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Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (No. 21)
383 F.2d 988, reversed and remanded.
Syllabus

Opinion
[ Fortas ]
Concurrence
[ Stewart ]
Concurrence
[ White ]
Dissent
[ Black ]
Dissent
[ Harlan ]
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Syllabus

SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES


393 U.S. 503

Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District


No. 21 Argued: November 12, 1968 --- Decided: February 24, 1969

Petitioners, three public school pupils in Des Moines, Iowa, were suspended from school for wearing black armbands to protest the Government's policy in Vietnam. They sought nominal damages and an injunction against a regulation that the respondents had promulgated banning the wearing of armbands. The District Court dismissed the complaint on the ground that the regulation was within the Board's power, despite the absence of any finding of substantial interference with the conduct of school activities. The Court of Appeals, sitting en banc, affirmed by an equally divided court.

Held:

1. In wearing armbands, the petitioners were quiet and passive. They were not disruptive, and did not impinge upon the rights of others. In these circumstances, their conduct was within the protection of the Free Speech Clause of the First Amendment and the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth. Pp. 505-506.

2. First Amendment rights are available to teachers and students, subject to application in light of the special characteristics of the school environment. Pp. 506-507.

3. A prohibition against expression of opinion, without any evidence that the rule is necessary to avoid substantial interference with school discipline or the rights of others, is not permissible under the First and Fourteenth Amendments. Pp. 507-514.

[p504]