. 10.'
-- Annotation in the Douay-Rheims version of the Holy Bible, 1582.





Likeness of His Grace the Most Reverend Mar Augustine Kandathil, D. D.
Low-resolution image of detail of Portrait in oil paint by Artist Mr. P. J. Cherian, Puthanangady, c. 1923.
Central Hall, Archbishop's House, Ernakulam.
(High-resolution image available on request.)

Postscript. PDF.

Nihil obstat: Fr. Thomas Moothedan, M. A., D. D., Nirmala College, Muvattupuzha, 16-11-1960.
Imprimatur: Mgr. George Valliarumpath, Vicar-General, Ernakulam, 12-12-1960.
Publisher: George Thalian, D. D., Assisi Mount, Neerpara, 30-6-1993.
Printer: Mar Louis Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam.
© 1961, 1993, 2006. David C. Kandathil, Chempu, Vaikom (kandathil@gmail.com). All rights reserved.

Contents

  1. Preface to the first edition
  2. Preface to the second edition
  3. Foreword

  4. Archbishop Mar Augustine Kandathil
  5. His early life
  6. His auxiliary
  7. Extension of the Hierarchy
  8. His mortified life of virtues
  9. Shepherd of souls
  10. Lover of the poor
  11. The protector of Catholic schools
  12. Reunion of the separated
  13. The spiritual renovation of the faithful
  14. The end of his life
  15. His epitaph

  16. Selected details on his life
  17. Family
  18. Formation: Kandathil Thoma Kathanar, Mannanam, Kandy
  19. Rector of Petit Seminary, Mar Aloysius Pareparambil, Coädjutor
  20. Hierarchy of the St. Thomas Christians
  21. Administration and Accountancy
  22. Rome, Ireland, St. Thérèse de Lisieux, CST, CSN
  23. Sathyadeepam [സത്യദീപം]
  24. The Malabar Mail [മലബാര്‍ മെയില്‍], `Utharavada bharanam' [ഉത്തരവാദ ഭരണം / Responsible government] , Travancore Education Bill
  25. Mar Louis Memorial Press, Ernakulam Missam, Ernakulam Archdiocesan Library
  26. All Kerala Catholic Congress, `Nivarthanam' [നിവര്‍ത്തനം / Abstention], Indian National Congress
  27. Propagation of the faith, Social justice
  28. Reünion movement
  29. Jubilee of St. Thomas the Apostle
  30. Contributions to Education
  31. Extension of the Hierarchy of the St. Thomas Christians
  32. Liturgy of the St. Thomas Christians
  33. Appearance, residence, and health
  34. Commemoration

  35. Selected bibliography



Archbishop Mar Augustine Kandathil

On the 10th of January 1956, there occurred a sad and unexpected event that plunged the people of Kerala into deep sorrow. It was the demise of the Archbishop Most Rev. Mar Augustine Kandathil, the head of the Syrian Hierarchy in India. That long life of more than half a century for the Church of Christ in Kerala came to an end that day. It was a loss not only for the Catholic Church in Kerala, but also for the whole Christian Church in India. He served the Church for 55 years as a priest, 44 years as a bishop, and 32 years as an Archbishop. His achievements are written already in letters of gold in the annals of the history of the Syrian Church in India. They bear testimony to the fruitful service he has rendered to the Church and to his country. Let us cast a glance at his long and glorious life of service to the Church and to the society at large in India.

His early life

He was born at Chempu, in Vaikom, Kerala, on the 25th of August 1874, and was brought up in the spirit of a Christian family that taught him to love God more and more as he grew older. He completed his priestly studies in the Papal Seminary, Kandy, and was ordained priest on the 21st of December 1901 at Kandy by Rt. Rev. Dr. Clemente Pagnani, O. S. B., the then Bishop of Kandy. Afterwards, he returned to his Vicariate of Ernakulam and was made the first Rector of the Petit Seminary there. He carried out his duty to the great satisfaction of his Bishop up to 1911. In between he had been vicar in two places (Vadayar and Kulasekharamangalam), and within a short time, by his ardent zeal and holiness, he proved himself an excellent parish priest after the Sacred Heart of Jesus.

He was consecrated Bishop on the 3rd of December 1911 at Kandy by Most Rev. Dr. Władysław Michał Zaleski, the then Delegate-Apostolic to India, and was appointed Coädjutor (on the 29th of August 1911) to the then Vicar-Apostolic, Rt. Rev. Mar Louis Pazheparambil, of the Vicariate of Ernakulam. At the death of the Bishop Mar Louis on the 9th of December 1919, he became the Vicar-Apostolic of the Vicariate. When the Syro-Malabar Hierarchy was established and the Vicariate was raised to the status of an Archdiocese on the 21st of December 1923, he was made the Archbishop. And it was his privilege to be the first Indian Archbishop in power and administration.


The Hierarchy of the St. Thomas Christians as founded on 21st December 1923:
Left to right: Mar Francis Vazhapilly (Trichur; appointed: 5 Apr. 1921), Mar Thomas Kurialacherry (Changanacherry; appointed: 30 Aug. 1911), Metropolitan Mar Augustine Kandathil (Ernakulam; appointed Coädjutor: 29 Aug. 1911), and Mar Alexander Choolaparambil (Kottayam (Southist); appointed: 16 Jul. 1914).

In the Jubilee Year 1925 he visited the Holy father Pope Pius XI and the eternal city for the first and only time. In 1926 he celebrated his sacerdotal silver jubilee. Then in the year 1936 he celebrated the silver jubilee as a Bishop. On that jubilee day the title of the Official Assistant at the Pontifical Throne was conferred on him. He was the first to receive this honour in India. Again he had the privilege to celebrate the golden jubilee of his ordination, and it was celebrated in a splendid way. The crowning function of it was the Eucharistic procession conducted with all grandeur and solemnity at Ernakulam.

His auxiliary

In his old age he longed for an auxiliary to help him and his longing was fulfilled by the Holy See in the year 1953. He found it difficult to do all the multifarious duties of administration single-handedly since he had become very weak and old. The good news of the appointment of his auxiliary was announced by the Dean of the Cardinals, Most Rev. Dr. Eugène Tisserant himself, when he arrived at Ernakulam on 11th November 1953 with the holy relics of St. Thomas. Rt. Rev. Mar Joseph Parecattil was chosen as his auxiliary who later became his successor.


The incredulity of St. Thomas, by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, c. 1601. Sanssouci, Potsdam, Germany.

Extension of the Hierarchy

29th April 1955 was a red letter day in the history of the Syrian Church in Kerala, because it was on that day that the decree of the extension of the Syrian Hierarchy was published and granted by the Holy See mainly due to the ceaseless efforts of Mar Augustine Kandathil. He refers to it in his pastoral letter thus: `Personally speaking I tried my level best for it with the help of my suffragan bishops. I am glad to see that our efforts proved fruitful and I thank God Almighty for it in a special manner. I believe that it will help the Church in India both spiritually and materially to grow and flourish more and more in her achievements.'

His mortified life of virtues

He was known for his solid piety. Love for the poor and purity of life were the two virtues shining in him most. His personal capacity was the moving force for all the achievements. His motto `In te speravi' [I trust in Thee] was the guiding principle of his life. Every action of his was a reflection of his well chosen motto for life. He was convinced that all his endeavours had to be stamped with the divine help to bring forth fruits. He firmly believed that all his strength was from God, and lived the life of a faithful soldier of Christ accordingly. The hand of God was manifest in all his undertakings throughout his life. He was a man of prayer. He found consolation and hope in prayer. Every day he drew strength for his hard work from the power-house of grace through prayer and penance. The external activities of his pastoral life were the signs of his union with the Good Shepherd Jesus Christ.

Shepherd of souls

He served the Syrian Church in Kerala at large and the Archdiocese of Ernakulam in particular for 44 long years with the generous heart of Jesus the Good Shepherd. His service will be remembered by the future generations of Kerala with feelings of gratitude and reverence. The Archdiocese of Ernakulam is indebted to him much.

He was a man of principle, and he regulated his works of administration accordingly. He established order everywhere, whether in the accounts of the parish or of any pious institution. He had a well thought-out plan for everything. For the ruling of the diocese, he adapted a proper and accurate form of administration according to the needs of the times. Laws were laid down regarding the administration of the parish property and things connected with it. He was attentive to every detail of administration. In the beginning, he had to face a lot of difficulties in bringing order in all these matters. But with a strong and resolute mind he overcame all these difficulties. To safeguard the rights of the Church in Kerala he worked hard and achieved success. He had the happiness of seeing the fruits of his labour before his death. To a great extent the Syrian Hierarchy owes to Mar Augustine Kandathil, its head, for its success then and after.

For the good of his children entrusted to him, and others too, he was ready to do everything he could. He could overcome any obstacle on the way to his end in view, by his undying motive force which was the love of God. It was as it were in his nature to go ahead amidst troubles either from within or without in order to do good to the people. Though he was strict and exacting in his dealings, he was broad-minded and far-sighted. First and foremost he was strict to himself, and that was the sign of the sincerity of his purpose.

Lover of the poor

  • Left: St. Damien Jozef de Veuster of Molokai, SS. CC., 1888.
  • Right: St. Augustine points the way to his tomb in Pavia to the crippled and the poor with the promise of a cure, by Jacopo Robusti (Il Tintoretto) , Oil on canvas, c. 1549. 255 cm x 175 cm. Museo Civico, Vicenza, Italy.

    The poor and the down-trodden had a special place in the corner of his magnanimous heart which was aglow with the love of God. He left no stone unturned for doing good to them. They could see in him Christ going about doing good. All the hospitals in the Archdiocese, meant for the different kinds of people suffering from all sorts of diseases including leprosy, bear witness to his love of God and love of the poor. Orphanages for the young and old were dear to his heart and they had their origin from him. He was not satisfied with merely founding these institutions for the poor but also saw to it that they really proved helpful to the poor. To look after the sick and poor of different walks of life, he founded different religious congregations both for men and women. Well-trained sisters were mainly given the charge of the sick and old, and especially the lepers. As often as he could, he visited the hospitals and the other institutions and examined their working, giving necessary corrections and directions so that they might serve their purpose well. Thus he is rightly called the lover of the poor and the needy.

    The protector of Catholic schools

    To have a lively faith in God it is necessary that children be given Christian education. He understood this fundamental principle very well and lived for it. He fought for it boldly and unceasingly against the opposing forces. He vindicated the right of the Church to give them proper education. When others were wavering about it, he proved a sure guide and powerful leader to bring them to the proper channels and make them also fight with him for the cause. To show how much he worked for Christian education, it will be helpful to know the number of colleges, schools, and other institutions meant for the cause, he had in his Archdiocese. The Nirmala College at Muvattupuzha will be a standing monument to his thirst for having a new Catholic college in his Archdiocese for the better formation of the modern youth. When he died, there were 2 colleges, 31 high schools, 42 middle schools, 138 primary schools, 2 teachers' training schools, 5 industrial schools, and 25 boarding houses, in his Archdiocese for the purpose of imparting Catholic education.

    Again, with a view to safeguard the faith of the people, he spread Catholic literature on all topics, especially on matters of importance as the time demanded. The most widely circulated and appreciated Catholic weekly `Sathyadeepam' [സത്യദീപം] bears witness to his love of Catholic literature. He started it and maintained it as the apple of his eye. There was a daily, `The Malabar Mail' [മലബാര്‍ മെയില്‍], the souvenir of his episcopal silver jubilee. This is an outstanding success of his strenuous efforts in this matter.

  • Mr. V. K. Krishna Menon presiding over the College day celebrations of Nirmala College, Muvattupuzha, 3 Feb. 1958.

    "The Education Bill was passed by the Kerala Assembly on 2nd September 1957 and forwarded to the President for his approval... Unexpectedly, in view of his general sympathy with left-wing movements, Krishna Menon, after a visit to Cochin (December 1957), reported that there was a considerable deterioration in the situation in Kerala. Far more sinister trends were developing than might be inferred from the seeming quiet on the surface and he expected conditions to become worse... Clearly his evaluation, rather than the perennial complaints of the local Congress and the Governor's reports, influenced Nehru, and the new year (1958) saw the Prime Minister more critical than before of the E. M. S. Namboodiripad Government... He continued to deprecate the recourse to violent methods by the opposition in Kerala, but now suggested that the state of tension and conflict were largely due to the attitude and activities of the Communist Party. He was once more reïterating his dislike of the Communist approach, its promotion of class bitterness and hatred, the rejection of accepted standards of public behaviour, and the proneness to seek guidance abroad. It was now his view that the Communists in Kerala were adopting the Leninist tactic of pretending to accept `bourgeois' democracy as a legitimate move in the struggle to establish Communist supremacy. `I don't want Communism here.'... In August (1958), for the first time Nehru spoke publicly in terms critical of the Kerala Government, and declared that he had not been convinced by their answers to the charges. He disliked the spiral of violent demonstrations leading to police firings and... sympathised with their predicament when surrounded by angry mobs. But he blamed the state Government for terrorising people, a development which had nothing to do with Communism and... was clear that the situation could not be ignored... A report by Krishna Menon on a visit to Kerala, which the state Government denounced as a `conducted tour', confirmed Nehru's attitude. Subsequent developments and information also lent support to his view that a considerable section of the people in Kerala had a feeling of `political insecurity' in the sense that some political parties were being harassed and others protected."
    -- Sarvepalli Gopal, in `Jawaharlal Nehru: A biography', Volume III, 1956-1964, Oxford University Press, 1984, pp. 57-58, 63-64.

    Reunion of the separated

    To bring the separated brethren back to the true fold of Christ, he helped the Archbishop Most Rev. Geevarghese Mar Ivanios Panicker, O. I. C. and his followers. He could see only with great sorrow the separated churches of disorder and confusion leading the sheep astray. He did, therefore, everything possible for their long expected reunion with the true Church of Christ. He prayed for it with the heart of a good shepherd. His last pastoral letter treated of the reunion of his separated brethren. He says: `My earnest prayer and desire is that the separated brethren may come to the true fold soon. I am longing for it and I invite them all with a fatherly heart.'

    The spiritual renovation of the faithful

  • Left: Maria Gräfin Droste zu Vischering of the Divine Heart, O. L. C. (8th September 1863 - † 8th June 1899)
  • Right: Crucifix, by Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi), Bronze statue, c. 1444-1447. 180 cm x 166 cm. Basilica of St. Antony Fernando Martins de Bulhões [Bouillon], O. F. M., Padua, Italy.

    For the spiritual nourishment and growth of the people entrusted to him, he introduced many useful and timely ways and means by which they could grow in sanctity. The spreading of the devotion to the Sacred Heart was the first and best among the many.

    He exhorted the faithful that they should dedicate their homes to the Sacred Heart and make Him the Ruler of their homes. Each and every action of theirs must be governed by that Ruler. He made compulsory that there should be an annual retreat in every parish. All the parishioners were expected to take part in it deriving spiritual strength for the whole year. Devotion to the Sacred Passion of Our Lord was spread in many parishes; it produced wonderful effects on the people and they began to understand more the dignity of suffering in their lives. Feasts were celebrated with more spirit of prayer and interior reform of the participants. Sacraments were administered in more regulated and unified forms according to the importance and sanctity of each one. Children were taught catechism in the Catholic schools and parishes and encouraged with prizes for distinction in it. The grown-ups were also given lessons of catechism according to their ability of understanding the sublime truths about Christ and His Church on earth. All his attempts both for the spiritual and temporal welfare of the Archdiocese of Ernakulam met with grand and unqualified success and it is noticeable in priests, parishes, religious, faithful, and in institutions of various kinds. The secret of his success lies in his well-chosen motto of life: `In te speravi'. It did not remain a dead letter. It was the lodestar of his life till he breathed his last.

    The end of his life

    Let us hear about his happy and peaceful death, in the very words of his successor Most Rev. Mar Joseph Parecattil: `He had the privilege to die a peaceful and happy death because his life was such. He lived in faith and prayer. He received all the last sacraments in perfect serenity and in his senses. Together with the Extreme unction, he himself asked for Viaticum. Before receiving the Holy Communion, he said the `confiteor' distinctly. While he was given Extreme unction after the anointing of every member, he answered clearly `Amen'. Then he breathed his last with the last words `Sacred Heart of Jesus, I trust in Thee'. Thus he sealed his life of faith and confidence; with these words he commended his soul to the Father. As he lived, so he died, fulfilling the will of God on earth. His long life of dedication to the Church and to his country gloriously came to an end here on earth.'

    `Blessed is the rich man that is found without spot: and that hath not gone after gold, nor hoped in money and treasures. Who is this, & we will praise him, for he hath done marvelous things in his life. Who is proved therein, & perfect, shall have eternal Glory. He that could transgress, and hath not transgressed: and do evils, and hath not done: therefore are his good things stablished in our Lord, & all the church of saints shall declare his alms.' (Eccles. 31:8-11.) What beautiful words! He was a man to whom the Lord gave five talents, and he gained another five. What is his reward? Entrance into the joy of the Lord. (Matt. 25:21.)

    I believe that Mar Augustine Kandathil of happy memory is now in heaven interceding for the Church in India, especially in Kerala, and for his country at large. By Divine Providence, the example of his life is a lesson delivered to the present age, of self-sacrifice and over-flowing generosity towards God and man.

    His epitaph

    In
    Loving and Respectful Memory
    of

    His Grace the Most Reverend
    MAR AUGUSTINE KANDATHIL, D. D.

    Archbishop of Ernakulam
    Assistant at the Pontifical Throne
    and
    Roman Count

    First Metropolitan
    of
    The Syro-Malabar Hierarchy

    Watchful Guardian
    of
    The Rights of St. Thomas Christians

    Resolute Defender of their Ancient Rite
    and
    Zealous Promoter of the Reunion Movement

    Founder of
    Numerous Institutions of Charity

    Ardent devotee of
    The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus

    His was a life of Heroic toil
    Dedicated to
    The Service of Church and Country.

    Born 25-8-1874
    Ordained Priest 21-12-1901
    Consecrated Bishop 3-12-1911
    Installed Archbishop 16-11-1924
    Called to eternal rest 10-1-1956



    Preface to the first edition *

    This is not a biography, much less a history, of the illustrious and esteemed late Archbishop of Ernakulam Most Rev. Mar Augustine Kandathil, D. D. But this is only a faint echo of the feelings of affection and admiration that well up in my heart for the incandescent personality of the Archbishop who has inspired my life, enkindled my spirits, and who still fills my mind with memories never to fade. In the fond hope that these pages will constitute a humble acknowledgement of the deep debt of gratitude I owe him, I publish this on the fifth anniversary of his departure from this world.

    George Thalian.
    Tiruchirappalli,
    10th January 1961.

    * The first edition was published under the title `The First Indian Archbishop, His Grace Most Rev. Mar Augustine Kandathil, D. D.'

    Preface to the second edition

    I published this book first on the 10th of January 1961, when I was a student in the Seminary, Trichy. Years passed, times changed, the numbers of the Bishops and the Archbishops including the Cardinals increased in the Catholic Church of India, and in Kerala in particular. Still the Archbishop Mar Augustine Kandathil stands out as the Great Archbishop, especially in Kerala, even now in my mind when there is a Major Archbishop in the Syro-Malabar Church in Kerala. He was a man of strong decision and action, with strong mind and heart looking ahead of the times. Moreover he was a leader in the Catholic Church, concerned more about the people of God and priests in the Church, with discipline, more than anything else.

    With the memories of all these of the past, I think that the Major Archbishop at present must be the Great one with all these qualities of mind and heart of action for the unity in the Syro-Malabar Church, especially in the liturgy, and the discipline among the priests and the religious more than anything else. The high title with authority and power is not enough. It has to be exercised for the good of the whole Church at large in the way acceptable to all as far as possible.

    This is the reason why I publish this very short life history of that great man, the Archbishop, Mar Augustine Kandathil, as an outstanding model to the people and priests, and even to the Bishops and Archbishops of Kerala Catholic Church at present.

    Let me thank all those who have helped me to publish this booklet and read this with a spirit of sharing.

    George Thalian, D. D.
    Assisi Mount, Neerpara,
    30-6-1993.

    Foreword

    This booklet is the outline of the biography of the illustrious ecclesiastical dignitary, Mar Augustine Kandathil, the first Archbishop of the Syro-Malabar Church. It is a reprint of what the author had published in 1961 as a humble token of his appreciation, love, and gratitude, to his Archbishop.

    At this juncture of the history of the Syro-Malabar Church, it is relevant to recall the memory of this great Archbishop. One wishes he were alive today. He would have provided the much needed strong and enlightened leadership during these troubled times. While he was alive he fearlessly and tirelessly fought for defending the rights and privileges of the Church he loved, of which he was the undisputed leader. It was he who laid the foundations for the progress the Syro-Malabar Church has made in recent times, against great odds. As early as in 1955, Archbishop Kandathil had the vision and courage to declare that we should have a liturgy that is progressive and dynamic and suited to the culture of our great nation and changing times. He would surely have been the obvious choice to be the first Major Archbishop or Patriarch of the Syro-Malabar Church. His death leaves a void that may take long to fill adequately.

    Let us hope that his unique qualities of leadership will inspire future generations to emulate him to restore unity and prosperity in the Syro-Malabar Church.

    Fr. Thomas Mulavarickal, B. A., L. Ph., L. D. (1922 - 1952 - † 29 Jul. 2000)
    Green Gardens, Shertallay,
    13-12-1992.

    Selected details on his life

    Most Reverend Mar Augustine Kandathil, D. D. [മഹാവന്ദ്യ ദിവ്യശ്രീ കണ്ടത്തില്‍ മാര്‍ ആഗസ്തീനോസ് മെത്രാപ്പോലീത്താ, ഡി. ഡി.] (b. at Chempu [ചെമ്പു്], near Vaikom [വൈയ്ക്കം], in Kottayam [കോട്ടയം], Kingdom of Travancore [തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ രാജ്യം], 25th August 1874; † d. at Ernakulam [എറണാകുളം], Travancore-Cochin [തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍-കൊച്ചി], India, 10th January 1956) was the first and longest-serving Metropolitan and Head of the Catholic Church of St. Thomas [Syro-Malabar Church], the principal Church of the St. Thomas Christians [മാര്‍ തോമ്മാ ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികള്‍] in India. He was the first Indian to assume powers and reign as an Archbishop of the Catholic Church [a].

    Family
    He was the second son of Mr. Kandathil Thommen Warkey [ശ്രീ കണ്ടത്തില്‍ തൊമ്മന്‍ വര്‍ക്കി] (1844-1920) of the Church of St. Thomas, Chempu [Founded: 1307], and Mrs. Thresia Warkey [ശ്രീമതി ത്രേസ്യാ വര്‍ക്കി] née Nurokkary [നുറോക്കരി] (1849-1939) of the Church of St. George, Manvettom [മാന്‍വെട്ടം] [Founder: Chavara Kuriakose Kathanar [ചാവറ കുരിയാക്കോസ് കത്തനാര്‍] (3rd October 1843)]. During his childhood, he grew up under the tutelage of his paternal uncle Kandathil Thoma Kathanar [കണ്ടത്തില്‍ തോമ്മാ കത്തനാര്‍] (1856 - 1880 - † 5th July 1912), Vicar of Chempu (without accepting salary) for three decades. His parents lie buried within the vaults of the Church at Chempu, and his uncle at the main altar.

    He was named in honour of the patron of the Church of St. Augustine, Ramapuram [രാമപുരം] [Founder: Dom Aleixo de Menezes, O. S. A. (1599)], to whom his mother solemnly dedicated him. He was baptised in the Church at Manvettom. Plaques at Ramapuram and Manvettom commemorate these events.


    The vision of St. Augustine (13th November 354 - † 28th August 430; Feast: 28th August) on the Trinity, by Sandro Botticelli , Tempera on panel, c. 1488. 20 cm x 38 cm. Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy.

    Formation: Kandathil Thoma Kathanar, Mannanam, Kandy
  • Stamp issued in 1993; Centenary of the Papal Seminary, Kandy [Pune]. Sc# 1465.

    His formation began under the direction of his paternal uncle Kandathil Thoma Kathanar. He attended Government School, Kulasekharamangalam [കുലശേഖരമംഗലം], Chempu, and Government English School, Vaikom. He joined Carmel Seminary, Vazhakulam, Muvattupuzha [Founder: Jacob Kanatt of St. Mary, T. O. C. D. (1826 - 1850 - † 10 Jun. 1885) (1866); Closed: 1890] on 4 Nov. 1887 and read Syriac there. Mgr. Charles Lavigne, S. J. [b] directed that he join St. Joseph's Seminary, Mannanam [Founder: Palackal Thoma Malpan (1833); Rector: Geevarghese Parappuram of St. John the Baptist, T. O. C. D. (1835 - 1859 - † 28 May 1908); Closed: 1894], which he did on 24 Jul. 1888; during this period, he attended the newly founded St. Berchmans High School, Changanacherry [Founder: Mgr. Charles Lavigne, S. J. (6 Nov. 1840 - 1864 - † 11 Jul. 1913) (4 Feb. 1891)] to read more English. He then left in 1893 to join the newly founded Papal Seminary [Leonianum], Ampitiya, Kandy, Ceylon [Founder: Pope Leo XIII (18 May 1893); Rector: Sylvain Grosjean, S. J. (1846-1915) [Leo PP. XIII 1893]] run by Belgian members of the Society of Jesus; one of the lecturers there was the historian Henri Hosten, S. J.

    Rector of Petit Seminary, Mar Aloysius Pareparambil, Coädjutor
    He was ordained priest on 21st December 1901 and appointed the first rector of the Sacred Heart Petit Seminary at Ernakulam; he continued to take an important part in the spiritual formation of seminarians throughout his life. He also served as a parish priest at Church of the Infant Jesus, Vadayar [വടയാര്‍], Vaikom [Founded: 1360] (1905-1907) (founding the School of St. Louis under the church) and at the filial Church of Kulasekharamangalam [കുലശേഖരമംഗലം] under Kandathil Thoma Kathanar in Chempu. After being appointed Coädjutor on 29th August 1911 to the Vicar-Apostolic of Ernakulam, Mar Aloysius Pareparambil (Louis Pazheparambil) [പഴേപറമ്പില്‍ മാര്‍ ളൂയീസ്] (1896-1919) [b], he was consecrated Bishop on 3rd December 1911.

    During his tenure as Coädjutor, he diverged from Bishop Pazheparambil on the question of certain expenditures of money, and consequently, he left Ernakulam and moved to the Forane Church of St. Mary, Koratty [കൊരട്ടി] [Founded: 1381]; in solidarity, a priest of the Vicariate, Fr. Jacob Naduvathussery [ഫാ. ജേക്കബ് നടുവത്തുശ്ശേരി], went with him. Later, the Bishop and the Coädjutor reconciled, and the latter resumed residence at Ernakulam.

    He succeeded Bishop Pazheparambil as Vicar-Apostolic at the latter's death on † 9th December 1919. The epitaph which he composed of his predecessor has been widely admired; Mr. I. C. Chacko, Illiparambil, chose to conclude his biography [Illiparambil 1937] of Mar Louis Pazheparambil with it: `A Prelate specially devoted to the Blessed Virgin, simple in ways, frugal in habits, ever devoted to the interests of his Rite and Nation, steadfast of purpose, yet tactful in action, a scholar, a linguist, a historian, and a diplomat, he was a great Indian.'

    Hierarchy of the St. Thomas Christians
    The Hierarchy of the St. Thomas Christians [Syro-Malabar Hierarchy] was founded by Pope Pius XI on 21st December 1923 [Pius PP. XI 1924] with the Archdiocese of Ernakulam [എറണാകുളം അതിരൂപത] as its capital See and Archbishop Mar Augustine Kandathil as its first Metropolitan and Head, with suffragan Dioceses of Changanacherry, Kottayam (Southist), and Trichur, respectively under Bishops Mar Thomas Kurialacherry [S. A. B. S. (E); S. B.] (1911-1925), Mar Alexander Choolaparambil [O. S. H.; B. C. M.; Apna Des] (1914-1951), and Mar Francis Vazhapilly (1921-1942); this was the culmination of the centuries-old struggle for sovereignty in the Catholic Church of St. Thomas [Syro-Malabar Church] [b].

    Mar Augustine Kandathil was installed Archbishop and invested with the sacred pallium on 16th November 1924 (by the Visitor-Apostolic Mgr. Alexis-Henri-Marie Lépicier, O. S. M.) and led the Church from its helm as Metropolitan for three and a half decades, until his demise at the age of 81. Other suffragan bishops who served under him include Mar James Kalacherry [M. C. B. S.; A.] (Changanacherry, 1927-1949), Mar George Alapatt [H.] (Trichur, 1944-1970), Mar Thomas Tharayil [B. C. M.; C.] (Kottayam (Southist), 1945-1974), Mar Matthew Kavukattu [S. T.] (Changanacherry, 1950-1969), Mar Sebastian Vayalilkalapura (Vayalil) [M. S. T.; S. T.; A.; S. M. C.] (Palai, 1950-1981), Mar Joseph Parecattil [B. M.; X.] (Ernakulam (Auxiliary), 1953-1984), and Mar Sebastian Valloppilly [N.] (Tellicherry, 1955-1989).

    Mgr. Jacob Kallarackal [Callarackal] (23rd June 1863 - † 4th March 1956) served as Administrator-Apostolic of the Diocese of Changanacherry during two interregna (1925-1927, 1949-1950) following the untimely deaths of Bishops Mar Thomas Kurialacherry (14th January 1973 - † 2nd June 1925) and Mar James Kalacherry (20th April 1892 - † 27th October 1949); Mgr. Matthew Edakkalathur (1887-1947), respectively, of the Diocese of Trichur (1942-1944), following the untimely death of Bishop Mar Francis Vazhapilly (18th May 1878 - † 12th May 1942). At the death of Mar Alexander Choolaparambil (14th October 1877 - † 8th January 1951), his Coädjutor succeeded him. Fr. Sebastian Valloppilly served as Administrator-Apostolic of the fledgeling Diocese of Tellicherry (1953-1955) before being appointed Bishop.

    Administration and Accountancy
  • Stamps issued in 1994 by Italy (Left) and Ceylon (Right); Fifth centenary of the first book on the double-entry system of accountancy, `Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita' [Summary of arithmetic, geometry, and proportions] (in Latin), Venice, 1494, by Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli, O. F. M. Image adapted from the painting by Jacopo de Barbari, Oil on panel, c. 1495. 120 cm x 99 cm. National Museum of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy. Signature: `IACO. BAR. VIGENNIS. P. 1495'

    As an administrator, Archbishop Kandathil was noted for his eye for detail; he established systematic methods and practices of administration, accountancy, and surveying in the Church. The Maharaja of Cochin adopted his innovations in accountancy to the administration of the Kingdom of Cochin. In the tasks of administration, he was assisted by various Vicars-General, including Mgr. Bernard Madambhagath [മോണ്‍. ബര്‍ണാര്‍ഡ് മാടംഭാഗത്തു്] (1912-1922), Mgr. Thomas Nedumkallel, Sr. [മോണ്‍. തോമസ് നെടുംകല്ലേല്‍] (1923-1936), Mgr. George Valliarumpath [മോണ്‍. ജോര്‍ജ്ജു് വല്ല്യാറമ്പത്തു്] (1936-1945), and Mgr. Matthew Pothanamuzhi [മോണ്‍. മാത്യൂ പോത്തനാമൂഴി] (1945-1954).

    Rome, Ireland, St. Thérèse de Lisieux, CST, CSN
  • St. Thérèse de Lisieux as St. Jehanne d'Arc, 21st January 1895.

    During the Holy Year 1925, Archbishop Kandathil, together with Bishop Kurialacherry, went on pilgrimage to Rome, the only time he left the Indian subcontinent, to thank the Pope for establishing the Hierarchy; they also participated in the canonisation of St. Marie-Françoise-Thérèse Martin of the Infant Jesus and the Holy Face, O. C. D. [St. Thérèse de Lisieux / The little flower] on 17th May 1925 [Pius PP. XI 1925]; while at Rome, both prelates fell gravely ill, and Bishop Kurialacherry died on † 2nd June 1925 and was buried there (his remains were transferred to Changanacherry later and reïnterred on 25 Jul. 1935).

    During his return, Archbishop Kandathil, together with Fr. Joseph C. Panjikaran [ഫാ. ജോസഫ് സി. പഞ്ഞിക്കാരന്‍], visited the newly independent Republic of Ireland and was received by the Irish President and freedom fighter Mr. William T. Cosgrave [Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair]. He also came to know at close quarters the activities of the Congregation of Christian Brothers.

  • Left: William T. Cosgrave. Stamp issued in 1988. Sc# 711.

    The Archbishop was thus inspired to found a monastic order for Brothers, the Congregation of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux (CST Brothers) at Mookkannur [മൂക്കന്നൂര്‍] on 19th March 1931; Mr. Ittirah Gervasis Kulangara (1848-1935) of Mookkannur endowed the congregation with extensive lands; the Sacred Heart Orphanage for Boys [Balanagar], Mookkannur, founded in 1913, was the first duty entrusted to the congregation; Br. Benedict Joseph Kachira, C. S. T. (4 Apr. 1910 - † 14 Oct. 2002), of Meenkunnam, Arakuzha, and Br. Arsenius Joseph Nedumpuram, C. S. T. (11 Jan. 1909 - † 3 Nov. 1990) of Nellimattam, Kothamangalam, were the first members (vestition: 23 Jun. 1933, first vows: 2 Feb. 1938, final vows: 18 May 1955). A constitution for the congregation was approved by the Archbishop on 8 Oct. 1947, and a Petit Seminary was opened at Mookkannur on 1 Jun. 1948. On 27 Dec. 1945, the Archbishop directed that the congregation also admit candidates to priesthood for the better realisation of its aims [Ernakulam Missam, Jan. 1946], thus founding the priestly wing of the congregation (CST Fathers); Basilius Thomas Panat, C. S. T. (15 Feb. 1891 - † 4 Oct. 1976) of Chalil, the then vicar of Mookkannur appointed spiritual director of the congregation in 1931, was the first priestly member (first vows: 17 May 1950, final vows: 1 Jun. 1956); Mar Dominic Joseph Kokkat, C. S. T. [L. S. T.] (b. 23 Feb. 1932) of Vaikom was the first bishop (Diocese of Gorakhpur (1984), suffragan of Agra, first vows: 17 May 1953, final vows: 4 Oct. 1960, consecrated bishop: 4 Oct. 1984).

    Archbishop Kandathil, assisted by Fr. John Pinakkatt [ഫാ. ജോണ്‍ പിണക്കാട്ടു്] and Fr. Matthew J. Mankuzhikary [ഫാ. മാത്യൂ ജെ. മങ്കുഴിക്കരി] (1909-2003), also founded the Congregation of the Sisters of Nazareth (CSN) at Paduapuram [പാദുവാപുരം], near Edakkunnu [എടക്കുന്നു്], Karukutty [കറുകുറ്റി], on 19th March 1948. Sisu Bhavan, Paduapuram, founded in 1948, was the first duty entrusted to them.

    Archbishop Kandathil took an important part in spreading the devotion to St. Thérèse de Lisieux; this devotion has taken root in India and continues to flourish (cf. eg. [Bharathan 1985]). St. Alphonsa Anna Muttathupadam of the Immaculate Conception, F. C. C. [നിര്‍മ്മലോത്ഭവത്തിന്റെ വിശുദ്ധ അല്‍ഫോണ്‍സാ അന്ന മുട്ടത്തുപാടം, എഫ്. സി. സി.], an ardent devotee of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, and also the only St. Thomas Christian and Indian woman to be canonised by the Vatican, wrote: `In my early days I made more progress in my spiritual life than at present. I loved God more ardently. I took great care to avoid all faults. I had nothing special to mention in my first confession. I zealously aspired to become a saint. I felt that desire while I was reading the biography [Martin 1898] of St. Thérèse de Lisieux.' [Kadankavil 1949, p. 32]

    Sathyadeepam [സത്യദീപം]
    Archbishop Kandathil began the Catholic weekly in Malayalam, the `Sathyadeepam' [സത്യദീപം / Lamp of truth], in on 3rd July 1927, with the eminent theologian and man of letters Fr. Jacob Naduvathussery [ഫാ. ജേക്കബ് നടുവത്തുശ്ശേരി] as the editor, to disseminate the tenets of the Catholic faith and its social teaching; the weekly was so named by Fr. Joseph C. Panjikaran, a frequent contributor; the erudition of Fr. Naduvathussery in the theology of Origen Adamantius, St. Aurelius Augustinus [St. Augustine of Hippo], St. Anselm of Aosta, O. S. B., and St. Thomas Aquinas, O. P., was harnessed in defence of the Catholic faith against atheism, rationalism, materialism, positivism, communism, usury, and moral relativism. The weekly has since flourished as the mouthpiece of the Catholic Church in Kerala to this day.

    The Malabar Mail [മലബാര്‍ മെയില്‍], `Utharavada bharanam' [ഉത്തരവാദ ഭരണം] , Travancore Education Bill
    The daily newspaper in Malayalam, `The Malabar Mail' [മലബാര്‍ മെയില്‍], which he began on 9th December 1936 with the journalist Fr. Thomas Veluthedathu [ഫാ. തോമസ് വെളുത്തേടത്തു്] as the editor and the activist Mr. M. M. Varkey, Mookkenchery, and the historian Mr. M. O. Joseph, Nedumkunnam, as assistant editors, proved decisive in fostering various political struggles in the Kingdom of Travancore during the rule of Dewan Sir C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar in the decade before Indian independence, such as the `Utharavada bharanam' [ഉത്തരവാദ ഭരണം / Responsible government] struggle under the Travancore State Congress [തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ സ്റ്റേറ്റ് കോംഗ്രസ്സ്] and the struggle against the Education Bill on nationalising of primary schools piloted (12 Sep. 1945) by Dewan Aiyar [വിദ്യാഭ്യാസ പ്രക്ഷോഭണം]. The paper was banned in Travancore, but continued to be published from Cochin and to be read in Travancore, and remained the principal daily of Ernakulam until his death.

    Mar Louis Memorial Press, Ernakulam Missam, Ernakulam Archdiocesan Library
    The Mar Louis Memorial Press was started in 1920 to support these and other publications, such as the `Ernakulam Missam', the official organ of the Archdiocese of Ernakulam, begun on 1st October 1920. He also founded the Ernakulam Archdiocesan Library in 1924.

    All Kerala Catholic Congress, `Nivarthanam' [നിവര്‍ത്തനം], Indian National Congress
    Archbishop Kandathil encouraged the expansion of the All Kerala Catholic Congress (AKCC), the Catholic Action movement in Kerala which had been founded on 30th November 1905 at Ernakulam under the Presidency of Mr. Ezhupunna Parayil Avira Varkey Tharakan [ശ്രീ എഴുപുന്ന പാറായില്‍ അവിരാ വര്‍ക്കി തരകന്‍] (with the approval of Mar Louis Pazheparambil, the participation of the Latin Catholics, and Mr. K. W. John, Kandathil (1880-1920), the Archbishop's brother, as Secretary), and directed the clergy to extend all help to its organisers for recruiting lay members; he also granted an office (as part of the Malabar Mail building in Broadway, Ernakulam) to serve as its head-quarters.

    This helped the Catholic community to play a principal part in the popular struggles in Travancore and Cochin (under the leadership of Messrs. [സര്‍വ്വശ്രീ] Joseph Pettah [ജോസഫ് പെട്ട], Professor of Economics and History at Murray College, Sialkot and St. Thomas College, Trichur, Elanjickal Thariath Kunjithommen [ഇലഞ്ഞിക്കല്‍ തര്യതു് കുഞ്ഞിത്തൊമ്മന്‍] (28th July 1882 - † 8th October 1955), MLC from Muvattupuzha, and Cyriac Kandathil [സിറിയക്കു് കണ്ടത്തില്‍]) starting with the `Nivarthanam' [നിവര്‍ത്തനം / Abstention] agitation for proportionate representation in 1932 (under the All Travancore Joint Political Conference [അഖില തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ സംയുക്ത രാഷ്ട്രീയ സമ്മേളനം]), and at length, for the rise, under the ægis of the Indian National Congress, of Catholics like Messrs. A. J. John, Anaparambil; C. J. Varkey, Chunkath; N. V. Joseph, Naduvathussery; M. M. Varkey, Mookkenchery; C. A. Ouseph; K. M. Korah, Karuvelithara; and P. T. Chacko, Pullolil, to eminence in public life. Maharani Setu Lakshmi Bayi appointed Barrister Mr. Joseph Thaliath [Thaliyath] (30th June 1883 - † 13th January 1959) (later, Chief Justice) as Judge of the High Court of Travancore (for which the Archbishop wrote her a letter of appreciation).

    Propagation of the faith, Social justice
    Archbishop Kandathil founded a missionary congregation of priests and laymen, the `Vedapracharasabha' [വേദപ്രചാരസഭ / Congregation for the propagation of the faith] in 1921, with Fr. Joseph C. Panjikaran [ഫാ. ജോസഫ് സി. പഞ്ഞിക്കാരന്‍] as director, to work for bringing people outside the fold to the Catholic faith; the activities were aimed at non-Christians as well as Christians outside the Catholic Church, and led to considerable increase in numbers for the Catholic Church of St. Thomas [Syro-Malabar Church]. According to Fr. Panjikaran: "Alone perhaps among the Eastern Catholics, the St. Thomas Christians are doing mission work among non-Christians on a large scale. In the Vatican Exhibition the pavilion marked `Riti Orientali' contains the exhibits of these Christians only, and gives a good account of the work done. The system of caste so prevalent in India made its influence felt among them as well. The high-caste Hindus were hard to convert, and as for the lower, the Christians, as descendants of the high caste, thought that by admitting the low caste converts to their community their social position and the esteem in which they were held by the high caste Hindus would suffer. But these ideas are fast changing. ... It was only within the last few years that a new impetus has been given to the propaganda and work on an organised scale carried on. The credit of this is due to the Most Rev. Mar Augustine Kandathil, Archbishop of Ernakulam. His famous pastoral on the subject has been a trumpet-call to the Christians to march to the conquest of their non-Catholic neighbours. A `Society for the Conversion of Pagans' has been started and its branches are established in nearly all the parishes. The problem of caste too has, in a way, been solved. The only church in the Archdiocese meant exclusively for the new converts was pulled down, and they were admitted to the parish churches. In some places there was opposition from the old Christians, but the bishop was adamant. Priests and educated lay opinion rallied to the help of the bishop, and the battle was won. Laymen too are showing great interest in the work, the members of the noble Parayil family being specially worthy of mention. The result of all this is has been that in 1923, the Archdiocese alone had 4089 conversions of pagans and took second rank in the list of adult conversions among all the dioceses of India, Burmah, and Ceylon. In four years over ten thousand have been fed, instructed, clothed, and baptised." [Panjikaran 1926, pp. 121-122]. Several priests from the Archdiocese of Ernakulam, such as Fr. Cyriac Vettickappally, MLC for Thodupuzha-Kunnathunad, and Fr. Jacob Naduvathussery, took part in the Vaikom Agitation (along with Barrister Mr. George Joseph Oorayil).

    Reünion movement
    Archbishop Kandathil was an earnest supporter of the efforts of Geevarghese Mar Ivanios Panicker, O. I. C., the Metropolitan of Bethany, and his followers in the Oriental Orthodox Church to reünite with the Catholic Church [c]; this led, at length, to the creation of the Syro-Malankara Church on 11th June 1932 [a] [Pius PP. XI 1932] with the Archdiocese of Trivandrum as its capital See and Mar Ivanios (1932-1953) as its Metropolitan, with the suffragan Diocese of Tiruvalla under Bishop Jacob Mar Theophilos Kalapurakal, O. I. C. (1932-1950); others who reünited include Joseph Mar Severios Valakuzhiyil (1937; Metropolitan of Niranam, 1932-1937), Thomas Mar Dioscoros Ottathaikal-Thervaladi (1939; Southist Jacobite Metropolitan, 1927-1939), the Indian Nationalist leader Barrister Mr. George Joseph Oorayil [ബാരിസ്റര്‍ ശ്രീ ജോര്‍ജ്ജു് ജോസഫ് ഊരയില്‍] (1931), and Mr. M. M. Varkey, Mookkenchery (1921). Mar Ivanios was installed Archbishop on 12th March 1933 in the presence of Archbishop Kandathil.

    Jubilee of St. Thomas the Apostle
    Archbishop Kandathil presided over the nineteenth centennial celebrations of the arrival of St. Thomas the Apostle at Cranganore [കൊടുങ്ങല്ലൂര്‍ / Kodungallur / Muziris, mouth of the River Periyar/Choorni [പെരിയാര്‍/ചൂര്‍ണ്ണി]] in 52 A. D. The Jubilee celebrations were held at Christ Nagar, Ernakulam, 28-31st December 1952, with about 100,000 people attending. This was the first time that the St. Thomas tradition became generally known throughout India and the world (cf. eg. [Parakunnel 1952], `St. Thomas in India', Time, 12 Jan. 1953).

    The Jubilee was, respecting chiefly the interests of the Latin Hierarchy, conjoined with the 400th anniversary of the death of St. Francis de Xavier, S. J. [Chunkath 1952]. When the Vatican issued the bull appointing Mgr. Sir Norman Card. Gilroy as the Papal delegate to the celebrations, however, reference was made only to the anniversary of St. Francis de Xavier. Archbishop Kandathil, contrary to the counsel offered by some of the suffragan bishops, called off the planned celebrations and ordered the Spanish missionary Zacharias Salterian of St. Teresa, O. C. D., Professor and Vice-Rector at St. Joseph's Apostolic Seminary, Mangalapuzha, Alwaye (1912-1956), to proceed to the Vatican and get the bull revised.

    `You come from Peter; and we are the sons of another Apostle Thomas', Archbishop Kandathil said addressing the Papal delegate. In a spontaneous Vatican radio broadcast on 31st December 1952 (relayed from Trivandrum), Pope Pius XII said: `Nineteen hundred years have passed since the Apostle came to India and in word and deed and utter self-sacrifice bore witness to Christ in your land. ... During the centuries that India was cut off from the West and despite many trying vicissitudes, the Christian communities formed by the Apostle conserved intact the legacy he left them, and as soon as the sea passage at the close of the fifteenth century offered a link with their fellow Christians of the West, the union with them was spontaneous. ... This apostolic lineage, beloved sons and daughters, is the proud privilege of the many among you who glory in the name of Thomas Christians and We are happy on this occasion to acknowledge and bear witness to it' [Pius PP. XII 1952]; this was the first acknowledgement by the Vatican of the apostolate of St. Thomas in South India among the St. Thomas Christians.

    A few days later, on 12th January 1953, Mgr. Valerian Gracias (Archbishop of Bombay (Latin), 1950-1978) was created the first Cardinal from India (cf. eg. `First Indian Cardinal', The Hindu, 13 Jan. 1953); the telegram arrived while he was camped at Ernakulam as a participant. In his address of gratitude, the Cardinal said: `This day is historic for the Church in India-- a privileged region sanctified by the labours of one of the chosen twelve, St. Thomas, and of another great apostle, St. Francis Xavier, watered by the blood of martyrs, fertilised by the zealous apostolate of religious men and women of every nationality, and by its own indigenous clergy.'

    Later in the year, on 11th November 1953, Mgr. Eugène Card. Tisserant, the Dean of the College of Cardinals (1951-1972), arrived at Ernakulam from Ortona with the remains of the right arm with which the doubting Apostle had touched the wounds of Jesus Christ to clear his doubts. The relic, after being exposed at Ernakulam, was installed on 6th December 1953 in the Mar Thoma Pontifical Shrine that was built at Kodungallur; the shrine was conferred Pontifical status by Pope Pius XII.

    Contributions to Education
    The Archbishop founded the Nirmala [നിര്‍മ്മല / Immaculate] College, Muvattupuzha, a Catholic college for men and women, dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary, on 29th June 1953 (affiliated to the University of Kerala until 1983 and to the Mahatma Gandhi University thenceforth) with Mgr. Matthew Pothanamuzhi as the first Manager (1953-1954) and Fr. Thomas Nedumkallel, Jr. as the first Principal (1953-1970). The first college in the eastern marches of Ernakulam, it proved decisive to the history of the region, and has nurtured a host of distinguished alumni.

    Extension of the Hierarchy of the St. Thomas Christians
    Due chiefly to the efforts of Archbishop Kandathil, the dominion of the Catholic Church of St. Thomas [Syro-Malabar Church] was extended beyond its traditional boundaries on 29th April 1955 [Pius PP. XII 1955]. The Catholic Church of St. Thomas thus gained the territories of the Dioceses of Changanacherry south of the River Pampa (Pathanamthitta, Quilon, Trivandrum), Trichur north of the River Bharathapuzha, Tellicherry (1953; Cannanore, Kasaragode), Mananthavady (1973; Wayanad, Nilgiris), Palghat (1974; Palghat), Thamarassery (1986; Calicut, Malappuram), Thuckalay (1996; Kanyakumari, Tirunelveli [W. of Tuticorin, S. of Madura]), Belthangady (1999; Coorg, South Canara (Mangalore), Udupi), Bhadravathi (2007; Chikmagalore, Shimoga [S. of Gokarnam, N. Canara, Bellary]), Mandya (2010; Mysore, Hassan, Mandya, Chamarajanagar [W. of Bangalore, S. of Tumkur]), and Ramanathapuram (Ramnad) (2010; Coimbatore, Tirupur, Erode, Karur [W. of Madura, Trichinopoly, Salem]); the territorial extent of the Hierarchy of the St. Thomas Christians [Syro-Malabar Hierarchy] remains so to this day (the Dioceses of Kothamangalam (1956), Kanjirapally (1977), Irinjalakuda (1978), and Idukki (2003) were carved out later from the original territory).

    This immediately enabled the suffragan Diocese of Tellicherry to minister to the substantial number of migrant [കുടിയേറ്റ] Catholics in Northern Kerala (erstwhile British Malabar). The Diocese of Tellicherry had been erected earlier on 31st December 1953 [Pius PP. XII 1953] with initial territory the same as the Latin Diocese of Calicut, and Bishop Mar Sebastian Valloppilly (1955-1989) serving as Administrator-Apostolic (1953-1955).

    The suffragan Diocese of Palai was erected (from territory of the Diocese of Changanacherry) under Bishop Mar Sebastian Vayalilkalapura (Vayalil) (1950-1981) on 25th July 1950 [Pius PP. XII July 1950].

    Liturgy of the St. Thomas Christians
  • Right: St. Augustine in his study, by Sandro Botticelli , Tempera on panel, c. 1490-92. 21 cm x 269 cm. Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy.

    When the Vatican sought to establish a completely Chaldæan liturgy for the Catholic Church of St. Thomas [Syro-Malabar Church] in 1955, Archbishop Kandathil declined to give his assent: `We are pure Indians, born and brought-up in India. We are racially Indians, a good part of our forefathers having been converted from high-caste Hindus of Malabar by St. Thomas. Hence we are known as St. Thomas Christians. From the time of St. Thomas, our people were having their liturgy in their own national language, except perhaps some essential parts in Syriac, introduced by St. Thomas. When the St. Thomas Christians had no priests to perform their liturgical functions due to persecution and such other adverse circumstances, our people were only participating in the liturgical functions performed by the Syrian priests who came to Malabar towards the middle of the fourth century. Still our people remained pure Indians saying their prayers in their own tongue. ... The Syro-Malabar rite, as distinct from the pure Chaldæan rite, is about three and a half centuries old, and has been recognised as a distinct rite. Therefore we want to keep up the independence and the specific character of our rite by all means. The Latin liturgy has not failed to make convenient adaptations and modifications throughout the centuries. We want a reformation in our liturgy that will help it to be living, dynamic, and progressive.' [Kandathil 1955] [d]

  • Left: St. Augustine writing in his cell, by Sandro Botticelli , Tempera on panel, c. 1490-94. 41 cm x 27 cm. Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy.

    Archbishop Kandathil began the steps for establishing the use of the vernacular Malayalam in the liturgy instead of the Syriac that was then in use (this was implemented in 1962):

    "The introduction of vernacular in the liturgy will be, no doubt, greatly appreciated by all. ... The Malayalam language used in the pontifical could be improved and made more classical. Already there is the complaint that the Malayalam used by the Christians is very poor and antiquated. ... The educated Hindus ... call our language `Mappillai Malayalam', i. e. Christian Malayalam. If in future too we continue to use poor and antiquated language for worship, it will surely tend to lessen the devotion of people. The educated may even be tempted to keep away from the divine worship on account of this.

    The Latins in Malabar too may soon have the vernacular in their liturgy. Undoubtedly they will see to it that the language they use is modern and attractive. We, the Orientals alone, who are mostly high class people and in general better educated, will lag behind and will be an object of contempt and derision.

    The Jacobite Christians of Malabar, it may be noted, had set up a committee of experts in Malayalam language including even Hindus, in order to formulate their liturgical prayers in an elegant and beautiful language. The Syro-Malankara rite also makes use of the same prayers to a great extent.

    We feel therefore that it is good for us also to make our liturgical prayers according to the classical style of the Malayalam language. This will be appreciated by all. Some years ago the Bishops, both Syrian and Latin, had appointed a commission to see to the improvement of our language in the prayers. But it did not continue the work for various reasons." [Kandathil 1955] (cf. also [Kandathil 1926], [Nedumkunnam 1975, p. 71])

    He also pointed out the dire need to shorten the prayers of the mass, the canonical hours, and other liturgical services: `The Latin ceremonies are even now comparatively shorter than ours. We learn that they are going to be shortened still more. Thus our churches will be deserted. People will lose their enthusiasm and love for Syriac liturgy. It will indeed be painful for us, and no less for Your Eminence. Our priests in charge of souls, unlike the monks remaining in the monasteries, are also overburdened with various pastoral duties. They are much more than in former times. ... Therefore, unless the mass and the other ceremonies be short, our priests and people will be put to great difficulties and their piety and devotion will be affected unfavourably.' [Kandathil 1955]

    Appearance, residence, and health
    In appearance, he was of modest stature and slight build, and of a somewhat darker complexion. His voice was markedly deep, powerful, and resonant. A portrait in oil paint by Artist Mr. P. J. Cherian, Puthanangady [ആര്‍ട്ടിസ്റ്റു് ശ്രീ പി. ജെ. ചെറിയാന്‍, പുത്തനങ്ങാടി] is installed at Central Hall, Archbishop's House, Ernakulam. A bust is installed at the charter house of the CST in Mookkannur.

    During his time as a prelate, he lived at the Archbishop's House, Ernakulam, for most of the year. He used to spend the summer at one of two archdiocesan bungalows at Chengal [ചെങ്ങല്‍] (near Kalady [കാലടി], on the bank of the River Periyar/Choorni [പെരിയാര്‍/ചൂര്‍ണ്ണി]) and Devicolam [ദേവികുളം].

    Mr. Kunjipailo Veliath [ശ്രീ കുഞ്ഞിപ്പൈലോ വെളിയത്തു്] served as his valet for four decades (from his time in Koratty until his death).

    He kept excellent health until his visit to Rome in 1925. The debilitating effects of the illness continued to be felt throughout his life. He continued, however, to be in full possession of his vigour until the day of his sudden illness and unexpected death.

    Commemoration
    Archbishop Kandathil lies buried at the main altar (funeral: 12 Jan. 1956) in the Cathedral Basilica of St. Mary [Our Lady of Ports], Ernakulam [Founded: 1112] (though he had wished to be buried at the steps). A portrait in oil paint by Artist Mr. P. J. Cherian, Puthanangady [ആര്‍ട്ടിസ്റ്റു് ശ്രീ പി. ജെ. ചെറിയാന്‍, പുത്തനങ്ങാടി] is installed at Central Hall, Archbishop's House, Ernakulam. His patrimonial estate in Chempu was bequeathed by him in 1942 to the Congregation of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux (CST) for endowing the St. Stephen's Ashramam [Monastery] (1942) and Balasadanam [Boys's Orphanage] (1954), Mathumkal [മത്തുങ്കല്‍], Chempu. A bust is installed at the charter house of the CST in Mookkannur. (The Shrine of St. Thomas (in front of the Cathedral Basilica of St. Mary), the souvenir of his episcopal silver jubilee (1936), was pulled down after having stood for six decades.)

    Some institutions devoted to his memory are: Mar Augustine Memorial High School, Koratty (1945); Mar Augustine Golden Jubilee Memorial Hospital (Edapally, Mookkannur, Chempu; 1951); Mar Augustine's High School, N. Thuravoor (1982); Mar Augustine Silver Jubilee Memorial Home for the Destitute, Perumanoor (1982); and Mar Augusthinose College, Ramapuram (1993).

    Some important works on him are those by Fr. Joseph Mavumkal [Mavumkal 1936], Fr. George Thalian [Thalian 1961], Mgr. Thomas Moothedan [Moothedan 1972], and his own unpublished chronicle [Kandathil].

    The Mar Augustine Memorial Lisie Hospital, Kaloor, Ernakulam, was begun in 1954 in accordance with his vision and plans. The hospital was officially founded in his memory on the first anniversary of his death, according to the wishes of clergy and laity, bears witness to his devotion to St. Thérèse de Lisieux, and continues to provide succour to the destitute of Ernakulam:

    Mar Augustine Memorial
    Lisie Hospital
    Cornerstone laid by
    H. G. Mar Joseph Parecattil
    Abp. of Ernakulam
    10-1-1957

    Notes

    [a] Mar Joseph Kariattil (Kariattil Ouseph Malpan) was consecrated Bishop and appointed Archbishop of Cranganore by Maria I of Portugal at Lisbon on 17th February 1783 under the rights of padroado [patronage] granted to the Portuguese Crown by the Pope; however, on his way back to Kerala, he fell ill at Goa and died there on † 10th September 1786 before he could set foot in or take possession of his Archdiocese or be installed Archbishop.

    These events are narrated in the travelogue [Paremmakkal 1936] concerning the eight-year long voyage of the Malpan from Kerala to Rome and back (1778-1786); the voyage had been undertaken for the purpose of removing obstacles to receiving Iype Mar Thoma VI (Iype Mar Dionysius I), the Oriental Orthodox Metropolitan (1772-1808) and lineal heir to Archdeacon Thomas Parambil (Pakalomattam / Palliveettil / Panamkuzhackal) [Thomas de Campo], into the Catholic Church; the Malpan also submitted a petition to the Vatican for the cause of the canonisation of Martyr Devasahayam Pillai.

    The finances for the voyage were from Mr. Thachil Thariath Matthoo Tharakan [ശ്രീ തച്ചില്‍ തര്യതു് മാത്തു തരകന്‍] (1741 - † 26th മേടം 1814) of Alangad, North Kuthiathode, collaborator of General Eustache Benoît de Lannoy [വലിയ കപ്പിത്താന്‍ / Great Captain] (1715 - † 1 June 1777) in building the Travancore lines [നെടുംകോട്ട], trader at the port of Purakkad [പുറക്കാടു്], a founder (with Dewan Mr. Kesava Pillai) of the town and port of Alleppey [ആലപ്പുഴ] (and a resident of Thathampally with his private chapel at Korthassery), exporter of timber to the British Admiralty during the Napoleonic wars, the financier to the Kingdom of Travancore under Maharaja Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma (who built him the Forane Church of St. Anne, Pettah, Trivandrum (Latin)), the counsellor [ഉപദേഷ്ടാവു്] and finance minister [മുളകുമടിശീല കാര്യക്കാര്‍] (26 Apr. - 20 Jun., 1799) of the Kingdom of Travancore under Maharaja Avittam Thirunal Balarama Varma (18 Feb. 1798 - 7 Nov. 1810), the deviser of progressive taxation in Travancore (in contrast to the previous regressive one), and the founder of a lazar house at North Pallippuram [Palliport], near Cranganore.

    The death of Mar Joseph Kariattil was to stall by more than a century both the achievement of sovereignty for the St. Thomas Christians (attained in 1923) and the reünion of St. Thomas Christians in the Oriental Orthodox Church with the Catholic Church (partially attained in 1932).

    [b] Particulars of the early episcopal lineage of the St. Thomas Christians are lost to history. In later centuries, East-Syriac/Edessan Chaldæan [Assyrian] Metropolitans governed the St. Thomas Christians from Cranganore [കൊടുങ്ങല്ലൂര്‍ / Kodungallur / Muziris]; the last such Metropolitan, Mar Abraham (1569-1597), moved his seat to Angamaly [അങ്കമാലി] and died in 1597 after appointing Geevarghese of the Cross, his Archdeacon (1593-1637), as Administrator-Apostolic of the Archdiocese (1597-1599).

    The Synod convoked (1599) at Diamper [ഉദയമ്പേരൂര്‍ / Udayamperoor] by the Archbishop of Goa, Dom Aleixo de Menezes, O. S. A. (1595-1609), subjugated the Archdiocese of Cranganore to the Padroado Archdiocese of Goa; thenceforth, European (mostly Portuguese) Jesuits, beginning with Mgr. Francisco Ros, S. J. (1599-1624) (who governed from Kottakkavu/Kottakkayal / കോട്ടയ്ക്കാവു്/കോട്ടക്കായല്‍ [North Parur/North Paravoor / വടക്കന്‍ പറവൂര്‍]), were Archbishops of Cranganore (governing in later times from Puthenchira [പുത്തഞ്ചിറ] / Pookkad [പൂക്കാടു്]); the only exceptions were Mgr. Paul of Thomas of Aquinum and Almeida, O. P. (1821-1823), and Mar Joseph Kariattil [കരിയാറ്റില്‍ മാര്‍ ഔസേപ്പ്] (1783-1786) who, dying before his installation, appointed Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar [പാറേമ്മാക്കല്‍ തോമ്മാ കത്തനാര്‍] as Administrator-Apostolic (Governador) of the Archdiocese of Cranganore (1787-1799); the latter governed first from Angamaly, later from Vadayar [വടയാര്‍], and finally from Ramapuram [രാമപുരം]; Sankoorikal Geevarghese Malpan [ശങ്കൂരിക്കല്‍ ഗീവര്‍ഗീസ് മല്‍പാന്‍] served briefly as Administrator-Apostolic after him (1800-1801) before the See fell into disuse and was finally suppressed in 1886.

    With the Coonan [കൂനന്‍] Cross Oath at Mattancherry [മട്ടാഞ്ചേരി] (1653), in the background of the struggle between the Protestant Dutch and the Catholic Portuguese for control of Kerala, the Archdeacon Thomas Parambil (Pakalomattam / Palliveettil / Panamkuzhackal) [Thomas de Campo] (1637-1673) and his followers rejected the authority of the Jesuit Archbishops of Cranganore (then, Francisco Garcia, S. J. (1641-1659)) and, at length, a minor portion of the dissenters (called the `Puthenkuttukar' [പുത്തന്‍കൂറ്റുകാര്‍ / people of the new allegiance] seceded to the West-Syriac/Antiochene Oriental Orthodox/Monophysite [Jacobite] Church; in this extremity, the Propaganda Fide Congregation in Rome erected the Vicariate of Malabar in 1659 (later renamed as the Vicariate of Verapoly [വരാപ്പുഴ] in 1709); thenceforth, European Carmelites, beginning with Mgr. Joseph de Sebastiani of St. Mary, O. C. D. (1659-1663), were Vicars-Apostolic of Verapoly; the only exceptions were Mgr. Raphael de Figueredo Salgado (1687-1695), and Mar Chandy Parambil (Pakalomattam / Palliveettil / Panamkuzhackal) [പറമ്പില്‍ മാര്‍ ചാണ്ടി / Alexander de Campo] (1663-1687), one of the four councillors to Archdeacon Thomas Parambil, who governed from Vechur [വെച്ചൂര്‍] and was so appointed when the Dutch expelled the European missionaries from Kerala; the latter appointed Parambil (Pakalomattam / Palliveettil / Panamkuzhackal) Matthai Kathanar [Matthew de Campo] as Archdeacon (1678-1706); Palackal Thoma Malpan [പാലയ്ക്കല്‍ തോമ്മാ മല്‍പാന്‍] (1808-1816), Porukara Thoma Kathanar [പോരൂക്കര തോമ്മാ കത്തനാര്‍] (1828-1831), and Mangalath Chandy Kathanar [മംഗലത്തു് ചാണ്ടി കത്തനാര്‍] (1831-1844), served as Secretaries-in-charge of the St. Thomas Christians to the Vicar-Apostolic of Verapoly; Chavara Kuriakose Elias of the Holy Family, T. O. C. D. [ക. നി. മു. സ. ചാവറ കുരിയാക്കോസ് ഏലിയാ ദ് തുഹമ്മാ കന്തീസാ] served as Vicar-General of Verapoly for the St. Thomas Christians (1861-1871); Mgr. Marcelline Antony Berardi of St. Teresa, O. C. D., served as Coädjutor of Verapoly for the St. Thomas Christians (1877-1887).

  • Right: Mgr. Marcelline Antony Berardi of St. Teresa, O. C. D. (1829-1892); Coädjutor of Verapoly for the St. Thomas Christians (1877-1887); first rector (1866-1875) of the Central Seminary, Puthenpally; preceptor to Fr. Matthew Makil and Fr. John Menachery; author of `കേരളരാജ്യത്തിലെ സത്യവേദചരിത്രം' [The history of the true faith in Kerala] [Berardi 1872]; founder of Santa Cruz English School, Fort Cochin, the first Catholic school in Kerala; and ardent devotee of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus.

    Separate Vicariates were erected for the St. Thomas Christians on 20th May 1887 (under Mgr. Charles Lavigne, S. J. [F. C. C. (E); S. B.] and Mgr. Adolph E. Medlycott [S. T.] appointed on 13th September 1887), and three Indian Vicars-Apostolic were appointed on 11th August 1896; one of them, Mar Louis Pazheparambil, Vicar-Apostolic of Ernakulam (1896-1919), known in religion as Aloysius Pareparambil of St. Matthew, T. O. C. D., had been among the seven monks (called the `Ezhu vyakulangal' [ഏഴു് വ്യാകുലങ്ങള്‍ / seven dolours]) expelled (1875) from the Carmelite Order of the St. Thomas Christians (T. O. C. D.) by the then Vicar-Apostolic of Verapoly, Mgr. Leonard Mellano of St. Louis, O. C. D. (1868-1897), for writing to the Pope asking for an Indian bishop to rule their church; later he repeatedly petitioned the Vatican for the founding of the Hierarchy of the St. Thomas Christians [Syro-Malabar Hierarchy].


    The Vicars-Apostolic appointed for the St. Thomas Christians on 11th August 1896 (consecrated bishops on 25th October 1896) for the Vicariates as reörganised on 28th July 1896:
    Left to right: Mar Louis Pazheparambil [V. C.; T. O. C. D. for women] (Ernakulam), Mar Matthew Makil [S. V. M.] (Changanacherry), and Mar John Menachery [S. T.] (Trichur).

    Another vicariate, Kottayam, was founded by Pope St. Pius X for the Southist [തെക്കുംഭാഗര്‍ / Suddhist / Knanaya] Christians on 29th August 1911 [St. Pius PP. X 1911] with Mar Matthew Makil [മാക്കില്‍ മാര്‍ മത്തായി] (1896-1914) as its first Vicar-Apostolic. The Southist Christians are the endogamous descendants of the Christians who immigrated under Mr. Kinayi Thoma [ശ്രീ ക്നായി തോമ്മാ / Mr. Kinayi Thommen / Mr. Thomas of Cana] and Bishop Uraha Mar Ouseph from the Near East to Cranganore in 345 A. D.; this immigration is recorded in the copper plate [ചേപ്പേട്] (cf. [Ros 1604] [Medlycott 1913]) awarded to Mr. Kinayi Thoma by the King Cocurangon, now lost.

    [c] Shortly after Mar Ivanios professed the Catholic faith at Quilon on 20th September 1930 [Panjikaran 1930] and visited him at Ernakulam, Archbishop Kandathil wrote to Paul Wattson, S. A., editor of `The Lamp': `The monks led a very regular life. They completely abstained from meat and fish and lived only on vegetables. They dressed in Hindu sanyasi (kavi) robes [the saffron garb of the Hindu holy man]. They were self-sacrificing, pious, and learned, and devoted themselves to infusing some spiritual life in the Jacobite Church, which for centuries has been torn by all sorts of dissension and litigations. They were greatly esteemed by the people. Mar Ivanios was telling me the other day that when he was a simple priest he sometimes spent the whole night hearing confessions. To raise the standard of female education, Mar Ivanios took some Jacobite girls to Barisol, Calcutta, and put them up with the High Church Protestant sisters. In due course they returned to Malabar and started the Order of Bethany sisters. Some of these are highly educated and hold university degrees. They conduct schools, maintain orphanages, and have a press of their own, the Bethany Printing House at Tiruvalla. Mar Ivanios has been their chaplain all through.'

    [d] The views of Archbishop Kandathil on the liturgy of the St. Thomas Christians [Kandathil 1955] were quoted and interpreted by his successor to the see of Ernakulam: "Our forefathers were `Hindu-Christians', having been converted from Hinduism, and not `Judæo-Christians' like the first fruits of the apostolic labours of St. Peter. Just imagine how vigourously St. Paul resisted St. Peter's attempt to impose the law of circumcision on the non-Jewish converts. We have no traces of the liturgy used by St. Thomas in India, but we can presume that it was an indigenous form of worship blending the message of the gospel with the spiritual patrimony of the new converts, and using idioms and symbolisms intelligible to them. With the advent of the Syrian bishops from abroad, bringing with them a developed Chaldæan liturgy, the liturgical seedling planted by St. Thomas must have been neglected, if not choked. Our forefathers succeeded in Indianising to some extent the imported liturgy. In essentials it remained Semitic. That is why, when the question of restoring the Chaldæan liturgy was proposed by Rome in 1955, my illustrious predecessor Archbishop Kandathil was unwilling to give his concurrence." Mar Joseph Card. Parecattil: `Adaptation and the future of Christianity in India', 1972, in `The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopædia of India', Vol. 2, George Menachery (Ed.), Ollur, Kerala, India, 2000, pp. 186-191.

    "The long and thought-provoking reply of Mar Augustine Kandathil has been published in full [Kandathil 1955]. Mar Augustine, a scholarly historian and progressive thinker who loved the church intensely, was ever pleading for its progress and ever sending repeated representations to Rome for enlarging the scope of missionary activities of our church beyond the confines of Kerala. He had his objections for letting our young missionary aspirants join foreign religious orders. He had clearly stated his views that the revival of the Chaldæan rite would be a setback for our progress. He had made it clear in the letter that we were truly Indians and that the Chaldæan rite and the Syriac language were imposed on us during the middle of the fourth century. ... [One] serious problem [arises] for us in the mission regions outside Kerala. What right have we to go amidst a people totally alien to the religious rituals of Edessa or Kerala bearing the designation Syro-Malabar rite and hold up to them a [Chaldæan] culture? ...

    No one can deny that the Chaldæan rite originated in Kerala due to the endeavour of the priests and high priests among the immigrants who colonised here in the fourth century. It should be remembered that the Synod of Seleucia held in 410 had resolved that the Chaldæan rite should be established wherever they colonised. ... As the Chaldæans themselves were linked with St. Thomas, it was easy for them to integrate themselves with the St. Thomas Christians. But what was their contribution to the Church in Kerala till the sixteenth century? How far did they succeed in bettering or enriching the spiritual life of the Christians here? These are matters for investigation. There is no information whatever of their having raised any son of the soil to the bishop's rank carrying the fullness of the priesthood. At least one native bishop, Alexander de Campo, was consecrated by the Latin missionaries. One can only wonder where we would have been if the Chaldæans were not forced out by the Portuguese at that time. ...

    The Syro-Malabar rite, different only slightly from the Chaldæan rite, was in force from the sixteenth century onwards. ... In a letter dated 25 Sep. 1897 from the Holy father (Leo XIII) to Mar Louis Pazheparambil... it was specifically pointed out that in view of the appointment of native bishops to the Syro-Malabar church, the efforts of some people to relate or link this church with the [Chaldæan] Patriarch are not only unwholesome but even insubordination to the proper authorities. In 1938 when it was known that there were some movements at the higher levels of church administration to revive the ancient Chaldæan rite,... Mar Augustine Kandathil and Mar James Kalacherry... wrote to Rome expressing their displeasure at the move. They stated therein that `the Syro-Malabar rite has already been confirmed by the Holy see' and in support of their contention forwarded a copy of the letter of the Holy father (Leo XIII). ...

    Some people have tried to create a feeling that only a few bishops in recent times have `given their blood and sweat' to revive and reconstruct the liturgy and that their predecessors of the older generation were lazy and indifferent and never worried about these matters. But a scrutiny of the historical records will show that the converse is true. Till 1896, the main concern of the local church was for procuring the rights for self government and native bishops. When that was achieved, our forefathers engaged themselves in the development of educational, social welfare, and spiritual works. The native bishops were zealously devoted to the updating of the liturgical life also. ... The issues of the Ernakulam Missam of Dec. 1975 and Mar. 1976 contain a series of historical documents. They include 18 annual reports of the conferences of the Syro-Malabar bishops from 1924 to 1953. The reports are preserved in the archives of the Archbishop's House. It cannot be said with certainty whether other reports were not written or have been lost. ... In the available reports there are a number of resolutions dealing with liturgical reforms. ... The permission of Rome does not appear to have been sought at all. Perhaps that was the practice at the time. ... From 1924 to 1956 the Syro-Malabar bishops's conference was very much concerned with the timely renewal and adaptation of our mass. The use of the translation from the Peshitta for the readings in the missal, strict observance of the rubric as laid down in the ordo, combining the portions forming the ordinary of the mass, prepositioning the commune sanctorum and proprium sanctorum, and approval of the missal as printed at Mannanam were among the subjects discussed in the conference. Appropriate decisions were taken by the liturgy committee. ...

    In 1930, a liturgy committee was appointed. Mgr. Thomas Nedumkallel was the President and Convener. Other members were Fr. John Alapatt (Trichur), Fr. Jacob Pallikkunnel (Kottayam), Fr. Andrew Kalappura (Changanacherry), and Gabriel Pulickal [Pulickan] of St. Joseph, T. O. C. D. They were to prepare a draft for all liturgical services and rituals and submit them to the bishops's conference to be held in Nov. 1931. The bishops were to supply them with matter concerning high mass, solemn high mass, and the raza, within six months. ... The bishops's conference held on 17 Nov. 1931 discussed the report furnished by the above committee and took appropriate decisions on their recommendations regarding mass and communion on holy saturday, reduction in length of the responses of the acolyte during mass, baptism, and the funeral services of priests. Another liturgical committee constituted in 1941 studied the form and rituals of solemn high mass for the living and the dead. In 1944 a three member committee was formed ... for systematising the rituals of high mass and for reducing the length of the funeral services of the laity and priests.

    One of the resolutions passed in 1924 states that efforts should be made to obtain speedy approval from Rome for the Pontifical submitted to them. A resolution passed in Feb. 1929 deals elaborately with the steps for getting a full translation of the Pontifical. It decided to approve whatever had been translated by Bishops Menachery and Pazheparambil and to request the Prior General of the Carmelites to entrust the translation of the remaining portion to Fr. Gabriel. It requested the Archbishop to complete the work within two months. ... It is on record that on 26 Oct. 1929 the report to the Delegate Apostolic on the Syriac translation of the Pontifical was read out to all the bishops and a decision taken to send an explanatory note on the translation to the Delegate Apostolic. ... Even before these activities were taken by the bishops jointly in 1928, Mar Augustine Kandathil had written to the Chaldæan Patriarch of Basra for a transcribed copy of the Chaldæan Pontifical. ... Not only the Pontifical but other Chaldæan liturgical texts were procured by him then. The observations of Fr. Gabriel ... on the Chaldæan Pontifical and its translation by Bishops Kariattil, Pazheparambil, and Menachery, also deserve our careful study. It is true that the Syriac translation of the Latin Pontifical was not approved by Rome. It is difficult to say why... It may be that the translation was defective. Or it may be because it belonged to another rite. Opposition was raised against using the Latin Pontifical by Chaldæans. It was argued that it was not suitable for the Chaldæan rite. The Roman Pandits like Fr. Cyril Korolevsky and Dom Placid de Meester, O. S. B., did not hesitate to advise the concerned authorities that `it was gravely sinful even to help in getting the translation recognised.' In the light of these, Pope Pius XI did not approve the Syriac translation of the Latin Pontifical. There are those who suspect the Chaldæan experts who examined the Syriac translation as parties to the rejection. They were bent on our accepting their own Chaldæan liturgical texts to perpetuate their domination over us. Some Keralites were also of this view. But with the erection of the Syro-Malabar Hierarchy, it became evident that we were not going to accept the supremacy and domination of the Chaldæan patriarchate over us. It is not surprising that they and their admirers in Kerala continued to try to reëstablish their domination at least in matters of liturgy. ...

    On 6 May 1954 Cardinal Tisserant informed Mar Augustine Kandathil that a commission was appointed to set right the liturgical matters of the Syro-Malabar Church and that it had already started functioning. The names of the members of the commission were not communicated. It remains a sad truth that in the appointment of a commission whose decisions would vitally affect the fortunes of our church, our bishops were not even consulted. Though the names of the members are not revealed in any of the letters from the congregation, it is known that the members were: Alphonse Raes, S. J. of the Latin rite from Belgium; Fr. Cyril Korolevsky of the Byzantine rite; Placid Podipara of St. Joseph, T. O. C. D. of the Syro-Malabar rite. A Chaldæan priest Fr. Emmanuel Delly (Mar Emmanuel III Card. Delly, Chaldæan Patriarch, 2003) was to help the commission. ... Any commission appointed without knowledge or consent of the Syro-Malabar Hierarchy cannot and does not represent the Syro-Malabar Hierarchy or Church. I feel that such a liturgy commission should have included at least a member from Kerala who has had experiences of the pastoral life in Kerala, who could respond to the emotions and sentiments of the fold in Kerala. There are many dimensions to the form of popular worship, liturgical, historical, biblical, theological, and pastoral. Therefore there is need for expert advice in formulating it-- experts in the structure of liturgy, its history, the scriptures, theology, who have had experience in real life situations. I am not questioning the competence of the Roman experts in their respective fields. But they are not omniscient. They would have had their limitations which could not but have cast their shadows on their overall performance. ...

    In 1955, Rome forwarded to our bishops... a [printed] Latin text of the mass revised by the liturgical committee in Rome, said to be approved, and [a cyclostyled text in Malayalam] of some portions of a new pontifical mass [for the consecration of bishops], to all Syro-Malabar bishops for their comments. ... In the text for the mass, the anaphoras of Nestorius and Theodore of Mopsuestia, whom the Catholics had considered as heretics, were also included. The pontifical as sent did not contain the full translation of the Syriac pontifical, sent to us later. Till this time all questions of liturgy were discussed by the bishop's conference. But this time the bishops were individually and separately contacted. Separate replies were called for from each prelate. Why such a deviation was adopted provides food for thought. This diplomatic approach has been continued later also. ... All the bishops individually replied that our rite was Syro-Malabar and not Chaldæan. The letters were rather strongly worded. ... There was a surprising uniformity and agreement in the replies sent separately by all the bishops. ... None of the bishops welcomed a complete restoration of the Chaldæan liturgy. All of them were agreed on shortening the mass. ... The unanimous view of the bishops was that ours was the Syro-Malabar rite and there was no need for reforming or reconstructing it. Among the replies [of the Syro-Malabar bishops], the one which is most significant and dealt with the question in all its aspects was the one from Mar Augustine Kandathil, a profound historian and the exalted head of the Syro-Malabar Church. ... Surely the letter reveals the farsightedness and prophetic vision of the aged high priest. It reflects a dynamism that challenges any youth of today. ...

    This bold and united voice of opposition of the pastors who knew what their sheep wanted, how their spiritual hunger should be met, how they should be shielded from straying through sandy tracts like the Arabian deserts, and how foolish and irresponsible it would be to lead new sheep to antiquated pastures, resounded in the Oriental Congregation. The congregation therefore temporarily shelved their secret manœuvres to impose the Chaldæan liturgy on the Church in Malabar. These efforts lay dormant till the death of Mar Augustine Kandathil spearheading the opposition.

    Mar Augustine Kandathil, the leader and the life-giving source of the Syro-Malabar Church, passed away on † 10 Jan. 1956. ... It is heard that one of the actors in Rome in this drama of liturgy renewal spontaneously reacted to the news saying: `Now I can implement my liturgy.' ... Soon [after Archbishop Kandathil's death], Fr. Placid [Podipara of St. Joseph, T. O. C. D.] came to Kerala with a letter from the Oriental Congregation and approached all the local bishops... in an attempt to get their consent for liturgy renewal. ... Their replies... confirmed their earlier stand on the preservation of the Syro-Malabar rite. ... Even though the other bishops toned down their replies compared to their earlier stand-- possibly due to the personal intervention of Fr. Placid-- none of them welcomed complete Chaldæanisation. The bishops of Palai and Kottayam merely reverted to their old replies and avoided further comments. ... Some of the bishops handed over their reply to Fr. Placid in person. Most of them replied directly to Rome. ...

    Mar Augustine Kandathil has recorded in his diary [Kandathil] on 11th November 1953 a note which reveals the difference between the views or stands taken by the hierarchy and Fr. Placid. The note deals with the interview of Cardinal Tisserant with the Syro-Malabar bishops. The entry reads: `After some time the Cardinal called to the hall the Syrian bishops belonging to the two rites. Fr. Placid was also there. The Cardinal spoke about our liturgy in its old forms and the need for people's participation in it. The bishops expressed the need for including Malayalam translation of the prayers in the missal, as well as for shortening the duration of the mass. I mentioned that Fr. Placid is a stubborn adherent of the ancient liturgy. We all represented our case for extending our jurisdiction to Calicut and the south. The Cardinal called for a list of the people involved.' Of the bishops who attended that meeting, I am the lone survivor. I think that the gulf between Fr. Placid and the hierarchy on the matter of liturgy started widening since then. Fr. Placid went to Rome soon after. Everybody knows as a matter of fact he stayed in Rome as a consultant to the Oriental Congregation and exerted his strong personal influence on the question of the renewal of liturgy. ...

    On 4 Aug. 1953 the bishops's conference appointed another committee to translate the liturgical prayers for the mass and the sacraments. Mar Thomas Tharayil was the chairman. The other members were Fr. Placid, Fr. Matthew Vadakel, Mgr. Matthew Thekkanatt, Dr. Sebastian Cherayath, and Dr. Thomas Moothedan. They were to ensure that the translation preserved the identity of the Syro-Malabar rite intact. They were to submit a report at least before 1 Oct. 1953. It is said that the committee did not function due to the non-coöperation of Fr. Placid. It must have been so, because the ultimate goal of Fr. Placid was the reïnstatement of the mass and sacraments in the Chaldæan rite. But this goal was not in harmony with the desires of the people, priests, and the hierarchy. What they intensely desired for centuries to restore, even by `shedding of blood', was autonomy for the church in Kerala, and not liturgy. The historical records published by Mar Louis Pazheparambil [Pareparambil 1920] bear this out. ...

    It was evident that a situation in which the prelates of the Syro-Malabar Church were ignored or not duly recognised prevailed in certain quarters. I came to know that such an attitude existed more at the Damascene College [Rome] where many of our priests from Kerala were residing. I also felt the vested interests of some Keralites were more responsible for developing such an attitude than those of foreign church officials. ...

    There is no doubt that Cardinal Tisserant was a man who loved the Syrian Church in Kerala. He must have believed that his efforts in reviving the Chaldæan rite would be a great service and a manifestation of his love and concern for the Syro-Malabar Church. But the reaction of the Syro-Malabar bishops to the draft of the revised text he had sent them opened his eyes. He was realistic enough to concede that it would be imprudent to disturb pastoral life. So he did not insist on any revival. But with the death of Mar Augustine Kandathil and the emergence of relaxed reactions among the Syro-Malabar bishops under the influence of Fr. Placid, the Cardinal had second thoughts on revival. He gradually yielded to the pressures working on him. ...

    On 27 May 1957, a critically decisive plenary session of all the Cardinals of the Oriental Congragation was held to take final decisions on the Syro-Malabar mass and the Pontifical. ... There was no one in the meeting to explain or plead for, or to justify ideas and aspirations of the Syro-Malabar bishops. The only member of the Syro-Malabar Church present there was Fr. Placid and he was in the opposite camp. ... The majority of them had no personal knowledge and perhaps no concern too for the Syro-Malabar Church and its future. In such a situation an ex parte decision anyway was easy. That is how the texts of the mass and the Pontifical were approved, not considering at all the requests of the Syro-Malabar bishops to modernise and shorten the services and for a committee to make an on-the-spot study in Kerala. On 26 Jun. 1957, the then reigning pontiff Pope Pius XII granted formal recognition to the revised or revived texts. I do not know whether His Holiness had been appraised of both sides of the problem. In his famous encyclical on liturgy `Mediator Dei' [Pius PP. XII 1947] the Holy father has reasoned out that mere revival is objectionable. If a revised text conforming to the wishes of the shepherds who knew the flock intimately had been presented to the Holy father, he would surely have granted recognition to it. I believe that if that was done, much of the later dissensions and troubles would not have arisen. ...

    One should not stop at the fourth century in an honest search for the roots of the sound traditions of our liturgy. ... We should go farther back to the early days of Christianity in Kerala in the first century and to the Indian traditions amidst which it took shape. Possibly we can discover nothing in those dark periods. It is not really necessary to search for them today. We have to found our rite and rituals amidst contemporary background. But then, any picture can be painted only on a canvas. It is this canvas that we are seeking in Chaldæan liturgy which is the fundamental basis of the Syro-Malabar liturgy. ... It is a futile exercise to engage in debates and controversies on our original liturgy and its exclusiveness or identity. Historians are not agreed, nor are they constantly of the same view in matters connected with them. We have seen many of them changing their views from time to time. What is practically important and of primary concern are the nature of our present liturgy and how our forms of worship can be made more useful and attractive to our people. It is good to remember always that God is more pleased with our lives than with our rites. " [Parecattil 1987, pp. 7-12, 14-23, 25-27].

    cf. also Francis Kanichikattil, T. O. C. D.: `Question of ancestral traditions: a crisis in the Syro-Malabar Church', Asvattha, n. 20, July 2009. Some Chaldæan Patriarchs who have attempted to establish their domination over the St. Thomas Christians are Mar Yohannan VIII Hormizd (1783-1838), Mar Joseph VI Audo (1847-1878) [Pius PP. IX 1872], and Mar Emmanuel III Card. Delly (2003).




    Selected bibliography

    1. Konrad Adenauer: `Memoirs: 1945-1953', translated to English by Beate Ruhm von Oppen, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London, England, 1966. cf. also Paul Weymar: `Konrad Adenauer', authorised biography in English on the years up to 1945, Andre Deutsch, London, England, 1957; Hans-Peter Schwarz: `Konrad Adenauer', 2 volumes, translated by Louise Willmot, Stuttgart, Germany, 1991.

    2. St. Anselm of Aosta, O. S. B.: `Proslogium; Monologium; An appendix on behalf of the fool by Gaunilon; and Cur deus homo'; translated from the Latin by Sidney Norton Deane, with an introduction, bibliography, and reprints of the opinions of leading philosophers and writers on the Ontological argument; Open Court publishing company, Chicago, USA, 1903. cf. also [Gödel 1970]; St. Pius PP. X (Giuseppe Sarto): `Communium rerum', 21st April 1909.

    3. St. Thomas Aquinas, O. P.: `Summa theologica', c. 1265-1274. Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O. P.: Commentaries on the `Summa theologica': `Grace': Ia IIae, q. 109-114; `The Trinity and God the creator': I, q. 27-119; `Christ the saviour': III, q. 1-26, 31-59; `Reality: a synthesis of Thomistic thought'. cf. also [Leo PP. XIII 1879], [Pius PP. X 1914], [Garrigou-Lagrange 1938], Pius PP. XI (Achille Ratti): `Studiorum ducem' [Encyclical on St. Thomas Aquinas], 29th June 1923.

    4. St. Francis of Assisi [Giovanni Francesco di Bernardone], O. F. M.: Works [Latin]. cf. also Honorius PP. III (Cencio Aimerico): `Solet annuere' [Bull approving the Rule of the Friars Minor], 29th November 1226; Gregory PP. IX (Ugolino di Conti): `Mira circa nos' [Bull canonising St. Francis of Assisi], 16th July 1228; Alexander IV (Rinaldo di Jenne): `Clara claris præclara' [Bull canonising St. Clara of Assisi], 26th September 1255; Leo PP. XIII (Gioacchino Pecci): `Auspicato concessum', 17th September 1882; Pius PP. XI (Achille Ratti): `Rite expiatis', 30th April 1926; Candide Chalippe, O. F. M.: `The life and legends of St. Francis of Assisi'.

    5. St. Aurelius Augustinus [St. Augustine of Hippo]: `The Confessions'; `The City of God'; `On Christian doctrine'; `Enchiridion or the handbook on faith, morals, and love'; `On the Trinity'; `On the catechising of the uninstructed'; `Letters'; `Expositions on the Psalms'; `Sermons on the New Testament'; `Harmony of the Gospels'; `On the Sermon on the Mount'. Other works. Rule. cf. also Pius PP. XI (Achille Ratti): `Ad salutem humani' [Encyclical on the fifteenth centenary of the death of St. Augustine], 30th April 1930.

    6. Duarte Barbosa: `Livro em que dá relação do que viu e ouviu no Oriente', c. 1518. Translated to English as `A description of the coasts of East Africa and Malabar in the beginning of the sixteenth century' by Henry E. J. Stanley, London, England, 1866.

    7. Mgr. Cesare Card. Baronius, C. O.: `Annales ecclesiastici a Christo nato ad annum 1198' [Ecclesiastical annals from the nativity of Christ to the year 1198] (in Latin), Rome, 1588-1607.

    8. Leopold Maria Beccaro of Jesus, O. C. D.: `Manuale di Memorial' [Chronicle], MS. Unpublished.

    9. Idem: `A short biography of Fr. Chavara', Mary Immaculate Press, Koonammavu, Kingdom of Cochin, 1872. Reprinted: Mannanam, India, 2003.

    10. Mgr. Marcelline Antony Berardi of St. Teresa, O. C. D.: `കേരളരാജ്യത്തിലെ സത്യവേദചരിത്രം' [The history of the true faith in Kerala] (in Malayalam), Mary Immaculate Press, Koonammavu, Kingdom of Cochin, 1872.

    11. Bharathan: `Kaathodu kaathoram' [Whispering / കാതോടു് കാതോരം] (in Malayalam); Screenplay: John Paul; Story: Bharathan; Music: Ouseppachan, Bharathan; Lyrics: O. N. V. Kurup; Saritha as Mary, Mammootty as Louis alias Maash, Janardhanan as Lazar, Innocent as Rappai (Kapyaaru), Master Prashobh as Joy alias Kuttan alias Maash, Nedumudi Venu as Achan, Bahadur as Pyleechettan, Lizy as Sr. Theresa, Philomena as Chettaththi; Location: Manchadikunnu; Songs: Nee en sarga soundaryamaey, Devadoothar paadi, snehadoothar paadi (song on the occasion of the feast of St. Thérèse de Lisieux on 1st October), Kaathodu kaathoram; film, 1985.

    12. `The Holy Bible', Latin Vulgate compiled by St. Jerome of Stridon (382-405) under the direction of St. Damasus PP. I, as printed by Johannes Gutenberg, Mainz, Germany, c. 1455; copy at Niedersächsische Staats-und Universitätsbibliothek [Lower Saxony State and University Library], Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany.

      `The Holy Bible', Douay-Rheims version; translated faithfully into English out of the authentical Latin Vulgate, according to the best corrected copies of the same, diligently conferred with the Hebrew, Greek, and other editions in diverse languages: with arguments of books and chapters, annotations, tables, and other necessary helps, for the better understanding of the text, and specially for the discovery of the corruptions of diverse late translations, and for clearing the controversies in religion, of these days: by Fr. Gregory Martin (1578-1582), with the assistance of Mgr. William Card. Allen, Thomas Worthington, C. O., S. J., Fr. Richard Bristow, and Fr. William Reynolds; the Old Testament (including the Deuterocanonical books) first published by the English College of Douay, France, 1609 (I, II) & 1610; the New Testament first published by the English College of Rheims, France, 1582. Reprinted with modern transliteration: William G. von Peters, Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA, 2005. {Unless otherwise stated, all biblical quotations are from this version.}

      `The Holy Bible', revised from the Douay-Rheims version and diligently compared with the Sixto-Clementine edition (1592) of the Latin Vulgate by Mgr. Richard Challoner (1749-1752). Internet archive. Project Gutenberg. Commentary (1811, 1814) by Fr. George L. Haydock.

      Fr. John Lingard: `A new version of the four Gospels'; with notes, critical and explanatory; Joseph Booker, London, England, 1836.

      `The New Testament' (1849, 1851; 1862); `The Pentateuch' (1860); `The Psalms, Books of Wisdom, and Canticle of Canticles' (1857); `The Book of Job and the Prophets' (1859); `The Historical Books of the Old Testament' (1860); translated from the Latin Vulgate, and diligently compared with the original text by Mgr. Francis P. Kenrick, being a revised edition of the Douay-Rheims version, with notes, critical and explanatory; Kelly, Hedian, and Piet, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

      Henry Cotton: `Rhemes and Doway: an attempt to shew what has been done by Roman Catholics for the diffusion of the Holy Scriptures in English', Oxford University Press, England, 1855.

      Mgr. John H. Card. Newman, C. O.: `The history of the text of the Rheims and Douay version of Holy Scripture', July 1859.

      Gregory PP. XVI (Mauro Bartolomeo Cappellari, O. S. B.): `Inter præcipuas' [Encyclical on Biblical societies], 8th May 1844.
      Leo PP. XIII (Gioacchino Pecci): `Providentissimus deus' [Encyclical on the study of Holy Scripture], 18th November 1893.
      St. Pius PP. X (Giuseppe Sarto): `Præstantia scripturæ' [On studying the Bible], 18th November 1907.
      Benedict PP. XV (Giacomo della Chiesa): `Spiritus paraclitus' [Encyclical on St. Jerome of Stridon], 15th September 1920.
      Pius PP. XII (Eugenio Pacelli): `Divino afflante spiritu' [Encyclical on promoting biblical studies], 30th September 1943.

      For the Bible in Malayalam cf. [Kattakayam 1926] [Naduvathussery 1962] [Moothedan 1963] [Vypissery 1905] [Muttathupadam 1938] [Vadakel 1939]

    13. Fernando Pereira de Brito: `Historia do nascimento, vida e martyrio do Beato João de Brito da Companhia de Jesus, Martyr da Asia, e Protomartyr da Missao do Madura' (in Portuguese), Lisbon, Portugal, 1722; Second edition: 1852.

    14. Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, 7th duc de Broglie: `Recherches sur la théorie des quanta' [Researches on the theory of quanta], Paris, France, 1924. `Une tentative d'interprétation causale et non linéaire de la mécanique ondulatoire: la théorie de la double solution', Gauthier-Villars, Paris, France, 1956; translated to English: `Non-linear wave mechanics: a causal interpretation', Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1960. [David Joseph Bohm: `Causality and chance in modern physics', Harper, 1961; `The undivided universe: an ontological interpretation of quantum theory' (with Basil J. Hiley), Routledge, London, England, 1992; Interview, 1989; Jean-Pierre Vigier]

    15. Claudius Buchanan: `Christian researches in Asia: with notices of the translation of the Scriptures into the oriental languages', Fifth edition, T. Cadell & W. Davies, The Strand, London, England, 1812.

    16. Georg Cantor: `Contributions to the founding of the theory of transfinite numbers', Dover publications, Mineola, New York, USA, 1915.

    17. `The Catholic Encyclopædia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic Church'; edited by Charles G. Herbermann, Mgr. Edward A. Pace, Condé B. Pallen, Mgr. Thomas J. Shahan, John J. Wynne, S. J., assisted by numerous collaborators; in fifteen volumes, together with an index (vol. XVI, 1914) and a supplement (vol. XVII, 1922); The Encyclopædia press, New York, USA, 1913. Internet archive.

    18. Louis Chasle: `Sr. Maria of the Divine Heart, Gräfin Droste zu Vischering, religious of the Good Shepherd, 1863-1899', Burns & Oates, London, England, 1906.

    19. Chavara Kuriakose Elias of the Holy Family, T. O. C. D.: `നാളാഗമങ്ങള്‍' [Chronicles] (in Malayalam), Prior General, Carmelites of Mary Immaculate, Karikkamury, Ernakulam, India, 1981. Original MSS c. 1841-1871 mostly at St. Joseph's Monastery, Mannanam, India. Bound in the present form by Jerome Poothottam of St. Mary, T. O. C. D., and analysed for authorship by Anselm Perumalil, T. O. C. D. An analysis of the provenance, chronology, and historical integrity of the MSS appears in the preface (unattributed), pp. xi-xxxii. Reprinted: 1985.

    20. `ചെമ്പില്‍ പള്ളി നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle of the Church of Chempu] (in Malayalam). MS. Unpublished.

    21. C. J. Varkey, Chunkath: `The Travancore question', in `Education question in Travancore: A symposium of the various pronouncements of the Government of Travancore and Sir C. P. on the subject and the criticism directed against certain details of policy by leading men in the state and outside', V. M. Marangoly (Ed.), Little Flower Press, Ernakulam, 1946.

    22. `Correspondence between the Popes and the Rajas of Travancore in the eighteenth century', Magazine of St. Joseph’s College, Trichinopoly, February 1921.

    23. `The Wardha scheme of education: exposition and examination', Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, England, 1939. With a foreword by Zakir Hussain and an introduction by P. Subbarayan.

    24. `St. Francis Xavier: A souvenir of the fourth century of the death of St. Francis Xavier (1552-1952)', Ernakulam, India, 1952. cf. also [Parakunnel 1952]

    25. Stephen Collins: `The Cosgrave legacy' [Biographies of William T. Cosgrave [Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair] and his son Liam Cosgrave], Blackwater press, Dublin, Ireland, 1996.

    26. Jean Croiset, S. J.: `La devotion au Sacré-Coeur de Jesus' [Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus], France, 1698.

    27. St. John of the Cross, O. C. D. [San Juan de Yepes Alvarez de la Cruz]: `La noche oscura del alma' [Dark night of the soul], Spain, 1586. cf. also [Garrigou-Lagrange 1938].

    28. Francis Day: `The land of the Perumauls: or Cochin, its past and its present', Madras, British India, 1863.

    29. F. A. D'Cruz: `St. Thomas, the Apostle, in India: an investigation based on the latest researches in connection with the time-honoured tradition regarding the martyrdom of St. Thomas in southern India', Hoe and Company, Madras, British India, 1922.

    30. Charles S. Devas: `Political economy', Third edition, Longmans, Green, and Co., London, England, 1907.

    31. Idem: `The key to the world's progress: being an essay on historical logic', Longmans, Green, and Co., London, England, 1912.

    32. Idem: `Studies of family life: a contribution to social science', Burns & Oates, London, England, 1886.

    33. `Vicariate-Apostolic of Ernakulam', The Catholic Encyclopædia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic Church. Volume XVI [Supplement] and Supplement I, Volume XVII, The Encyclopædia press, New York, USA, 1914 and 1922, pp. 38 and 288-289.

    34. St. Jean Eudes, C. O.: `Le Cœur Admirable de la Très Sainte Mère de Dieu' [Admirable Heart of the Most Holy Mother of God], France, 1681.

    35. Eusebius Pamphili of Cæsarea: `Church history'; `Life of Constantine'.

    36. Fr. Peter A. Fernandez (b. 1864): `The Life of St. Gonsalo Garcia', Bombay, British India.

    37. Domenico Ferroli, S. J. (13 Nov. 1887 - † 4 Oct. 1970; s. of Bernardo F. and Catterina Bidoli; Prof. of Mathematics, University of Bangalore): `The Jesuits in Malabar', King and Co., The National Press, 36 Dickenson Road, Bangalore Cantonment, India, 2 Volumes, 1939, 1951.

    38. Galileo Galilei: `Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche, intorno a due nuove scienze' [Discourses and mathematical demonstrations relating to two new sciences], Louis Elsevier, Leiden, The Netherlands, 1638. [Patavina; Pierre Duhem: `History of Physics'; Maria Celeste Virginia Galilei, O. S. C.: `Letters', 1623-1634, translated to English by Dava Sobel]

    39. Joseph de Gallifet, S. J.: `The adorable Heart of Jesus' [De cultu sacrosancti Cordis Dei ac Domini nostri Jesu Christi], France, 1726.

    40. Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O. P.: `The three ages of the interior life: prelude of eternal life', synthesised from `Christian perfection and contemplation according to St. Thomas Aquinas and St. John of the Cross' (1923) and `The love of God and the cross of Jesus', Rome, 1938.

    41. Idem: `La nouvelle théologie où va-t-elle?' [Where is the new theology leading us?], Angelicum, XXIII, Jul.-Dec. 1946, pp. 126-145.

    42. Kurt Friedrich Gödel: `The modern development of the foundations of mathematics in the light of philosophy', MS (Archive item 040411.5), 1961. Translated by Eckehart Köhler and Hao Wang and revised by John Dawson, Charles Parsons, and William Craig. Published: `Kurt Gödel, Collected Works, Volume III: Unpublished Essays and Lectures', Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 1995, pp. 374-387.

    43. Idem: `My philosophical viewpoint', MS, c. 1960. Published: Hao Wang: Section 9.4: `The meaning of the world: monadology and rationalistic optimism' in Chapter IX: `Gödel's approach to philosophy' of `A logical journey: from Gödel to philosophy', The MIT Press, Cambridge, USA, 1996, p. 316.

    44. Idem: `Ontological proof', MS (Archive item 060566), 10th February 1970. Published: `Kurt Gödel, Collected Works, Volume III: Unpublished Essays and Lectures', Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 1995, pp. 403-404.

    45. Sarvepalli Gopal: `Jawaharlal Nehru: a biography', 3 volumes, Oxford University Press, 1984.

    46. Antonio de Gouvea, O. S. A. (1575 - † 1628): `Jornada do Arcebispo de Goa Dom Frey Aleixo de Menezes Primaz da India Oriental, religioso da Ordem de S. Agostinho. Quando foy as Serras do Malabar, & lugares em que morao os antigos Christaos de S. Thome, & os tirou de muytos erros & heregias em que estauao, & reduzio a nossa Sancta Fe Catholica, & obediencia da Santa Igreja Romana, da qual passaua de mil annos que estauao apartados' [The Journey of the Archbishop of Goa, Dom Frey Aleixo de Menezes, Primate of East India, Religious of the Order of St. Augustine. When he went to the Mountains of Malabar, & to places where inhabit the ancient Christians of St. Thomas, he brought them back from many errors & heresies in which they were found, & reduced them to our Holy Catholic Faith, & to the obedience of the Holy Roman Church, from which they had remained separated for a thousand years] (in Portuguese), Coimbra, Portugal, 1606. Written: 1603. Translated to English by Fr. Pius Malekandathil, Liturgical Research Centre, Mount St. Thomas, Ernakulam, India, 2003.

    47. Idem: `Synodo Diocesano da Igreja e bispado de Angamale dos antigos Christaos de Sam Thome das Serras do Malabar das partes da India Oriental' [A Diocesan Synod of the Church and bishoprick of Angamale belonging to the ancient Christians of St. Thomas in the Mountains of Malabar] (in Portuguese), Coimbra, Portugal, 1606. Published as an appendix to the preceding. Translated to English by Michael Geddes: `The Acts and Decrees of the Synod of Diamper', in "The History of the Church of Malabar, from the time of its being first discovered by the `Portuguezes' in the year 1501. Giving an account of the persecutions and violent methods of the Roman Prelates to reduce them to the subjection of the Church of Rome. Together with the Synod of Diamper celebrated in the year of Our Lord 1599. With some remarks upon the faith and doctrine of the Christians of St. Thomas in the Indies agreeing with the Church of England in opposition to that of Rome", Smith and Waldorf, London, England, 1694.

    48. St. Gregory PP. I the Great: `Pastoral rule'; `Epistles'; `The life of our Most Holy Father St. Benedict'. cf. also St. Pius PP. X (Giuseppe Sarto): `Iucunda sane', 12th March 1904.

    49. Hermann Gundert: `Translation and analysis of the ancient documents engraved on Copper in possession of the Syrian Christians and Jews of Malabar': Parts I, II, Madras Journal of Literature and Science, vol. XIII, Madras, British India, 1844/45, pp. 18-45, 115-146. Concerns (1) the copper plate from Perumal Vira Raghava to Iravi Corttan of Mahadevarpattanam granting him the principality of Manigramam and elevating him as the sovereign merchant of the Cheraman kingdom (double sided in old Tamil and Grantham); (2) the five copper plates from Maruwan Sapir Iso, in the time of Perumal Sthanu Ravi Gupta, with the concurrence of the Palace major Vyaraka Devar and the Venadu king Ayyan Atikal, to the Tarisapalli church (built by Isodata Virai of Curakkeni Kollam) and community granting them a tract of land near the sea shore together with families from certain heathen castes, and appointing the Anjuwannam (Jewish) and Manigramam (Syrian) dynasties as joint trustees (double sided in Tamil, Malayalam, and Kufic); (3) the two copper plates from Perumal Bhaskara Ravi Varma to Joseph Rabban granting him the principality of Anjuwannam and 72 privileges, attested by the rulers of Venadu, Venavali, Erala, Valluwa, Nedumpurayur, the Eastern army, and Tellicherry (in Tamil and Malayalam).

    50. Johann Ernst Hanxleden, S. J. [അര്‍ണ്ണോസു് പാതിരി]: `Arte Malabar', P. V. Ulahannan Mappillai (Ed.), St. Joseph's Book Stall, Changanacherry, India, July, 1993.

    51. Henri Hosten, S. J.: `Antiquities from San Thomé and Mylapore, the traditional site of martyrdom and tomb of the Apostle Thomas', Madras, British India, 1936.

    52. I. C. Chacko, Illiparambil: `മാര്‍ ളൂയീസ് പഴേപറമ്പില്‍: ജീവിതവും കാലവും' [Mar Louis Pazheparambil: life and times] (in Malayalam), M. M. Varkey, Mookkenchery (Ed.), Trivandrum, Kingdom of Travancore, 1937.

    53. Idem: `क्रिस्तुसहस्रनामं' [The thousand-fold names of Christ] (in Sanskrit), 1914.

    54. Idem: `കൃഷിവിഷയങ്ങള്‍' [Farming matters], 1940.

    55. Joseph the Indian: `The Narrative', MS c. 1500. Published: Antony Vallavanthara, T. O. C. D. (Ed.), Research Institute for Studies in History, Mannanam, India, 1984.

    56. A. Padmanabha Iyer: `Souvenir of the Sashtiabdapurthi of Sachivothama Sir C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar, K. C. I. E., Ll. D., Dewan of Travancore', A. R. V. press, Trivandrum, Kingdom of Travancore, 1940.

    57. St. Jerome of Stridon: `Letters'; `De viris illustribus'. cf. also Benedict PP. XV (Giacomo della Chiesa): `Spiritus paraclitus' [Encyclical on St. Jerome of Stridon], 15th September 1920.

    58. Henri Josson, S. J.: `Le Père Sylvain Grosjean de la Compagnie de Jésus: un chef de mission aux Indes' (in French), Museum Lessianum, Louvain, Belgium, 1935.

    59. K. C. Chacko, Kadankavil: `Sr. Alphonsa', Trivandrum, Travancore-Cochin, India, 1949.

    60. Mar James Kalacherry: `Pastoral letter no. 123 on the beginning of state socialism in Travancore', 15th August 1945; Vedaprachara madhyasthan, Sep. - Oct. 1945; reprinted: Mar Louis Memorial Press, 1945.

    61. Cyriac Kandathil: `വിശുദ്ധ ആഗസ്തീനോസ്' [St. Augustine] (in Malayalam), with an introduction by Kottarathil Sankunni, Mar Louis Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 1926. Dedicated to Mar Augustine Kandathil on the occasion of his sacerdotal silver jubilee.

    62. Idem: `മര്‍ദ്ദനം നമ്മെ പിന്തിരിപ്പിക്കുമോ?' [Will beatings make us retreat?] (in Malayalam), Kottayam, Kingdom of Travancore, 1945.

    63. Mar Augustine Kandathil: `നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle], MS in the possession of the Archdiocese of Ernakulam. Unpublished. [Parecattil 1987, p. 18]

    64. Idem: `മഹാവന്ദ്യ ദിവ്യശ്രീ മലങ്കരയുടെ മാര്‍ ആഗസ്തീനോസ് മെത്രാപ്പോലീത്താ തിരുമേനിയുടെ ആശീര്‍വാദം' [Benediction of the Metropolitan Most Rev. Mar Augustine of Malankara] (in Malayalam), Statement on the epic-poem [Kattakayam 1926], Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 19th February 1926.

    65. Idem: `Letter to Mgr. Eugène Card. Tisserant', 6th June 1955. Published: `Chaldæan liturgy not to be restored', Ernakulam Missam, XLIII (6), June 1973, pp. 63-73.

    66. Mar Joseph Kariattil: `Noticias do Reino do Malabar' [Information concerning the Kingdom of Malabar] (in Portuguese), MS at Bibliotheca National (Lisbon), Fundo Geral 536, ff. 1-29. Translated to English by Mgr. Michael Arattukulam.

      `During the period we remained under Padre Cajetan the Malpan wrote in Portuguese a brief, orderly, and clear treatise on all that had happened in our country regarding the faith from the time of the Apostle St. Thomas until the present day. In it he described how the Paulists began the mission there and what things they had done, how the Carmelites came and what they had done and are doing, how we started from Malabar by the order of the Malabar Church Assembly and what our experiences had been in Rome. We will append this treatise to the end of this book for the sake of those who may desire to read it.' [Paremmakkal 1936, Chapter LXI] The treatise is, however, not found with the MS.

    67. Idem: `വേദതര്‍ക്കം' [Dialectics on Theology] (in Malayalam), MS written at Alangad, 1768, in the possession of P. J. Thomas, Parakunnel. Unpublished. [Parakunnel 1935, Chapter XI]

    68. Idem: `ഇടയലേഖനം' [Pastoral letter] (in Latin and Malayalam), MS written at Lisbon, 1785. Published: Ernakulam Missam, XXXI (4), April 1961.

      `By the law of nature we were bound to expose our reasons and defend our honour against what our enemies spoke against us. So the Archbishop without much delay wrote a pastoral in Latin succinctly and reasonably dealing with the essentials of our faith. It was translated into Malayalam. Two copies were prepared in book form with gilt edges. On one page was the Latin original and on the opposite page its Malayalam translation. One copy was presented in homage to the King. ... Thus were confounded the wicked who went about saying our Archbishop was an ignorant man. All the learned appreciated the pastoral. ... The translation of the pastoral will be given at the end of this book.' [Paremmakkal 1936, Chapter LXXI] The translation is, however, not found with the MS.

    69. Ludmiła Karpowiczowa: Władysław Michał Bonifacy Zaleski, Słownik biologów polskich [A portrait of Władysław Michał Zaleski on the background of his botanical interests] (in Polish), Warsaw, Poland, 1987.

    70. Kattakayam Cherian Mappillai: `ശ്രീയേശുവിജയം' [Shreeyaeshu vijayam; The Victory of Lord Jesus; Poem narrating the complete Bible from the Genesis to the New Testament, and the history of early Christianity up to the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Great] (in Malayalam), composed 1911-1926, Palai, Kingdom of Travancore. Reprinted in `കട്ടക്കയം കൃതികള്‍' [The Works of Kattakayam] (in Malayalam), Carmel Publishing House, Trivandrum, India, 1988. cf. also [Kandathil 1926].

    71. Idem: `മാര്‍ തോമ്മാ ചരിതം' [Mar Thoma Charitham], (Poem in Malayalam), adapted from the `Acta Thomæ' (apocryphal), 1908. Reprinted in `കട്ടക്കയം കൃതികള്‍' [The Works of Kattakayam] (in Malayalam), Carmel Publishing House, Trivandrum, India, 1988.

    72. Idem: `വില്ലാള്‍വെട്ടം' [Villalvettam] (Play in Malayalam), 1894. Reprinted in `കട്ടക്കയം കൃതികള്‍' [The Works of Kattakayam] (in Malayalam), Carmel Publishing House, Trivandrum, India, 1988.

    73. Idem: `മാത്തുതരകന്‍' [Matthoo Tharakan] (Poem in Malayalam), 1924. Reprinted in `കട്ടക്കയം കൃതികള്‍' [The Works of Kattakayam] (in Malayalam), Carmel Publishing House, Trivandrum, India, 1988.

    74. Hugh Kay: `Salazar and Modern Portugal', Hawthorn books, New York, USA, 1970.

    75. Thomas Hämerken à Kempis [von Kempen], B. C. L.: `De imitatione Christi' [The imitation of Christ], c. 1418. Project Gutenberg. Another translation.

    76. K. R. Narayanan, Kocheril (4th February 1921 [27th October 1920] - 9th November 2005): `Midnight address to the nation by the President of India on the golden jubilee of Indian independence', New Delhi, India, 15th August 1997; `Address on the golden jubilee of the republic'; `Speech by the President of India while accepting credentials from the Apostolic Nuncio-Designate of the Holy See to India', New Delhi, India, 30th August 1999; `Letter on the burning alive of Graham S. Staines and his two minor sons', New Delhi, India, 24th January 1999; `Dalit Hindu or Christian?', Rediff, Jul. 1997; `From demon to god', Frontline, Nov. 1997; `Interview with K. R. Gowri and K. R. Bhaskaran', Rediff, Jul. 1997; `Interview with K. R. Narayanan', Maanavasamskruthi [മാനവസംസ്കൃതി], I(8), February 2005 (in Malayalam) in which K. R. Narayanan accused the A. B. Vajpayee Government of complicity in the 2002 Gujarat riots (by P. T. Thomas, Puthiyaparambil, the then Congress legislator from Thodupuzha in the Kerala Legislature); `Inaugural address'; `Address to Parliament on the golden jubilee of the republic'; `Speech on the visit of the US President'; `Speech on the inauguration of the Kerala Legislature Complex'; `Farewell address'; `A tribute to K. R. Narayanan' (V. B. Rawat); 34, Prithviraj Road, New Delhi.

    77. Mgr. Clement Jose Colocao Leita, S. J.: `Ad limina report' (in Latin), describing the martyrdom of Devasahayam Pillai, Angengo [അഞ്ചു്തെങ്ങു്], Kingdom of Travancore, 15th November 1756. MS at S. Congr. Concilii Relationes, 237, ff. 53-74. Translated to English by Fr. I. Kulandaiswamy and Fr. A. Gabriel, and revised by George Nedungatt, S. J.

    78. St. Leo PP. I the Great: `Sermons'; `Epistles'.

    79. Leo PP. X (Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici): `Exsurge Domine' [Bull condemning the errors of Martin Luther], 15th June 1520; `Decet Romanum pontificem' [Bull condemning and excommunicating Martin Luther the heretic and his followers], 3rd January 1521.

    80. Leo PP. XIII (Gioacchino Pecci): `Quæ rei sacræ' [Bull erecting the Vicariates-Apostolic of Trichur, Ernakulam, and Changanacherry], 28th July 1896.

    81. Idem: `Humanæ salutis auctor' [Bull establishing the Latin Hierarchy of India], 1st September 1886.

    82. Idem: `Ad extremas' [Encyclical on seminaries for native clergy], 24th June 1893.

    83. Idem: `Fin dal principio', 8th December 1902; `Paternæ', 18th September 1899; `Depuis le jour', 8th September 1899. [Encyclicals on the education of clergy]

    84. Idem: `Annum sacrum' [Encyclical on the consecration of the world to the most Sacred Heart of Jesus], 25th May 1899. Prayer.

    85. Idem: `Æterni patris' [Encyclical on the restoration of Christian philosophy], 4th August 1879.

    86. Idem: `The pope and the people: select letters and addresses on social questions', Catholic truth society, London, England, 1903. `Rerum novarum' [Encyclical on capital, labour, and the condition of the working classes], 15th May 1891; `Inscrutabili Dei consilio' [Encyclical on the evils affecting modern society], 21st April 1878; `Immortale Dei' [Encyclical on the Christian constitution of states], 1st November 1885; `Sapientiæ Christianæ' [Encyclical on the chief duties of Christians as citizens], 10th January 1890; `Libertas præstantissimum' [Encyclical on the nature of human liberty], 20th June 1888; `Arcanum divinæ' [Encyclical on Christian marriage], 10th February 1880; `Exeunte iam anno' [Encyclical on the right ordering of Christian life], 25th December 1888; `Quod apostolici muneris' [Encyclical on modern errors such as Socialism], 28th December 1878; `Graves de communi re' [Encyclical on Christian democracy], 18th January 1901; `Diuturnum' [Encyclical on the origin of civil power], 29th June 1881.

    87. Idem: `Præclara gratulationis publicæ' [Apostolic letter on the reünion of Christendom], 20th June 1894.

    88. Idem: `Satis cognitum' [Encyclical on the unity of the Church], 29th June 1896.

    89. Idem: `Testem benevolentiæ nostræ' [Encyclical concerning new opinions, virtue, nature, and grace, with regard to Americanism], 22nd January 1899; `Longinqua oceani' [Encyclical on Catholicism in the United States], 6th January 1895; cf. also Pius PP. XII (Eugenio Pacelli): `Sertum lætitiæ' [Encyclical on the hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of the hierarchy in the United States ], 1st November 1939.

    90. Idem: `Miræ caritatis' [Encyclical on the Holy Eucharist], 28th May 1902.

    91. Idem: `Quamquam pluries' [Encyclical on devotion to St. Joseph], 15th August 1889.

    92. Idem: `Orientalium dignitas' [Encyclical on the Churches of the East], 30th November 1894.

    93. Mar Matthew Makil: `ദെക്രത്ത് പുസ്തകം' [The book of decreta/decrees] (in Malayalam), Changanacherry, Kingdom of Travancore, 1902.

    94. Idem: `ക്രിസ്തീയ വേദോപദേശ സംക്ഷേപം' [A summary of Christian catechism] (in Malayalam), Changanacherry, Kingdom of Travancore, 1909.

    95. Maliekal Thoma Ramban: `തോമ്മാ പര്‍വ്വം' [Thoma parvam] / `റമ്പാന്‍ പാട്ടു്' [Ramban paattu] (in Malayalam), Niranam, 1601. Published: Bernard Alenchery of St. Thomas, T. O. C. D.: `മാര്‍ തോമ്മാ ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികള്‍' [St. Thomas Christians], Vol. I, Palai, Kingdom of Travancore, 1916. Translated to English by Henri Hosten, S. J.: `The Song of Thomas Ramban', Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 1931. Translated to Italian by Francis Xavier Rocca, S. J.: `La leggenda di S. Tommaso Apostolo. Canto popolare del Malabar' [The legend of St. Thomas the Apostle: popular songs in Malabar], Orientalia Christiana, vol. XXXII / n. 89, pp. 168-179, Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Piazza della Pilotta, 35, Rome 1, Italy, 1933. cf. also [Parakunnel 1935, Chapter IV]

      `Lately, ..., I came across a very old manuscript history in Malayalam verse on the life and labours of St. Thomas in South India. Therein it was declared that it was the epitome of a very ancient and original work written by Thomas Maliekal, a Syrian priest, who was the third in succession from St. Thomas, and that the abridgement was made by another Thomas, the father of a priest of the same family who was forty-eighth in descent from the Apostle.' [Panjikaran 1912, p. 5]

    96. Mangalath Chandy Malpan: `നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle] (in Malayalam), MS. Unpublished.

    97. Mgr. Matthew J. Mankuzhikary: `ആധ്യാത്മിക ജീവിതം' [The life of the spirit] (in Malayalam), 2 Volumes, Mar Louis Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, India, 1956.

    98. Grace Therattil née Mankuzhikary: `കൊച്ചാങ്ങളയും കൊച്ചുപിതാവും' [The little brother, the little bishop] (reminiscences of her brother Mar. Sebastian Mankuzhikary) (in Malayalam), June 2008.

    99. Mgr. Horace K. Mann: `The Lives of the Popes in the early middle ages', beginning from the coronation of St. Gregory PP. I the Great (590) and finishing with the death of Benedict PP. XI (1305), 18 Volumes, Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London, England, 1902-1932.

    100. A. Philipose, Maret: `The Apostolic origin and early history of the Syrian Church of Malabar'; A historical dissertation submitted for the Master of Arts Degree of the University of Madras; The Christian literature society, London, England, 1904. Also published in: Madras Christian College Magazine, III(4), pp. 547-558, 621-633, 662-675, April 1904.

    101. St. Marie-Françoise-Thérèse Martin of the Infant Jesus and the Holy Face, O. C. D. [St. Thérèse de Lisieux / The little flower]: `L'Histoire d'une Âme' [The story of a soul], Lisieux, France, 1898. Internet archive. Translated to Malayalam as `വിശുദ്ധ കൊച്ചുത്രേസ്യാ സ്വയംകൃതചരിത്രം' by Mgr. Thomas Moothedan.

    102. Fr. Joseph Mavumkal: `എറണാകുളം അതിരൂപതയും അതിന്റെ മെത്രാപ്പോലീത്തയും' [The Archdiocese of Ernakulam and its Metropolitan] (in Malayalam), Mar Louis Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 9th December 1936.

    103. Mgr. Adolph E. Medlycott: "India and the Apostle Thomas: an inquiry with a critical analysis of the `Acta Thomæ'", David Nutt, 57-59 Long acre, London, England, 1905. `Acta Thomæ' (apocryphal).

    104. Idem: `St. Thomas Christians', The Catholic Encyclopædia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic Church. The Encyclopædia press, New York, USA, 1913.

    105. Adriaan Moens, Julius van Gollenesse: `The Dutch in Malabar', Government Press, Madras, British India, 1911. Contains: Adriaan Moens: `Memorandum on the administration of the coast of Malabar', 18th April 1781, translated to English by P. Groot and A. Galletti; Julius van Gollenesse: `Memorandum on the administration of the coast of Malabar', 1748, translated to English by A. J. van der Burg and A. Galletti.

    106. M. M. Varkey, Mookkenchery: `The public service of Travancore and the Catholic claims', Trivandrum, Kingdom of Travancore, 1926.

    107. Idem: `ഓര്‍മ്മകളിലൂടെ' [Through memories] (in Malayalam), Sahithya Pravarthaka Coöperative Society, Kottayam, India, 1974.

    108. Mgr. Thomas Moothedan: `മാര്‍ അഗസ്റ്റിന്‍ കണ്ടത്തില്‍' [Mar Augustine Kandathil] (in Malayalam), Mar Louis Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, India, 1972.

    109. Idem: `വിശുദ്ധ ഗ്രന്ഥം' (in Malayalam), translation of the complete Bible based on the Vulgate and Peshitta manuscripts, Better life centre, Aloor, Irinjalakuda, 1963.

    110. Idem: `The Apostolate of St. Thomas in India', Eastern Churches Quarterly, IX(7), 1952, pp. 349-358.

    111. Emmanuel Muttathupadam, T. O. C. D. [ക. നി. മൂ. സ. Mani Kathanar]: `പുതിയ നിയമം' [The New Testament] (in Malayalam), translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible, St. Joseph's Press, Mannanam, Kingdom of Travancore, 1938. `Ecclesiasticus' (1926), `Proverbs' (1928), `Tobit' (1941), `The four gospels' (1935), `പഞ്ചഗ്രന്ഥി' [Pentateuch] (in Malayalam).

    112. Mgr. Jacob Naduvathussery: `യുക്തിയില്‍ നിന്നു വിശ്വാസത്തിലേയ്ക്കു്' [From reason to faith] (in Malayalam), Mar Louis Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 1934.

    113. Idem: `ഫാദര്‍ ഡാമിയന്‍' [St. Damien Jozef de Veuster of Molokai, SS. CC.], Mar Louis Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 1937. [Robert Louis Stevenson: `Father Damien. An open letter to the Reverend Dr. Hyde of Honolulu', 25th February 1890, Sydney, Australia.]

    114. Idem: `നമ്മുടെ കര്‍ത്താവും രക്ഷകനും ആയ ഈശോ മിശിഹായുടെ പുതിയ നിയമം' [The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ] (in Malayalam), translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible (1956-1958), K. P. Ittyerah, 1962.

    115. Mgr. Thomas Nedumkallel, Jr.: `സ്മരണദര്‍പ്പണം' [Mirror of memories], 1978.

    116. M. O. Joseph, Nedumkunnam: `തച്ചില്‍ മാത്തു തരകന്‍' [Thachil Matthoo Tharakan] (in Malayalam), Kottayam, India, 1961.

    117. Jawaharlal Nehru: `Declaration on Purna swaraj [Complete Independence] at the 1929 Lahore session of the Indian National Congress, promulgated on 26th January 1930'; `Speech (ex tempore) on the eve of independence', `Message on the eve of independence', `First servant of the Indian people', New Delhi, India, 15th August 1947. [K. R. Narayanan, Kocheril: `Nehru's vision of India and the world', Nehru memorial lecture, 1997; Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, Teen Murti Bhavan, Teen Murti Marg, New Delhi]

    118. Origen Adamantius: `De principiis'; Commentary on the gospels of Matthew and John

    119. Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli, O. F. M.: `Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita' [Summary of arithmetic, geometry, and proportions] (in Latin), Venice, 1494. The parts on double-entry system of accountancy translated to English as part of `Ancient double-entry bookkeeping. Lucas Pacioli's treatise (A. D. 1494-- the earliest known writer on bookkeeping) reproduced and translated with reproductions, notes and abstracts from Manzoni, Pietra, Mainardi, Ympyn, Stevin and Dafforne' by John B. Geijsbeek, Denver, USA, 1914.

    120. Mgr. Clemente Pagnani, O. S. B.: `First notions of logic, metaphysics, and ethics', Colombo, Ceylon, 1891.

    121. Mgr. Joseph C. Panjikaran: `The Syrian Church in Malabar'; A historical dissertation submitted for the Master of Arts Degree of the University of Madras; Br. Joseph, S. J., Superintendent, St. Joseph's Industrial School Press, Trichinopoly, British India, 1912. Reprinted with a few additions, 1914. Chapter I, `St. Thomas, the Apostle of India', pp. 3-12, published in The Tamilian antiquary, II(2), 1914, pp. 69-76.

    122. Idem: `Christianity in Malabar with special reference to the St. Thomas Christians of the Syro-Malabar Rite', Orientalia Christiana, vol. VI(2) / n. 23, pp. 89-136, Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Piazza della Pilotta, 35, Rome 1, Italy, April 1926.

      `The present Holy Father, Pope Pius XI, restored the Hierarchy of the St. Thomas Christians in 1923. The pamphlet is dedicated to the newly-created Syro-Malabar Bishops, specially to the Most Rev. Mar Augustine Kandathil, Archbishop of Ernakulam and Metropolitan of the St. Thomas Christians.' [p. 95]

    123. Idem: `L'entrée des éveques Jacobites de l'Inde dans l'obédience du Pape' [The entry of the Jacobite bishops of India into communion with the Pope] (in French), Missions Catholiques, 1930, pp. 534-535.

    124. P. J. Thomas, Parakunnel: `മലയാള സാഹിത്യവും ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികളും' [Malayalam literature and Christians] (in Malayalam), Second edition, Sahithya Pravarthaka Coöperative Society, Kottayam, India, 1961. First edition: St. Mary's Press, Athirampuzha, Kingdom of Travancore, 1935.

    125. Idem: `St. Thomas the Apostle: A souvenir of the 19th century of his arrival in India', Ernakulam, India, 1952. cf. also [Chunkath 1952]

    126. Geevarghese Parappuram of St. John the Baptist, T. O. C. D. (1835 - 1859 - 28 May 1908): `നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle] (in Malayalam), MSS 32/B/17/2112 and 32/B/18/2113, c. 1902-1905 at St. Joseph's Monastery, Mannanam, Kingdom of Travancore. Unpublished.

    127. Mar Joseph Card. Parecattil: `Syro-Malabar Liturgy as I see it', Abel Periyappuram, T. O. C. D. (Ed.), Ernakulam, India, 1987.

    128. Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar: `വര്‍ത്തമാനപ്പുസ്തകം' [The Book of Chronicles] (in Malayalam), Luke Matthai Plathottathil (Ed.), St. Mary's Press, Athirampuzha, Kingdom of Travancore, 1936. Written c. 1778-1786. Original MS held by Parayil family and presently at St. Thomas Christian Museum, Mount St. Thomas, Ernakulam, India. First published in 1936 from the MS copy of the original written at Athirampuzha by Paremmakkal Matthai Kathanar, 1903. Translated to English after consulting another MS copy written in 1902 at Sacred Heart Monastery, Chethipuzha, by Placid Podipara of St. Joseph, T. O. C. D., `The Varthamanappusthakam. An account of the history of the Malabar Church between the years 1773 and 1786', Orientalia Christiana Analecta, n. 190, Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Rome, Italy, 1971. Republished in Modern Malayalam by Matthew Ulakamthara, D. C. Books, Kottayam, India, 1983.

      `During the regime of the indigenous Prelates the Varthamanapusthakam began to make its appearance publicly... On March 26, 1936, the body of the author was exhumed and the remains were taken out and deposited in the wall of the sanctuary of the church where they lay buried. The Metropolitan of Ernakulam with his two suffragans performed this moving ceremony. The meeting that followed was presided over by the Metropolitan, Mar Augustine Kandathil; the above mentioned suffragans, Mar James Kalacherry of Changanacherry, the local Hierarch, and Mar Alexander Choolaparambil of Kottayam assisted at it. Mar Francis Vazhapilly of Trichur could not be present on the occasion. Paremmakkal and the Varthamanapusthakam were the themes dealt with by the president and the speakers. The present writer had the privilege of being one of the speakers. The printing of the book was not completed for the occasion. A little after, it was published by St. Mary's Press, Athirampuzha... Mr. Luke Matthai Plathottathil was the publisher.' Section IV `The vicissitudes of the book' of translator's Introduction, pp. 25-26.

    129. Mar Aloysius Pareparambil (Louis Pazheparambil): `An account of a very important period of the history of the Catholic Syrians of Malabar', Chacko Matthen Paremparambil (Ed.), Puthenpally, Kingdom of Cochin, 1920.

    130. Ludwig Freiherr von Pastor-Camperfelden: `The History of the Popes from the close of the middle ages', drawn from the secret archives of the Vatican and other original sources, beginning from the coronation of Clement PP. V (1305) and finishing with the death of Pius PP. VI (1799), Herder and Co., Freiburg, Baden, 1886-1930; translated to English by Frederick Antrobus, C. O. (vol. 1-6), Ralph F. Kerr, C. O. (vol. 7-24), Ernest Graf, O. S. B. (vol. 25-34), and E. F. Peeler (vol. 35-40), Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London, England, 1891-1953.

    131. John P. Pinamonti, S. J.: `The Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary' [Il sacro cuore di Maria Vergine], Florence, 1699.

    132. St. Pius PP. V (Michele Antonio Ghisleri, O. P.): `The Catechism of the Council of Trent', Rome, 1566. Translated to English by Fr. J. Donovan, Lucas Brothers, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 1829.

    133. Pius PP. IX (Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti): `Quæ in patriarchatu' [Encyclical on the Church in Chaldæa and discontent among the St. Thomas Christians], 16th November 1872.

    134. Idem: `Ineffabilis deus' [Apostolic constitution defining the dogma of the Immaculate conception], 8th December 1854. cf. also St. Pius PP. X (Giuseppe Sarto): `Ad Diem illum lætissimum' [Encyclical on the Immaculate conception], 2nd February 1904; Pius PP. XII (Eugenio Pacelli): `Fulgens corona' [Encyclical proclaiming a Marian year to commemorate the centenary of the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate conception], 8th September 1953; St. Maximilian Mary Raymond Kolbe, O. F. M. Conv.: `Prayer of Consecration to the Immaculate conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary'

    135. Idem: `The decrees of the Vatican council', Vincent McNabb, O. P. (Ed.), Burns & Oates, London, England, 1907.

    136. Idem: `Quanta cura' [Encyclical condemning current errors], `The syllabus of errors', 8th December 1864.

    137. Idem: `Qui pluribus' [Encyclical on faith and religion], 9th November 1846.

    138. Idem: `Nostis et nobiscum' [Encyclical on the church in the Papal states], 8th December 1849.

    139. Idem: `Respicientes' [Encyclical protesting the taking of the Papal states], 1st November 1870.

    140. St. Pius PP. X (Giuseppe Sarto): `In universi cristiani' [Bull erecting the Vicariate-Apostolic of Kottayam for the Southist [തെക്കുംഭാഗര്‍ / Suddhist / Knanaya] Christians], 29th August 1911.

    141. Idem: `The Catechism of Christian Doctrine', Rome, 1904. Translated to English by Mgr. John Hagan, Dublin, Ireland, 1911. cf. also Pius PP. XII (Eugenio Pacelli): `Si diligis' [Allocution on the canonisation of St. Pius PP. X], 31st May 1954.

    142. Idem: `Acerbo nimis' [Encyclical on teaching Christian doctrine], 15th April 1905; `Lamentabili sane exitu' [Syllabus condemning the errors of the modernists], 3rd July 1907; `Pascendi dominici gregis' [Encyclical on the doctrines of the modernists], 8th September 1907; `Sacrorum Antistitum' [The oath against modernism], 1st September 1910; `Doctoris angelici' [To encourage the study of the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas in Catholic schools], 29th June 1914; Decree of approval of some theses contained in the doctrine of St. Thomas Aquinas and proposed to the teachers of philosophy, 27th July 1914.

    143. Idem: `Hærent animo' [Apostolic exhortation on priestly sanctity], 4th August 1908.

    144. Idem: `Tra le Sollecitudini' [Instruction on sacred music], 22nd November 1903.

    145. Idem: `E supremi' [Encyclical on the restoration of all things in Christ], 4th October 1903.

    146. Pius PP. XI (Achille Ratti): `Romani pontifices' [Bull establishing the Hierarchy of the St. Thomas Christians (Syro-Malabar Hierarchy) on 21st December 1923], Acta apostolicæ sedis, vol. 16, 1924, pp. 257-262.

    147. Idem: `Quas primas' [Encyclical on the feast of Christ the King], 11th December 1925; Miserentissimus redemptor [Encyclical on the reparation to the most Sacred Heart of Jesus], 8th May 1928; Caritate Christi compulsi [Encyclical on the most Sacred Heart of Jesus], 3rd May 1932.

    148. Idem: `Homily on the canonisation of St. Thérèse de Lisieux', 17th May 1925.

    149. Idem: `Christo pastorum principi' [Bull establishing the Syro-Malankara Hierarchy on 11th June 1932], Acta apostolicæ sedis, vol. 24, 1932, pp. 289-292.

    150. Idem: `Non abbiamo bisogno' [Encyclical on Catholic action], 29th June 1931.

    151. Idem: `Divini illius Magistri' [Encyclical on Christian education], 31st December 1929.

    152. Idem: `Casti connubii' [Encyclical on Christian marriage], 31st December 1930.

    153. Idem: `Quadragesimo anno' [Encyclical on the reconstruction of the social order], 15th May 1931.

    154. Idem: `Divini redemptoris' [Encyclical on atheistic communism], 19th March 1937.

    155. Idem: `Mit brennender sorge' [Encyclical on the Church and the German reich], 14th March 1937.

    156. Idem: `Dilectissima nobis' [Encyclical on oppression of the Church of Spain], 3rd June 1933.

    157. Idem: `Mortalium animos' [Encyclical on religious unity], 6th January 1928.

    158. Pius PP. XII (Eugenio Pacelli): `Nuntius radiophonicus' [Radio message of 31st December 1952 on the occasion of the nineteenth centennial jubilee of the arrival of St. Thomas the Apostle at Cranganore], Acta apostolicæ sedis, vol. 45, 1953, pp. 96-99.

    159. Idem: `Quo ecclesiarum' [Bull erecting the Diocese of Palai], 25th July 1950.

    160. Idem: `Ad Christi ecclesiam regendam' [Bull erecting the Diocese of Tellicherry with territory the same as the Latin Diocese of Calicut], 31st December 1953.

    161. Idem: `Multorum fidelium' (concerning the Diocese of Changanacherry); `Sæpe fidelium' (concerning the Diocese of Trichur); `Pro fidelium' (concerning the Diocese of Tellicherry); `Quæ Suddistica gens' (concerning the Diocese of Kottayam (Southist)) [Bulls extending the territory of the Hierarchy of the St. Thomas Christians (Syro-Malabar Hierarchy)], 29th April 1955.

    162. Idem: `Haurietis aquas' [Encyclical on the devotion to the most Sacred Heart of Jesus], 15th May 1956.

    163. Idem: `Munificentissimus deus' [Apostolic constitution defining the dogma of the Assumption], 1st November 1950; `Deiparæ virginis mariæ' [Encyclical on the possibility of defining the Assumption], 1st May 1946.

    164. Idem: `Sacro vergente anno'/`Carissimis Russiæ populis' [Apostolic letter on the consecration of Russia to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary], 7th July 1952. Prayer of Consecration of mankind to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary (originally in Portuguese), 13th October 1942; repeated on 8th December 1942.

    165. Idem: `Ad cæli reginam' [Encyclical on proclaiming the Queenship of Mary], 11th October 1954.

    166. Idem: `Le Pelerinage de Lourdes' [Encyclical warning against materialism on the centenary of the apparitions at Lourdes], 2nd July 1957.

    167. Idem: `Anni sacri' [Encyclical on a program for combatting atheistic propaganda throughout the world], 12th March 1950.

    168. Idem: `Humani generis' [Encyclical concerning some false opinions threatening to undermine the foundations of Catholic doctrine], 12th August 1950.

    169. Idem: `Orientalis ecclesiæ' [Encyclical on St. Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria], 9th April 1944.

    170. Idem: `Sempiternus rex Christus' [Encyclical on the Council of Chalcedon], 8th September 1951.

    171. Idem: `Communium interpretes dolorum' [Encyclical appealing for prayers for peace during May], 15th April 1945.

    172. Idem: `Sæculo exeunte octavo' [Encyclical on the eighth centenary of the independence of Portugal], 13th June 1940.

    173. Idem: `Luctuosissimi eventus' [Encyclical urging public prayers for peace and freedom for the people of Hungary], 28th October 1956; `Lætamur admodum' [Encyclical renewing exhortation for prayers for peace for Poland, Hungary, and the Middle East], 1st November 1956; `Datis nuperrime' [Encyclical lamenting the sorrowful events in Hungary and condemning the ruthless use of force], 5th November 1956.

    174. Idem: `Orientales omnes ecclesias' [Encyclical on the Ruthenian (Ukrainian) Church], 23rd December 1945; `Orientales ecclesias' [Encyclical on the persecuted Eastern Church], 15th December 1952.

    175. Idem: `Invicti athletæ' [Encyclical on St. Andrew Bobola of Poland], 16th May 1947.

    176. Idem: `Ad Sinarum gentem' [Encyclical on the supranationality of the Church], 29th June 1954; `Ad apostolorum principis' [Encyclical on communism and the Church in China], 29th June 1958.

    177. Idem: `Mystici corporis Christi' [Encyclical on the mystical body of Christ], 29th June 1943.

    178. Idem: `Mediator Dei' [Encyclical on the Sacred liturgy], 20th November 1947; `Musicae sacrae' [Encyclical on sacred music], 25th December 1955; `Christus Dominus' [On the discipline to be observed with respect to the Eucharistic fast], 6th January 1953; `Sacram communionem' [On laws of fasting and the evening mass], 19th March 1957.

    179. Idem: `The proofs for the existence of God in the light of modern natural science', 22nd November 1951 [Variant translation]; `On God, the universe, and man', 30th November 1941; `On natural philosophy', 24th April 1955.

    180. Idem: `On midwifery', 29th October 1951; `The moral limits of medical research and treatment', 14th September 1952; `On psychotherapy and religion', 13th April 1953; `Applied psychology', 10th April 1958.

    181. Idem: `Counsel to teaching sisters', 15th September 1951.

    182. Idem: `Exsul familia Nazarethana' [Apostolic constitution on migrants], 1st August 1952.

    183. Idem: `The internal order of states and people', 25th December 1942; `On democracy and a lasting peace', 25th December 1944.

    184. Idem: `The states of perfection', 12th December 1957.

    185. Idem: `Miranda prorsus' [Encyclical on motion pictures, radio, and television], 8th September 1957; `Exhortations to representatives of the cinema world', 21st June 1955.

    186. Idem: `Sacra virginitas' [Encyclical on consecrated virginity], 25th March 1954; `To seminarians', 24th June 1939; `Menti nostræ' [Apostolic exhortation on the development of holiness in priestly life], 23rd September 1950.

    187. Idem: `Ci riesce' [Address to jurists on the problems of religious liberty], 6th December 1953.

    188. Idem: `Guiding principles of the lay apostolate', 5th October 1957.

    189. Idem: `To fathers of families', 18th September 1951.

    190. Idem: `The woman of today', 11th September 1947.

    191. Idem: `The function of art', 8th April 1952.

    192. Idem: `On rural life', 15th November 1946.

    193. Idem: `On bees', 27th November 1948.

    194. Idem: `Meminisse iuvat' [Encyclical on prayers for the persecuted church], 14th July 1958.

    195. Idem: `The Pope speaks: the worlds of Pius XII', Charles Rankin (Ed.), New York, USA, 1940.

    196. Idem: `Guide for living: an approved selection of letters and addresses of His Holiness Pope Pius XII', Maurice Quinlan (Ed.), New York, USA, 1960.

    197. Idem: `Last testament', 15th May 1956; published posthumously.

    198. P. T. Chacko, Pullolil: `സര്‍ സി. പി.-യ്ക്കു് ഒരു് തുറന്ന കത്തു്' [An open letter to Sir C. P.] (in Malayalam), Kottayam, Kingdom of Travancore, 1945.

    199. Artist P. J. Cherian, Puthanangady: `എന്റെ കലാജീവിതം' [My life in art] (in Malayalam), Kottayam, India, 1964.

    200. Idem: `Nirmala' [Immaculate / നിര്‍മ്മല] (in Malayalam); Direction: P. V. Krishna Iyer; Screenplay: Puthezhathu Raman Menon; Story: M. S. Jacob; Lyrics: G. Sankara Kurup; Producer: Artist P. J. Cherian, Kerala talkies; Music: E. I. Warrier, P. S. Divakar; Baby Joseph (debut) as Nirmala, Joseph Cherian Puthanangady (debut) as Raghu, Gracy Davis, Vimala B. Varma as Lalitha, Cherthala Vasudeva Kurup, Kumari Radha; Cinematography: J. G. Vijayam, G. Ranganathan; Editor: Balu; Sound recording: K. B. S. Mani, S. Padmanabhan; Singers: T. K. Govinda Rao, Sarojini Menon, Vasudeva Kurup, P. Leela (debut), Vimala B. Varma, P. K. Raghavan; film, 1948.

    201. P. U. Lucas, Puthenpurackal: `മലയാളത്തെ സുറിയാനി ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികളുടെ പുരാതന പാട്ടുകള്‍' [The ancient songs of the Syrian Christians of Malayalam] (in Malayalam), Catholic Mission Press, Kottayam, Kingdom of Travancore, March 1910. Reprinted: Jyothi Book House, Kottayam, India, 1980.

      `പുരാതന പാട്ടുകളെ സംഗ്രഹിച്ചു് അറിയേണ്ടുന്നവയായ അനേക സംഗതികളേയും പ്രതിപാദിച്ചു് ഈ വിധം എത്രയും മനോഹരമായ ഒരു് പുസ്തകം പ്രസിദ്ധപ്പെടുത്തുന്നതില്‍ ചെയ്തിട്ടുള്ള വിലമതിക്കത്തക്കതല്ലാത്ത പരിശ്രമത്തെ ലോകത്തിലെ പ്രാചീന വൃത്താന്തങ്ങളില്‍ ശ്രദ്ധാലുക്കളായ സഹൃദയന്മാരെല്ലാവരും ഐകകണ്‍ഠ്യേന അഭിനന്ദിക്കുന്നതാണെന്നുള്ളതിനു് സംശയമില്ല. പ്രസാധകന്റെ ശ്ളാഘ്യമായ ഈ പരിശ്രമം കേവലം സുറിയാനി ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികളാല്‍ മാത്രമല്ല മലയാളദേശത്തിലെ പൂര്‍വ്വചരിത്രത്തെക്കുറിച്ചു് ശ്രദ്ധിക്കുന്നവരായ സഹൃദയന്മാരാല്‍ എല്ലാവരാലും വേണ്ടുംവണ്ണം ആദരിക്കപ്പെടേണ്ടതാണെന്നും പറഞ്ഞുകൊണ്ടു് അധികവിസ്താരത്തില്‍ നിന്നും ഇപ്പോള്‍ വിരമിക്കുന്നു.' Kerala Varma Valiya Coil Thampuran, 25 തുലാം 1086 [1910].

    202. Lakshmi Raghunandan: `At the turn of the tide: the life and times of Maharani Setu Lakshmi Bayi, the last queen of Travancore', Maharani Setu Lakshmi Bayi Memorial Charitable Trust, Bangalore, 1995.

    203. Mgr. Francisco Ros, S. J.: `De Erroribus Nestorianorum qui in hac India Orientali Versantur' (in Latin), Irénée Hausherr, S. J. (Ed.), Orientalia Christiana, Vol. XI-1 / n. 40, Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Piazza della Pilotta, 35, Rome 1, Italy, 1928. Written: 1587.

    204. Idem: `ഉദിയംപേരൂര്‍ സൂനഹദോസിന്റെ കാനോനകള്‍' [The Canons of the Synod of Diamper] (in Malayalam), K. N. Daniel (Ed.), Tiruvalla, India, 1952. Written in 1599 by the Malayali priests of the Diocese of Cochin, under the direction of Mgr. Ros (cf. [de Gouvea 1606a, Book I, Chapter 17f.]). Published chiefly from the MS 6E9/299 of St. Joseph's Monastery, Mannanam, Travancore-Cochin, India. Republished after consulting another MS in K. N. D.'s collection, Scaria Zachariah (Ed.), Palai, India, 1994. Additional MSS Borg. Ind. 3, Borg. Ind. 21, Vat. Ind. 18, and Vat. Ind. 14-B, at the Vatican have never been consulted for publication.

    205. Idem: `Relacao da Serra' [Report on Malabar] (in Portuguese), British Library Additional MS, 9853, ff. 86-99v, dated 1604. Unpublished.

    206. Idem: `നമ്മുടെ മലങ്കര മാര്‍ തോമ്മാശ്ലീഹാ എടവകേടെ കല്‍പനകള്‍' [The Statutes of Our Malankara Mar Thoma Diocese] (in Malayalam), Fondo Borgiano Indiano n. 18. MS dated 16th May 1606. Discovered by Mar Jonas Thaliath, T. O. C. D. Published (pp. 111-177) along with [Ros 1599] as `രണ്ടു് പ്രാചീന ഗദ്യകൃതികള്‍' [Two ancient prose works], Scaria Zachariah (Ed.), Sandesanilayam, Changanacherry, India, 1976.

    207. St. Francis de Sales [François de Sales de Boisy]: `Introduction à la vie dévote' [Introduction to a devout life], France, 1619. cf. also Pius PP. XI (Achille Ratti): `Rerum omnium perturbationem' [Encyclical on St. Francis de Sales], 26th January 1923.

    208. Mgr. Joseph Sebastiani of St. Mary, O. C. D.: `Prima Speditione all' Indie Orientali' [First expedition to the East Indies] (in Latin), Rome, 1666.

    209. Idem: `Seconda Speditione all' Indie Orientali' [Second expedition to the East Indies] (in Latin), Rome, 1672.

    210. Vishwanath Pratap Singh [25th June 1931 - 27th November 2008]: `Statement to the press on the violence towards Christians in India', 1 Teen Murti Marg, New Delhi, India, 11th October 2008 (his last meeting with the press); `The 1985 budget'; `Speech in the Lok Sabha on 7th August 1990 announcing the implementation of the Backward Classes Commission Report'; `Address to the nation from the ramparts of the Red Fort on independence day'; `Reply to debates on the Confidence motion of 7th November 1990'; `Farewell address'; `Speeches in the Lok Sabha before and after the demolition of the Babri Masjid on 6th December 1992'; `Necrology on Chandra Shekhar' [Home page; Interview, 13th August 2007; Funeral; Chhotebhai Noronha: `V. P. Singh: An enigma or enema?', 5th December 2008; `Why V. P. Singh must be defended' (Ajit Bhattacharjea); `V. P. Singh's second coming' (Surendra Mohan); `Why V. P. Singh remains relevant' (Praful Bidwai); `V. P. Singh-- The man and his politics'; `Icon of social justice' (Venkitesh Ramakrishnan); `A man of great conviction and impeccable integrity' (V. B. Rawat); `The Raja of small things' (Aruna Roy and Nikhil Dey); `The lonely punter' (Farzana Versey); (V. Krishna Ananth); `The populist Raja' (Pratap Bhanu Mehta); `A moral man, a failure' (Ashok Mitra); `The uncommon catalyst' (Prabhash Joshi); `Departure of a reformer' (C. K. Lal); `Death of a Statesman' (Kancha Ilaiah); 1, Teen Murti Marg, New Delhi 110001; Aish Mahal [Manda House], 4 Ashok Road, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh]

    211. Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn: `Commencement address at Harvard University', Cambridge, USA, 8th June 1978; `Ethics and politics on the eve of the twenty-first century', Address to the International Academy of Philosophy, Liechtenstein, 14th September 1993. [Home page; Interview with Yermolai Solzhenitsyn (s. of A. and Natalya Solzhenitsyna), 11th December 2008]

    212. Francisco Suárez, S. J.: `Disputationes Metaphysicæ' (in Latin).

    213. V. Lawrence Sundaram, S. J.: `A great Indian Jesuit: Fr. Jerome D'Souza (1897-1977), priest, educationist, and statesman', Gujarat Sahithya Prakash, Anand, India, 1986.

    214. Tertullian: `Apologeticus'; `Ad nationes'; `Ad martyras'; `Prescription against heretics'.

    215. Fr. George Thalian: `The Great Archbishop Mar Augustine Kandathil, D. D.: The outline of a vocation', Second edition, Mar Louis Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, India, 1993. First edition: `The First Indian Archbishop, His Grace Most Rev. Mar Augustine Kandathil, D. D.', Mar Louis Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, India, 1961.

    216. Justice Joseph Thaliath [Thaliyath]: `Truth about the Travancore education policy', Trivandrum, Kingdom of Travancore, 1945.

    217. Mgr. Eugène-Gabriel-Gervais-Laurent Card. Tisserant: `Nestorienne (l'Eglise)' (in French), Dictionnaire de thèologie catholique, vol. XI, France, 1930, pp. 157-323.

    218. Idem: `Syro-Malabare (l'Eglise)' (in French), Dictionnaire de thèologie catholique, vol. XIV, France, 1941, pp. 3089-3162.

    219. Idem: `Eastern Christianity in India: a history of the Syro-Malabar Church from the earliest time to the present day', authorised adaptation in English from the essay in French (cited above) by Edward R. Hambye, S. J., Orient Longman, Bombay, India, 1957. Translated to Malayalam by Mar Abraham D. Mattam, V. C., and Fr. Jos Thachil, Liturgical Research Centre, Mount St. Thomas, Ernakulam, India, 2002.

    220. Brahmabandhab Upadhyay: `The Writings of Brahmabandhab Upadhyay', J. Lipner and G. Gispert-Sauch, Bangalore, India, 2 Volumes, 1991, 2001.

    221. Fr. Matthew Vadakel [Vadakkel]: `പഴയ നിയമം' [The Old Testament] (in Malayalam), translation of the Old Testament of the Holy Bible, 3 volumes, Sacred Heart League, Mangalapuzha, Alwaye, Kingdom of Travancore, 1930, 1934, 1939.

    222. Fr. Paul Vadassery (1900 - 1929 - † 25th January 1978): `The Catholic Church and the Jacobite contentions', Tiruvalla, Kingdom of Travancore, 1946.

    223. Mar Sebastian Valloppilly: `ദൈവം നമ്മോടു് കൂടെ: മലബാര്‍ കുടിയേറ്റ ചരിത്രവും ആത്മകഥയും' [God with us: the history of the migration to (British) Malabar and autobiography] (in Malayalam), Bishop's house, Tellicherry, India, 1999.

    224. Giorgio Vasari: `Le vite delle più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori' [Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects], 1568.

    225. Mar Sebastian Vayalilkalapura (Vayalil): `നിന്റെ വഴികള്‍ എത്ര സുന്ദരം' [How beautiful thy ways] (in Malayalam), Palai, India, 1987.

    226. `ഉദയമ്പേരൂര്‍ പഴയ പള്ളി നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle of the Old Church of Diamper / Udayamperoor / Udiamperur] (in Malayalam), Seat of the House of Villalvettam [വില്ലാള്‍വെട്ടം സ്വരൂപം] (variant spellings: Beliarte, Villarvattam [വില്ലാര്‍വട്ടം]).

      "The Christians were so powerful that they chose a king among themselves. The Christian dynasty was known as Villalvettam. In 1439 Pope Eugene IV sent a letter to the reigning prince which begins thus: `To my most beloved son in Christ, Thomas, the illustrious Emperor of the Indians, health and apostolic benediction. There has often reached us a constant rumour that your Serenity and all who are the subjects of your kingdom are true Christians.' (Travancore State Manual, vol. II, p. 143) This dynasty survived till a few years before the advent of the Portuguese." [Panjikaran 1926, p. 103]

      `വില്ലെടുത്തവരില്‍ വില്ലാള്‍വെട്ടത്തിനു് തുല്യനില്ല.'

    227. Aloysius Vypissery of St. Mary, O. C. D. [Founding editor: Sathyanadakahalam [സത്യനാദകാഹളം / Kerala Times]]; Michael Puthenparambil of the Holy Family, O. C. D.; Polycarp Kadavilparambil of St. Anne, O. C. D.: `നമ്മുടെ കര്‍ത്താവും രക്ഷിതാവുമായ യേസുക്രിസ്തുവിന്‍ പുതിയനിയമം' [The New Testament of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ] (in Malayalam); Volume I; translation of the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles based on the Vulgate, together with annotations; I. S. Press, Verapoly, Kingdom of Cochin, 1905.

    228. Paulinus Johann Philipp Wesdin of St. Bartholomew, O. C. D.: `India Orientalis Christiana' [Christianity in the Oriental India] (in Latin), Propaganda Press, Rome, 1794. Translated to Malayalam: Kalamassery, Ernakulam, India, 1988.

    229. Idem: `Viaggio alle Indie Orientali' (in Latin), Propaganda Press, Rome, 1796. Translated to English as `Voyage to the East Indies' by William Johnston, London, England, 1800.

    230. Edmund T. Whittaker: `Space and spirit: theories of the Universe and the arguments for the existence of God', Donnellan lectures, Trinity College, Dublin, June 1946. Published: Henry Regnery Co., Hinsdale, Illinois, USA, 1948.

    231. Mgr. Władysław Michał Zaleski: `The Apostle St. Thomas in India: history, tradition, and legend', Mangalore, British India, 1912. Also published simultaneously in French.

    232. Idem: `The Saints of India', Mangalore, British India, 1915.

    233. Idem: `Les Origines du Christianisme aux Indes' [The Origins of Christianity in India] (in French), Mangalore, British India, 1915.

    234. Idem: `Ceylon at les Indes' [Ceylon and the Indies] (in French), Paris, France, 1891.

    235. Idem: `Les martyrs de L'Inde: constances des Indiens dans la foi' [The martyrs of India: the constancy of Indians in the faith] (in French), Paris, France, 1900.

    236. Idem: `St. Francis Xavier, missionary', Benziger Brothers, New York, USA, 1911.

    237. Idem: `The Apostle of Ceylon: Fr. Joseph Vaz, 1651-1711', Benziger Brothers, New York, USA, 1911.




  • Left: St. Jerome of Stridon, by Domenico Ghirlandaio, Fresco, c. 1480. 184 cm x 119 cm. Church of Ognissanti [All saints], Florence, Italy.
    `And in the Church of Ognissanti in Florence, in competition with Sandro di Botticello, he painted a S. Jerome in fresco (which is now beside the door that leads to the choir), surrounding him with an infinite number of instruments and books, such as are used by the learned. The friars having occasion to remove the choir from the place where it stood, this picture, together with that of Sandro di Botticello, has been bound round with irons and transported without injury into the middle of the church, at the very time when these Lives are being printed for the second time.'
    -- Giorgio Vasari on Domenico Ghirlandaio in `Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects'.
  • Right: St. Augustine of Hippo (13th November 354 - † 28th August 430; Feast: 28th August), by Sandro Botticelli , Fresco, c. 1480. 152 cm x 112 cm. Church of Ognissanti [All saints], Florence, Italy. An armillary sphere is on the left above, the coat of arms of the Vespucci family in the middle, and a clock on the right; clock hand points to the hour (XXIV - I) immediately after sunset.
    `In the tramezzo of the Ognissanti, by the door that leads into the choir, he painted for the Vespucci a S. Augustine in fresco, with which he took very great pains, seeking to surpass all the painters of his time, and particularly Domenico Ghirlandaio, who had made a S. Jerome on the other side; and this work won very great praise, for in the head of that Saint he depicted the profound meditation and acute subtlety that are found in men of wisdom who are ever concentrated on the investigation of the highest and most difficult matters. This picture, as was said in the Life of Ghirlandaio has this year (1564) been removed safe and sound from its original position.'
    -- Giorgio Vasari on Sandro Botticelli in `Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects'.
  • Centre: St. Catherine of Alexandria (Feast: 25th November), by Raffaello Santi of Urbino, Oil on wood, c. 1507. 71.1 cm x 54.6 cm. National Gallery, London, England.







    `Although he suffered from leprosy from childhood, yet he strenuously preserved the frontiers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and won a remarkable victory over Saladin at Mont Gisard [25th November 1177], and as long as he lived, he was victorious.'
    -- Mgr. Sicard of Cremona, Chronicon, P. L., 213, col. 512. (encomium on King Baldwin IV.)