About Faith of The
Moustafa F. Moukarim
God created the universe from the void, when he said “Let it be and it came to be”.
This theory is very similar to the scientific one that confesses that the Universe was created by “The Big Bang Theory”.
By His order and from His light, God created the Universal Mind (Al-Aql). It comprehended all things and was the origin of all creation. And so the Universal Mind emerged from the Only One as a perfect and complete image. That is why the Universal Mind became the Center and Compass point for all creation, which started from him and ended at him.
God said to the Mind: “Through You I take and through you I give, through you I repent and through you I punish.” The Mind realized that God did not create anything better than him. He became obsessed by himself and thought that he needed no one, and had no adversary. That was a deviation from the absolute existence, an absence from His being and from His light.
Absenteeism from existence is non-being, and absenteeism from the light is darkness. So from the obedience of the Mind, sin was born, and from its light, darkness emerged, and from its humbleness arrogance came out, and from its knowledge ignorance loomed. Four bad characters against four good characters. The Mind realized that he brought misfortune upon himself, he admitted his failure and weakness, and asked forgiveness for his guilt. From his sin the Adversary (Al-Dodd) was born.
The Mind beseeched God to help him against the Adversary that was created from his light and without his will, and was defying him and rejecting his orders. From this deep desire and imploration, God created the Universal Soul (Al-Nafs) to aid the Mind in controlling the Adversary. The Universal Soul merged from between the light of the Mind and the darkness of the Adversary.
The Universal Soul became the nature of life and the source of action. It was blessed largely from the light of the Mind, but had a little darkness from the Adversary. The Adversary influenced the Soul, which delivered from its core and without its desire an opposing element, the Opponent (Al-Nadd). The Opponent allied with the Adversary to help him to establish his opposing inclination and negative self, which adopted resistance, ignorance, darkness, and arrogance.
Because the Opponent was created to aid the Adversary, the Universal Mind and the Universal Soul needed some help against this negativity and selfishness. From this need, desire and imploration, a third Principal was produced, the Word (Al-Kalima). From the Word the Antecedent (Al-Sabiq) was issued, and from the Antecedent the Successor (Al-Tali) was produced.
The Principals (Hudood) had equal tendency for good and bad. Thus, by giving them the freedom and choice of deed, God established His Divine Justice among His Creation. The Five Principals (Hudood) had more of His divine light, and very little darkness.
The desire to know God
When the Souls settled in the human body they desired to know their creator. God sympathized with them and appeared in the image of the Supreme High. Then a series of appearances ensued, totaling seventy, from the Supreme High to Adam. “Seventy eras, between each era and era there was seventy weeks, and between each week and week there
was seventy years, and each year was ten centuries.” That means: [70 x 70 x 70 x 1,000 = 343,000,000]. So the period from the Supreme High to Adam was three hundred and forty-three million years.
The Universal Mind spread the Call in each era. During the era of Adam, he was Shanteel - The era of Noah, he was Jibraeal - The era of Abraham, he was Duwijanis - The era of Moses, he was Aaron - The era of Jesus, he was Christ - and the era of Mohammed, he was Salman El-Farisi. When God appeared during Al-Hakim’s era, The universal Mind embodied Hamza Bin Ali.
Humans are the only creatures that are capable of understanding and reasoning. The Mind leads them to exploration, explorations lead them to knowledge, and knowledge leads them to the quest for more knowledge. The more a person progresses the more he or she needs exploration and knowledge.
When man wanted to inquire about himself, his surroundings, origin and nature, that led him to ask about his creator. Man’s opinion of God varied from appearances in nature to the winds, the sun, the moon, and many others.
The Taw’heed faith came to confirm the Absolute Oneness of God. God is the only Creator. He is Omnipresent, not limited to the bounds of time or space, eternal without a beginning, abiding without end. He is the Creator who produced all things from His light, to whom all shall return. He is the existence and there is no existences accept in Him. He is beyond description, definition, and multiplicity. He rises above disobedience and opposition. He created all things and to His might and Sovereign all shall return. His presence is more truthful than the existence of all that exists. The truth lies in the comprehensive existence of everything. That is why admission of Taw’heed, Unitarianism is purity and existence. The Holy Koran defines Taw’heed: “God is one. God is eternal. God
begot none, nor was He begotten. Non is equal to God.”
Unitarianism “Taw’heed”, the belief in one God, in the Druze faith is a continuation of the old philosophy that started with creation and progressed during past eras, in Athens, Egypt, Syria, Persia, India and China.
The Greek philosophers Phythagoras, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle who lived during (322-500 B.C), believed in the One Creator. A creator who is beyond our comprehension, and who can only be understood through meditation, that is, when the Mind that controls Creation has prepared us and showed us the way.
Taw’heed excelled in Islam, matured in Ismaili sect of Shiite Moslems, and became the basis of the Taw’heed Faith during the Call in 1017 A.D (408 Hijra).
In Cairo, Egypt, twenty-one years before the Call, that is, 996 A.D (386 Hijra), the Fatimid Caliphate, Al-Aziz Bi-Allah, died. He was succeeded by Al-Mansour who was eleven years old. The young Caliph became known as Al-Hakim Bi Amr Allah “The ruler in the name of God”. His first goal was to send missionaries throughout the region to announce the pre-call of a new era in which the truth shall be disclosed and Taw’heed shall be revealed.
Al-Hakim appointed the first herald, Salama Bin Abdel-Wahab al-Samurri as the first leader of the mission. For seven years Salama organized the missionaries and spread them all over to prepare the people to accept Unitarianism “Taw’heed”, and to anticipate the new era. He also pointed to the successor who shall lead the pre-call after him.
The second herald, Mohammed Bin Wahab al-Qurashi, who led the Call for
another period of seven years, succeeded Salama. Assisted by Salama and his missionaries, he continued pointing to the “Taw’heed” faith and to his successor.
Then the third herald, Ismail Bin Mohammed al-Tamimi took over the Call. His two predecessors assisted him. For the next seven years they educated the people and prepared them to welcome the new era.
Al-Hakim Bi Amr Allah
Al-Hakim was very determined. He took the initiative as a ruler and exercised his authority with fairness. He was compassionate and very close to the people. He personally supervised the state’s welfare and controlled corruption and exploitation in management, the judiciary system, and trade.
Al-Hakim listens to peoples’ complaints and acted as an arbitrator. He dispensed his justice with fairness and equality. He visited the markets day and night, investigated the social and ethical ills, and searched for the ways and means to reform them. He did his best to assist the people in times of need.
Al-Hakim was very concerned with education and teaching. He frequently invited educators, scholars, doctors, mathematicians, and logicians and would listen to their lectures.
In 1009 A.D (400 Hijra), Al-Hakim decided to abandon all the glorious and majestic appearances that were practiced by the rulers in those days. He rejected the golden umbrella and the magnificent convoys. He declined all glorious banquets, and refused to wear precious stones. He dressed very modestly and ate only what was needed for the nourishment and sustenance of his body, and abstained from the pleasures of life. During his tours among his subjects he rode a donkey instead of a horse, and instructed the people to refrain from kissing the ground or his hand when they greeted him.
Al-Hakim tried to establish peace and
understanding between the Sunnites and Shiites and unite the Moslems. He built new mosques and renovated the old ones. He refurbished the famous Al-Azhar Mosque, which was the first mosque that was built in Cairo.
Al-Hakim decreed that all those who converted to Islam by force or for personal gains were allowed to return to their original faiths. He rebuilt the churches and monasteries.
With the setting sun of Thursday, the last day in the year 407 Hijra emerged Friday, the first day of 408 Hijra (1017 A.D). The Unitarian “Taw’heed” Faith was revealed when Al-Hakim announced the commencement of the new era and appointed Hamza Bin Ali Bin Ahmad as the leader and Imam of the Call.
Al-Hakim announced his decree, ordering the people to unveil their faith without fear. He declared a revolution against all-meaningless traditions, instructions, and metaphors that lack the truth. Al-Hakim ordered the believers to discard fear and concealment, because they are now free in their deeds and have the liberty of expression and the choice of faith.
Hamza Bin Ali
In the same year that Al-Hakim came to be, that is, 985 A.D (375 Hijra), Hamza Bin Ali Bin Ahmad was born in the city of Zawzan, in Khorasan in Persia. The new Imam called the people to join the Faith of Taw’heed, which he described as a Spiritual Law. He gathered around him his three predecessors and their missionaries, and organized them categorically. He sent them to their perspective posts to continue spreading the call.
The missionaries spread their knowledge and organized wisdom councils. They
dispersed their callers throughout. They requested from the new recruits to sign an agreement. The agreement was a Covenant “Mithaq”. Each recruit had to write and pledge to uphold and apply to himself. A recruit must be of full mental awareness, of mature age, and free of slavery. The Covenant became a claim to each convert, who became known as Unitarians “Mo’wa’he’doon”.
Some of those who signed the Covenant did it for personal and financial gains. These false followers did not uphold their allegiance and commitment to the Call. They failed the test, as they could not hold steadfast to the new faith. They soon violated their agreement and forsake the Taw’heed Faith.
The most important renegade was Nash’ta’kin al-Darazy. We shall mention him here because unfortunately, Unitarians (Mo’wa’he’doon) were forcefully referred to as the followers of al-Darazi, thus, Druze. In spite of their will, the Unitarians became known and referred to as Druze instead of Mo’wa’he’doon.
In the beginning, Nash’ta’kin al-Darazy confessed the Call and the leadership of Hamza Bin Ali, and signed the Covenant. He called the people to join the Call. He lacked the necessary knowledge and education to teach new recruits. Instead he employed crooked means and sometimes force, to attract recruits. He succeeded in enlisting a large number of adherents. When the number of his followers grew, he became obsessed with the leadership. He gave himself the title of, “The Sword of the Faith”.
Hamza did not like the behavior of al-Darazy. He warned him saying, “Faith does not need a sword to aid it.” However, al-Darazy refused Hamza’s threats and continued to challenge the Imam. To irritate Hamza he
gave himself another title, “The Lord of the guides”, because Al-Hakim referred to Hamza as “The Guide of the consented”.
The number of the followers of al-Darazy increased. Many of them who joined the call for financial gain and/or to improve their position could not uphold the true teachings of the faith. Instead, they persisted with their bad behavior, which angered the people.
Suspension of the Call
Al-Hakim was enraged by the deviation of the renegades. He was angered by their violation of the true teachings of the faith, which brought upon the Call many problems. The bad behavior of the renegades also irritated the feelings of the people and caused an animosity against the Call. In 1018 AD (409 Hijra) Al-Hakim ordered Hamza to suspend the call.
On the last day of the year 409 Hijra (1018 A.D) al-Darazy and his followers attacked Raidan Mosque, which is nearby Al-Hakim’s palace. This mosque was the headquarters of Hamza. Hamza was inside the mosque with twelve people among them his predecessors, who were assisting him to spread the call. Ismail Bin Mohammed al-Tamimi, Mohammed Bin Wahab al-Qurashi, Salama Bin Abdel-Wahab, and Baha al-Deen Ali Bin Ahmed Altaii, who served the three predecessors during the pre-call. Also present were Ayoub Bin Ali, Rufaa Bin Abdel-Wareth, and Mohsen Bin Ali.
The death of al-Darazi
All day long, the attackers failed to break through into the mosque. When Al-Hakim appeared on his balcony, which over looked the mosque, many of the attackers were scared and ran away. The next day, the first day of the year 410 Hijra (1018 A.D) Al-Darazi was killed.
Resumption of the call
After the death of al-Darazy the call was resumed. It was reorganized and the missionaries continued to accept new recruits and had them sign the Covenant. After they were signed the Covenants were sent to Ismail, the second Principal (Hadd, singular of Hudood), who would present them to the first Principal, Hamza. Hamza would review them, and then would send them with the third Principal, Mohammed, to Al-Hakim. After being reviewed by Al-Hakim, the Covenants were sent back to Hamza for safekeeping.
For the next two years, the call progressed and flourished. Al-Hakim Bi Amr Allah, who was viewed by the Mo’wa’he’doon as the ultimate vision, and the way leading to the truth, protected the Call. Hamza and his brothers; Ismail Bin Mohammed al-Tamimi, Mohammed Bin Wahab al-Qurashi, Salama Bin Abdel-Wahab Al-Samurri, and Baha al-Deen Ali Bin Ahmad al-Taii, and the rest of the missionaries who were scattered everywhere, progressed in their mission and collected more and more Covenants.
This spiritual revolution influenced those who consented to the Taw’heed Faith. They saw in it peace, humanity, and the light to guide their souls and directives to their destination, gentleness, and tranquillity.
The departure of Al-Hakim Bi Amr Allah
During the eve the 27th day of the month of Shawal of the Hijra year 411 (12/13th February 1021 A.D) Al-Hakim Bi Amr Allah left his palace, as he used to do every night, in the direction of Al-Mukattam Mountain and never came back.
Because of the disappearance of Al-Hakim, Hamza suspended the Call. He handed the leadership to Baha al-Deen Ali Bin Ahmad al-Taii, and disappeared with his brothers, Ismail Bin Mohammed al-Tamimi,
Mohammed Bin Wahab al-Qurashi, and Salama Bin Abdel-Wahab al-Samurri.
Prince Ali, who was nicknamed Al-Zahir, succeeded Al-Hakim and became the new Caliphate of the Fatimid Dynasty. Al-Zahir hated Hamza and his followers because they refused to acknowledge him the as the Imam. Al-Hakim Bi Amr Allah gave this title to Hamza Bin Ali when he endorsed Hamza as the true leader of the Taw’heed Call.
Period of Persecution
Al-Zahir wanted to eliminate the Mo’wa’he’doon, who were the followers of Al-Hakim. He did not because before the departure of Al-Hakim he had to promise him that he would never harm them. Forty days after the departure of Al-Hakim, Al-Zahir decided to forfeit his pledge to Al-Hakim. He ordered his men to persecute the Mo’wa’he’doon throughout his kingdom. From Antioch in the North to Alexandria in the South, the Mo’wa’he’doon suffered from the agony of persecution. This forced Baha al-Deen to suspend the Call during this period of suffering.
The two most devastating persecutions were the carnage in Aleppo and in Antioch, where thousands of Mo’wa’he’doon were killed after being punished and tortured. Al-Zahir’s men butchered them without any mercy. They carried the heads of Mo’wa’he’doon on spears, or burned them alive. They cut out their bellies, livers, and hearts. They crucified the men on wooden crosses and pilferage their properties. They captured their women and children, and slaughtered babies in their mothers’ laps.
The persecution continued for seven hard and rigorous years. It was a true and difficult test for the Mo’wa’he’doon. The genuine believers are those who uphold their belief even if they are tortured and forced to
renounce it. That is how they pass the test.
The resumption of the Call
In 1026 A.D (417 Hijra) Baha al-Deen received instructions from Hamza ordering him to resume the Call. Baha al-Deen revived the Call to Unitarianism “Taw’heed”. He assigned missionaries and dispatched letters of instructions. He collected the Covenants from new converts and sent them to Hamza Bin Ali.
The Taw’heed Revolution continued. It preached that Taw’heed is freedom, strength, and compassion that seek humanity in humans. It was meant to liberate humans and to direct them towards education and knowledge.
Humans are distinguished from the rest of creation by the Mind, which established humanity within them. Humanity is the feeling that humans are aligned with the One. Whoever is weakened by lust and desire becomes like an animal, and whoever is weakened by personal and material gains is very far from the concept of Taw’heed. That is why when some of the converts realized that the Call did not suit their interest, they pulled out and followed their own interest and greed.
The Call spread and strengthened. The difficulties that Baha al-Deen confronted within the Call was more serious than that from outside the Call. Some of the missionaries poisoned the faith and diverted from the true teachings and ethics of the faith.
Baha al-Deen attempted to put an end to such bad practices; he dispatched warning letters to those missionaries who diverted from the true teachings of Taw’heed, asking them to reform their deeds. He was able to persuade some of them, but others refused his instructions.
Baha al-Deen stripped those renegades from their authorities, and instructed the Mo’wa’he’doon to be careful and cautious. He told them not to follow anyone who claimed total authority. He re-affirmed the
Principles and pillars of Taw’heed that promote equality among Mo’wa’he’doon. He also confirmed the Mo’wa’he’doon are distinguished from each other by their knowledge of the Taw’heed faith and their adherence to its teachings.
Women in Taw’heed
Women had a great role in the Call. Hamza instructed that there should be equality and justice between men and women. His instructions were that humans are the best of creation, and women are humans who possess the Mind and the power to distinguish and understand. It is not fair to rank women beneath men; only knowledge and deeds distinguish the ranks.
When Zukain, who was a missionary in Wadi el-Taim, broke faith by diverting from the Call, Baha al-Deen decided to handle the matter in good faith and to block out the way of this renegade. He dispatched a lady named Sarah who was known for her faith, knowledge, and strong personality. She led a team of missionaries to Wadi el-Taim. Her all male team did not mind being led by a woman.
Sarah’s mission was shrouded with danger. Before her, a man named Al-Da’i Ammar was sent to convince Zukain to refrain from his bad deeds. He was captured by Zukain’s men and killed. Many of Zukain’s followers responded to Sarah’s appeal and rejoined the Call. Some did not rejoin the Call; instead they attempted to ruin her mission. She escaped many attempts on her life.
This went on until Prince Modad, one of the princes in Mount Lebanon, gathered his men and attacked Zukain and his followers. Modad succeeded in his assault and most of Zukain’s followers were killed. Zukain was
able to escape. On his way Zukain saw woman baking bread on the Tannour (an oven made by digging a deep hole in the ground and filling it with firewood to bake bread), he asked her to give him food. She recognized him and agreed to give him food and drink. He ate, and for warmth he sat close to the fire. When he dozed off, she pushed him into the Tannour where he was burnt to death.
The resumption of Persecution
In 1035 A.D (426 Hijra) the caliph, Al-Zahir resumed his persecution against the Mo’wa’he’doon. He wanted to halt their efforts and destroy the Call to Taw’heed. Baha al-Deen realized the threat and ordered the suspension of the Call.
In 1036 A.D (427 Hijra) Al-Zahir died. His son Al-Mustansir succeeded him. Baha al-Deen went back to Cairo and met with the new Caliph. The Caliph was very impressed by Baha al-Deen. He appointed him as a judge, a teacher in the palace, and a Mufti (interpreter of Islamic law).
The resumption of the Call
In 1037 A.D (429 Hijra) Baha al-Deen ordered the resumption of the Call. It continued to flourish until 1043 A.D (435 Hijra) when he ordered its final closure, bidding the Mo’wa’he’doon farewell, he entrusted them with the books of Al-Hikma (the wisdom) to be their guide to the Taw’heed faith. Through them they can realize the Oneness of God, who is distinguished from all that exists. He instructed them to protect the religion and the faith.
The Five Principals/Luminaries
Knowing the Principal is very essential in the faith of the Mo’wa’he’doon Druze. They are Spiritual gems of Unitarianism Taw’heed. They have physical compatibility in the material world. During the time of Al-Hakim
Bi-Amr Allah, people who delivered the Call represented the five Principals, they were:
1. Hamza Bin Ali Bin Ahmad = (Al-Akl) The Universal Mind.
2. Ismail Bin Mohammed al-Tamimi = (Al-Nafs) The Universal Soul.
3. Mohammed Bin Wahab al-Qurashi = (Al-Kalima) The Word.
4. Salama Bin Abdel-Wahab al-Samurri = (Al-Sabiq) The Antecedent.
5. Baha al-Deen Ali Bin Mohammed al-Taii = (Al-Tali) The Successor.
All Souls reside within the Universal Soul. From it they move to the Successor. From the Successor emerge the cosmos, metal, plant and animal. The Soul was a spirit without a body; the Creator sympathized with it and established the human image. The Soul realized its divine origin and capability to choose between good and bad.
Souls were created at once. Their number is fixed for all time, and are not subject to decrease or increase. Upon death the Soul is immediately reborn into another human body. As for the claim that says that; “the Souls of the wicked are reborn in animals”. It contradicts with God’s Divine Justice. Punishing a person by transforming him or her into an animal is not possible. Animals do not know the difference between good and evil, thus punishing them does not lead to repentance.
Reincarnation, or the process of transmigration of the Souls, goes on until the end of time. In this process Souls rise through their attachment to a higher degree of excellence, or deteriorate by neglecting the
teachings of religion. All Souls are created with an equal tendency to good and evil and are free to choose between right and wrong. Their deeds are the result of their choice. When there is choice, punishment, and reward are acceptable.
The path that a person follows is by his or her own choice. The Soul in its repeated transmigration experiences all conditions of life: health and illness, fortunes and misfortunes, riches and poverty. Souls are thereby given repeated opportunity to redeem themselves. Thus Divine Justice is established.
The Soul must take nourishment from spiritual teachings. The Soul is capable of knowledge and ignorance, and is controlled by which ever of these two characteristics she possesses more. If the Soul is deprived from the spiritual teachings, which are its nourishment and the cause of its existence and growth, It will tilt towards ignorance. When the Soul is content with the devotion of wisdom, and is nurtured by spiritual teachings, and is willing to associate with the principles of the Mind, It will progress upward until it reaches purity.
The Seven Commandments
Next to admitting Unitarianism and the Oneness of God, a Unitarian Mowa’hed has to abide with the Seven Commandments, which are:
1. A truthful tongue.
2. Cultivation and protection of the brethren.
3. Excision of fallacies and falsehoods.
4. Rejection of the villain and aggressor.
5. Adoration of the Lord in every era and at all times.
6. Cheerful acceptance of whatever comes from Him.
Spontaneous submission to
1. His will.
Hamza said: “To be truthful is to be faithful and a Unitarian Mowa’hed. To lie is Polytheism “the believe in many gods”, Atheism “the believe that there is no God”, and a deviation from the Truth.”
The Unitarians Mo’wa’he’doon Druze are famous for upholding the Truth, and for their good behavior and deeds. Which is reflected in their relation with all the people, without any preference to their creed and religion.
Cultivation of the brethren is a religious duty that the Unitarians Mo’wa’he’doon Druze must abide with. Mo’wa’he’doon must support each other not only with material help, but should also extend their help to offer others spiritual directives and religious teaching.
Excision of fallacies is the deflection from the path that deviates from the unity with God and the path that leads to darkness and the absence of reality. This path damages the faith, and corrupts the intention and deed.
Unitarians Mo’wa’he’doon Druze must not abide by the instructions or accept the rule of a tyrant. Mo’wa’he’doon are the guardians of themselves, they have the freedom of choice and course, and are responsible for their own actions. Baha al-Deen said: “The Covenant that committed the followers to the Taw’heed faith specifies that an adherent to the faith must be of full mental and physical awareness. Free of slavery and have the ability to choose for him or her self. That is why it was decreed that Mo’wa’he’doon should abolish slavery and polygamy ‘one man has more than one wife’”.
Adoration of the Lord and admission of His absolute oneness is the duty of Mo’wa’he’doon. True Unitarianism, Taw’heed, is admission in the absolute oneness of God. He is not limited by any bounds. He is the true existence, the omnipresent, and the creator of all that is. His
unity is the absolute benevolent, and anything that emanates from Him is by His will.
Cheerful acceptance is the result of spontaneous submission to His will. By submission to Gods will a person would realize that he or she is in the kingdom of God. Thus, achieving true happiness.
The freedom of the individual is essential in the Unitarian Taw’heed faith. This blessing confirms God’s Divine Justice. When people do not have the freedom and choice of their deeds and actions, they are deprived of their humanity. Thus, they are not able to seek and achieve knowledge. Reward and punishment are the results of people’s deeds. People deeds and actions turn back on them, “what goes around comes around”.
Marriage in Taw’heed
Unitarians Mo’wa’he’doon Druze should only marry from among each other. Marriage in the Unitarian Taw’heed faith should be based on love, harmony, fairness, justice and equality. That is why polygamy was abolished, because it demands fairness, justice, and equality. The condition of marriage is that the couple should know each other very well, including the knowledge of their physical, spiritual and mental conditions.
When married, the couple should treat each other with equality and justice. The husband should consider his wife as his equal, and treat her fairly. When the husband treats his wife with fairness and justice she should follow his path and raise her house in accordance with his principles. Both husband and wife have the right to divorce. After they divorce each other they are not allowed to re-marry each other. If one of the married couple demands a divorce without any reasonable cause, the other is entitled to half of what the other owns.
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· Al-Hikma (Books of Wisdom
· Al-Amir El-Sayed explanations
· Druze in History, by; Najla Mustapha Abu-Izzeddine, Ph.D.
· The Taw’heed Faith, by; Sami Nasib Makarem, Ph.D.
· Faith of the Druze Simplified for the Youth,
By Moustafa F. Moukarim