CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS LEADING TO LIBERATION
1990 -October 1: RPF/A attack of Kagitumba border post to launch the liberation struggle.
-October 2: Death of RPA Commander Late Fred Rwigema at Nyabwishongwezi by enemy stray bullet.
-October 4: French military intervention (btwn 200 & 300 French troops [in Noroît Operation] arrived in Kigali allegedly to protect French nationals) ; Capture of Nyagatare by 9th Bn of RPA.
-Faked attack on Kigali in the night of 4-5 October and Arrest of 10,000 Tutsi and political opponents in Kigali and many more in other towns.
-October 5: Belgian (535 troops) and Zairian intervention.
-October 6-7: Capture of Gabiro by 4th Bn of RPA.
-October 8. The Rwandan army massacred between 500 and 1000 Tutsi called Bahima in Umutara province in retaliation to Kagitumba attack
-October 11-13: Massacres of around 400 Tutsi in the Kibilira commune
-October 23: Deaths of Maj. Bunyenyezi and Maj. Bayingana in enemy
ambushes around Lyabega.
-November 13. President Habyalimana announces that other political parties will be allowed to form and the suppression of any mention of ethnic group on identity cards. The latter measure was never implemented.
-December 6. Kangura journal published the sectarian “Ten Commandments of the Hutu” of which the 8th stipulates: “The Hutu should stop having mercy on the Tutsi”.
1991 -January 3: Gatuna-Kaniga attack by RPA to change the tactics and block the main government supply route to show its persistence.
-January 7: Judgement of alleged RPF/A accomplices in Kigali. Death penalty for some was pronounced.
-January 23: Ruhengeri attack by RPA to liberate prisoners.
-End January - Mid March. Massacres of 500 to 1000 Bagogwe (a Tutsi sub-group) in the northwest of the country.
1992 -March. Creation of an extremist Hutu party: the Coalition for the Defence of the Republic (CDR). Massacre of at least 300 Tutsi in Bugesera.
-May. RPA offensive takes over some more communes. Which leads to the displacement of around 350,000 people.
-August. Massacre of Tutsi in Kibuye region.
-November. Léon Mugesera delivered an inflammatory speech in Kabaya, in which he appealed to the Hutu population to massacre Tutsi and throw them into Nyabarongo river as a short-cut to their homeland in Ethiopia.
-December. Massacres of the Tutsi in Gisenyi and Kibuye regions.
1993 -February 8. RPA attack (and retreat later) to get people understand its
claims about the massacres of the Tutsi in different places.
-March 8. Publication of the Rapport de la commission internationale d’enquête. It clearly established the responsibility of the presidency of the Rwandan Republic in the Massacres of Bagogwe Tutsi in Gisenyi and Ruhengeli Prefectures.
-April 7. The Rwandan government acknowledged the report but denied
both the existence of ‘death squads’ and explained that some of these
incidents were planned in advance
-August 4. Arusha Peace Accord (imposed on both sides). Rwandan
Government got enough time to prepare the genocide (training of
Interahamwe, Impuzamugambi party militias).
-August. Beginning of anti-Tutsi broadcasts on RTLM radio
-December 28. RPF 3rd Bn arrives in Kigali (CND) to form the broad-based
transitional government (BBTG).
1994 -April 6. A regional summit was held in Dar-es-Salaam. Attack on General Habyalimana‘s plane. Massacre began in Kigali at 8:30 P.M
-April 7. Assassination of Prime Minister Agatha Uwilingiyimana and of ten Belgian Blue Berets. Execution of several ministers and political officials belonging to opposition parties. The massacres were general except in the Butare and Gitarama Prefectures.
-April 8: RPA troops ordered to intervene in Kigali and stop the genocide
-April 14: Belgium announced the withdrawal of its troops in UNAMIR. On 20th the last Belgian peacekeeper leaves Rwanda.
-April 18: Attempt by RPF to silence RTLM hate radio
-April 19. Inflammatory speech by President Théodore Sindikubwabo in his native area, Butare. Massacres began. The Tutsi prefect (who was opposed to the killings) was immediately assassinated. With the assault of Butare, the plan of genocide was totally implemented.
-April 21: RPA liberates Byumba
-April 21-22: The Security Council votes to withdraw most peacekeepers by Resolution 912; authorising 270 to remain
-April 30: RPA liberates the Tanzanian border town of Rusumo
-May 16: RPA cuts the road between Gitarama and Kigali
-May 22: RPA takes control of the Airport and Kanombe military camp
-May 29: RPA liberates Nyanza town in Southern province
-June 2: RPA liberates Kabgayi locality
-June 13: RPA liberates Gitarama town. Interim government had left Gitarama for Gisenyi on 10th.
-June 21: First French troops of Turquoise Mission arrive on the Zaire-Rwanda border a day before the UN Security Council approves (on 22nd) in resolution 929 the French proposal to dispatch troops to Rwanda.
-June 28. The United Nations report on Tutsi Genocide in Rwanda was published in Geneva.
-July 4. RPF forces liberated Kigali and Butare on 3rd. The Government of the ‘genocidaires’ fled to DRC (ex Zaire)
-July 14: RPA liberates Ruhengeri town
-July 17: RPA liberates Gisenyi town
-July 19. Setting up of the Government of National Unity and official stoppage of the 1994-genocide.