102.1  State the six areas of naval doctrine. Acronym WILCOP


       1. NAVAL WARFARE- Describes the inherent nature and enduring principles of

           Naval forces.

           2. NAVAL INTELLIGENCE- Points the way for intelligence support in meeting

           the requirements of both regional conflicts and operations other than war.

           3. NAVAL OPERATIONS- Develops doctrine to reaffirm the foundation of U.S.

           Navy and Marine Corps expeditionary maritime traditions.

           4. NAVAL LOGISTICS- Addresses the full range of logistical capabilities that are

           essential to the support of naval forces.

           5. NAVAL PLANNING- Examines forces planning and the relationship between

           our capabilities and operational planning in the joint and multinational


           6. NAVAL COMMAND AND CONTROL- Provides the basic concepts to fulfill

           the information needs of commanders, forces and weapons systems.


      .2  Discuss the conditions that led to the formation of the U.S. Navy.


           a.  The United States Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which

                the Continental Navy established on 13 October 1775 by authorizing the

                procurement, fitting out, manning, and dispatch of two armed vessels to

                cruise in search of munitions ships supplying the British Army in America.

                The legislation also established a Naval Committee to supervise the work.

                All together, the Continental Navy numbered some fifty ships over the course

                of the war, with approximately twenty warships active at its maximum

                strength.  After the American War of Independence, Congress sold the

                surviving ships of the Continental Navy released the seamen and officers.  The

                Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1789, empowered Congress “to

                provide and maintain a navy.”  Acting on this authority, Congress ordered the

                construction and manning of six frigates in 1794, and the War Department

                administered naval affairs from that year until Congress established the Depart-

                ment of the Navy on 30 April 1798.


      .3  Discuss the origin of the Marine Corps.


           The Marine Corps was created on 10 November 1775, in Philadelphia, at Tun           

           Tavern, by a resolution of the Continental Congress, which “raised two battalions

            Marines.”  In 1834, the Marines came under the Department of the Navy. The

            National Security Act of 1947, amended in 1952, states the present structure,

            Missions, and functions of the Marine Corps.







      .4  Explain the Marine Corps motto, Semper Fidelis.


           The official motto of the Marine Corps, “Semper Fidelis,” is Latin for “Always

           Faithful.”  The motto, sometimes abbreviated, “Semper Fi,” was adopted about



      .5  Describe and state the significance of the Marine Corps emblem.

           The emblem consists of an eagle clenching the Marine Corps motto in its beak, the

           Globe (Western Hemisphere), and the anchor.  The emblem was adopted from the

           British (Royal) Marines and was modified by Brigadier General Jacob Zeilin in

           1868 to depict the Marines as both American and maritime.

            a.  The globe and anchor signify the worldwide service and sea traditions.

            b.  The spread eagle represents the nation itself.

            c.  The motto, “Semper Fidelis” is Latin for “Always Faithful.”


      .6  Explain the following terms/phrases used throughout the Marine Corps:


           a.     Leatherneck- Communicate that the nickname dates back to the leather          

                   stock, or neckpiece worn as part of the Marine uniform during the years 1775

                   to 1875.  Back then, the leather bands around their throats ensured that

                   Marines kept their heads erect.  Descended from the stock, the standing

                   Collar, is hallmark of the Marine blues, whites, and evening dress.  Like it’s

                    Leather ancestor, the standing collar regulates stance and posture,

                    Proclaiming the wearer as a modern “leatherneck.”


           b.     Devil dog- Discuss the Belleau Wood fighting in 1918 in which the Germans

                   received a thorough indoctrination in the Marine’s fighting ability.  Fighting

                   through “impenetrable” woods and capturing “untakeable” terrain, their

                   persistent attacks delivered with unbelievable courage soon had the Germans

                   calling the Marines “Teufelhunden,” fierce fighting dogs of legendary origin,

                    belovedly translated “devil dogs.”


           c.     Esprit de corps- Relate that the “spirit” of a unit is commonly reflected by

                   all of its history, traditions, and honor.  It is the epitone of Pride in the unit!


           d.     Uncommon valor was a common virtue- Refer to the victories in World

                   War II, especially at Iwo Jima, the largest all-Marine battle in history. 

                    Admiral Nimitz applied the Marine fighting on Iwo Jima to the entire Marine

                    Corps’ contribution during that war, stating “Uncommon valor was a

                    common virtue.”







           e.     First to fight- Communicate that Marines have been in the fore front of every

                   American war since the founding of the Marine Corps.  They entered the

                   Revolution in 1775, just before the Declaration of Independence was signed.

                   They have carried out more than 300 landings on foreign shores.  They have

                   served everywhere, from the poles to the tropics.  Their record of readiness

                   reflects pride, responsibility, and challenge.


      .7  Identify Marine Corps rank and pay grade in order of seniority from E-1 to                    


           RANK                                                               PAY GRADE

           General (Gen)                                                    O-10

           Lieutenant General (LtGen)                             O-9

           Major General (MajGen)                                   O-8

           Brigadier General (Bgen)                                  O-7

           Colonel (Col)                                                     O-6

           Lieutenant Colonel (LtCol)                                O-5

           Major (Maj)                                                       O-4

           Captain (Capt)                                                    O-3

           First Lieutenant (1stLt)                                       O-2

           Second Lieutenant (2ndLt)                                 O-1

           Chief Warrant Officer (CWO-5)                        W-5

           Chief Warrant Officer (CWO-4)                         W-4

           Chief Warrant Officer (CWO-3)                        W-3

           Chief Warrant Officer (CWO-2)                        W-2

           Warrant Officer (WO-1)                                     W-1

           Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps                  E-9

           Sergeant Major (SgtMaj)                                    E-9

           Master Gunnery Sergeant (MGySgt)                  E-9

           First Sergeant (1stSgt)                                         E-8

           Master Sergeant (MSgt)                                       E-8

           Gunnery Sergeant (GySgt)                                   E-7

           Staff Sergeant (SSgt)                                            E-6

           Sergeant (Sgt)                                                       E-5

           Corporal (Cpl)                                                      E-4

           Lance Corporal (LCpl)                                         E-3

           Private First Class (PFC)                                      E-2

           Private (Pvt)                                                          E-1  










      .8  Discuss the circumstances during which a hand salute is rendered and                                                   

           circumstances in which it is not rendered.


           1. Salute while unarmed and armed

               a.  Salute while armed

                    1. Perform a rifle salute from order arms- Move your left arm smartly

                     across your body with your forearm and wrist straight, fingers extended

                     and joined, and your palm down.  Ensure that the first joint of your             

                     forefinger touches the flash suppressor of your rifle.  After executing the

                     salute, resume the position of attention.


                    2. Perform a rifle salute while at trail arms-The movements are identical to

                     those used for saluting at order arms, except that your rifle is held in the trail

                     arms position.


                    3. Perform a rifle salute when at right (left) shoulder arms- Move your left

                     (right) arm across your body, fingers extended and joined, and your palm

                     down.  Ensure that the first joint of your forefinger touches the rear of the

                      receiver just below the charging handle and your forearm is parallel to the



                    4. Perform a rifle salute while a sling arms- Reach across your body with

                        your left hand and grasp the sling of your rifle.  Release your right hand. 

                        Execute the hand salute.


               b.  Observe courtesies while saluting (armed or unarmed)

                   1. Begin your salute in ample time (at least six, but not more than thirty paces                                            


                   2. Hold your salute until it is returned or acknowledged.

                   3. Accompany the salute with an appropriate greeting.

                   4. Look squarely at the person or colors being saluted.

                   5. Render the salute only once if a senior remains in the immediate vicinity.

                   6. Render the salute again if conversation takes place when a senior leaves or

                       when you depart.

                   7. Salute in a group.  IF your group is not in formation THEN (the first                  

                       person to notice an officer approaching) call the group to attention and   

                       salute the group OR (entire group) salute individually.  IF your group is in      

                       formation THEN (senior person) call the formation to attention and salute

                       for the group.








             8. Salute when passing an officer who is going in the same direction as you.

                 a. Come abreast of the officer, salute and say, “By your leave, sir


                 b. (officer) Return the salute, and say, “Carry on” or “Granted.”

                 c. Terminate your salute, and pass ahead.


             9. Salute officers, regular and reserve, of the Navy, Army, Air Force, Marine

                 Corps, Coast Guard, and foreign military and naval officers whose

                 Governments are formally recognized by the U.S. Government.


        c.  DO NOT SALUTE WHEN:

                a. At work indoors (except when under arms)

                b. Guarding prisoners

                c.  Under battle conditions

                d. A prisoner

                e. In ranks, at games, or part of a working detail

                f. At crowded gatherings, in public conveyances, or in congested areas, unless

                    you are addressing or are being directly addressed by a senior

                g. Doing so would physically interfere with your performance of an assigned

                    duty or would create a hazard


        d.  DO NOT SALUTE WITH:

             a. Your blouse or coat unbuttoned

             b. A smoking device in your hand

             c.  Anything in your right hand


        e.  Report to an officer.

               1. Approach the officer at attention.

               2. Halt about two paces from the officer.

               3. Render the appropriate salute, and say, “Sir (Ma’am), (your name and grade)

                reporting as ordered.”

               4. Hold the salute until it is acknowledged.

               5. Salute after business is completed and wait for the return of your salute or an


               6. Take one step backward, execute an about face, and depart at attention.


         f.  Report to an officer indoors and unarmed.

               a. When indoors, you will be uncovered.  Follow the procedures above and do

                    not render a salute.








   .9  Discuss the procedures for rendering honors and circumstances during which

        honors are rendered during colors and the National Anthem.

           a. Render honors during “Colors” and to the National Anthem, IF you are neither

            in formation nor in a vehicle, THEN render the prescribed salute.  Hold the salute         

            until the last note of music is sounded. IF no flag is near, THEN face the music

            and salute.  IF you are in formation, THEN salute only on the command, “present

            arms.”  IF you are outdoors and uncovered, THEN stand at attention face the

            direction of the flag or music. IF you are indoors, THEN stand at attention face

            the music and/or flag, IF you are in a vehicle, THEN (driver) halt vehicle,

           (passengers and driver) remain seated, at attention do not salute.  IF your are

            passing or being passed by an uncased color, which is being paraded, presented,

            or is on formal display, THEN salute at six paces distance and hold the salute for

            six paces beyond or until it has passed your position by six paces.  IF you are

            covered, THEN stand or march at attention when passing or being passed by an

            uncased color.


            b. When the flag is raised at morning colors or is lowered at evening colors,               

            stand at attention at the first note of the National Anthem or “To the Colors”

            (standard), and render the prescribed salute.  If you are engaged in some duty

            which would become a safety hazard or risk to property, do not salute.  Usually

            face the flag while saluting, but if your duty requires it, face in another direction.

            When the music sounds “Carry On,” resume regular duties.     


     .10  Discuss the procedure for rendering honors to the Marines Hymn.

           a. Stand at attention, whether in uniform or in civilian attire.  This tradition also

           applies to former Marines.