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Ido


INTRODUCTION

It's with the appearance of Ido on the linguistic scene that the history of planned languages shouldn't be told so much as sung, for it is here that the movement shifted gears from scholarly discussion to full-blown, fratricidal opera.

It began like this: In 1907 the Délégation pour l'adoption d'une Langue Auxiliaire Internationale, a mostly French group claiming to represent the entire world, convened to review the many language projects that had been submitted to them and to hopefully adopt one as the official international auxilliary language. But the deck was stacked in favor of Esperanto (most of the Delegation were also Esperantists), so languages like Latino Sine Flexione, Bopal, and Spelin stood little chance and were there only for the appearance of legitimacy. Besides, Esperanto, which already claimed more adherents than all the other languages combined, was the de facto language of choice regardless of what the Delegation might decide, and the Delegation, under heavy criticism as it was for its shaky claims of authority, certainly could not afford to pick something other than what the rest of the world had already chosen. So in the end it was declared that, while none of the proposed languages were entirely suitable as-is, Esperanto was the best of the lot and would soon be adopted. But there was a curious condition attached: before the Delegation could give its full blessing, Esperanto would have to be touched up by the Permanent Commission (in conjunction with the Esperantists) along the reforms proposed by the anonymous and previously unheard of Ido project.

And what were these reforms? The Permanent Commission wouldn't say, nor did it seem interested working with the Esperanto Language Committee in executing them. Instead it began to develop its own project under the new Ido banner, effectively severing its ties with the Esperantists, who felt cheated and used. And then the real bomb was dropped: two members of the Permanent Commission, it was discovered, a certain Louis Couturat and Louis de Beaufront, were in fact the authors of the anonymous Ido reforms, and the whole Delegation was really only a ruse to promote their own language. Worse, Beaufront was also the very man Zamenhof had picked to champion Esperanto to the Permanent Commission. So now it was out that Beaufront had betrayed Zamenhof in favor of his own pet project, and the bitter accusations started to fly. Year after year the Idists and Esperantists spent their time excommunicating each other and writing biting polemics in which every other word ended in the pejoratve -acho. But now, at the opposite end of the century, the Esperantists tend to simply ignore Ido, while many of the few remaining Idists continue their angry attacks against Esperanto.

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ALPHABET AND PRONUNCIATION

One of the main targets of Ido's reforms was the Esperanto alphabet, what with its circumflexes, approximation of x with "ks", "kz", and "gz", and stressing of traditionally "weak" vowels:

a Like a in English father, e.g., afabla, matino.
b Like b in English bat, e.g., bela, obsedar.
c Like ts in English bits, e.g., centro, caro. The digraph ch has the sound of ch in English church, e.g. chokolado, richa.
d Like d in English dog, e.g., deo, idioto.
e Like e in English get, e.g., exter, baleno.
f Like f in English fan, e.g., facila, refutar.
g Like g in Garofalo, e.g., galerio, gento.
h Like h in English home, e.g., homo, alkoholo.
i Like i in English machine, e.g., infanto, asno. When followed by a vowel in words whose roots contain two or more vowels, like i in English onion or phobia (whichever is easier to say), e.g., labio, Anglia.
j Like j in French Jacques, e.g., jokar, projektar.
k Like k in English kite, e.g., kazo, arkivo.
l Like l in English loser, e.g., leono, aglo.
m Like m in English munchkin, e.g., movar, amoro.
n Like n in English nice, e.g., naciono, pioniro.
o Like o in English pole, e.g., oficiala, adorar.
p Like p in English pot, e.g., polico, imperio.
q Like q in English quest, and only appears with u, e.g., quieta, aquo.
r Like r in Spanish señor, e.g., rekordo, arabo.
s Like s in English sock, e.g., seductar, absoluta. The digraph sh has the sound of sh in English ship, e.g., shako, fetisho.
t Like t in English top, e.g., telefono, acidento.
u Like oo in English moon, e.g., ultimato, industrio. When followed by a vowel in words whose roots contain two or more vowels, like u in English persuade or superfluous (whichever is easier to say), e.g., puero, linguo.
v Like v in English vicious, e.g., valoro, evitar.
w Like w in English web, e.g., westo, wiskio.
x Like x in English fix, e.g., xenono, explorar.
y Like y in English yuppie, e.g., yusta, mayo.
z Like z in English zipper, e.g., zebro, Azia.

Now although such an alphabet does give the advantage of not having to deal with any diacritical marks, it also creates words that are sometimes difficult to recognize due to the fusion of soft g and j, like manjar, rejo, and pajo. And is q really necessary? If Spanish can get by with words like cual, cuando, cuatro, et al., any artificial language striving for simplicity should do likewise.

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ACCENT

The Ido accent is the same as Esperanto's, except where discussed above and infinitive endings, which are always stressed: amar (a-MAR), skribor (skri-BOR).

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DERIVATION

It's often said that the Ido lexicon is more natural-looking than Esperanto's, and in many cases that's true. Where Esperanto drops the final -ia, -ius of Latin to preserve the Latin accent, Ido can preserve them both, as in filio ("child", "offspring", Esperanto filo). Elsewhere certain obvious examples of poor root-selection in Esperanto are made more international, as in navo for Esperanto's ŝipo, ("ship") kavalkar for rajdi, ("ride") and semblar for ŝajni ("seem"). But such improvements are not very consistent, and one often finds words like ka(d) "whether", ucelo "bird", and darfar "may", which are just as obscure as their Esperanto equivalents (ĉu, birdo, rajti). Also, there are cases where one finds two separate roots for the same elemental meaning, like plantacar/planto and formacar/formo. Adding to this confusion is a vast number of affixes, the difference between which is sometimes very subtle (eg., -uro and -ajo, both more or less referring to a concrete manifestation of an action). Moreover, while it seems that much of Ido's word stock is taken from Italian, a lot of it also comes from French and other Romance languages, with the result that it's difficult to predict how any given word will appear in Ido.

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ARTICLES

As in Esperanto, Ido has no indefinite articles: viro donis ico a me “a man gave this to me”. To emphasize a noun’s indefiniteness, ula (“some”) is used: ula viro donis ico a me “some man gave this to me”. Ula is also used to make countable nouns out of proper nouns: la sajeso di ula Sokrates “the wisdom of a Socrates”.

Ido’s only definite article is la, except in the case of plurals that have no plural marker, when le is used: la domo ("the house"), la domi ("the houses"), le x e le y ("the x's and the y's"). The definite article is used in only two cases:

  • When the noun (singular or plural) represents the entire class of that noun, or every individual within the class: la leono ne vere esas la maxim potenta bestio en la foresto, nam ol ne vivas ibe “the lion is not really the mightiest beast in the forest, because it doesn’t live there”; la abeli havas furo, ma ne konvenas olin karezar “bees have fur, but are not good for petting”.

  • When the noun denotes one or more countable, determinate individuals of a class (that is, it singles out one or more objects from other, similar objects): le KD di mea samchambrano “my roommate’s CDs” (the complement di mea samchambrano determines KD); enirigez la klauni “send in the clowns” (the ones we hired; simply klauni would mean “send in some clowns”); le mea KD e le vua “my CDs and yours” (but not anyone else’s); la stelnavo Enterprise flugis cirkum la suno “the starship Enterprise flew around the sun” (Enterprise determines la stelnavo, and “the sun” is the one at the center of whatever solar system the Enterprise is flying through).
Unlike other Western languages, Ido does not use the definite article:
  • When the noun is a material, mass noun, indeterminate abstract entity, quality, virtue, etc., since these are not a class of objects nor a countable, individual object: fero, aquo, oldeso, kurajo, energio.

  • When the noun is the name of a science or art: fiziko, geometrio, kendo.

  • When the noun is any sort of proper name, including those of rivers, mountains, seasons, months, and days: Nigra Maro, Maro Mediteranea, Danubio. Proper names modified by an adjective, however, are another matter: Alexander la Granda.

  • When the noun denotes a kinship relation, body part, article of clothing, or other object intimately associated with the speaker: James blamis sua belega fratino Angelina pri la makulo en sua pantalono “James blamed his gorgeous sister Angelina for the stain in his pants”.

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NOUNS

Singular nouns end in o, plurals in i. There's no grammatical gender of any kind, i.e., filio no more indicates the male sex than it does the female. To make such distinctions, -ulo and -ino are used: homo ("human being"), homulo ("man"), homino ("woman").

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PROPER NOUNS

Names usually written in the Roman alphabet are transcribed into Ido as literally as possible: Caesar, Shakespeare, Descartes, Dell'Abate, John, Giovanni, Hans, Fafa Floly. (If more uniformity is desired, names introduced to the West through Rome or the Vulgate can be rendered in their “original” Latin form: Antonius Blair, Iustinus Timberlake, Rosa McGowan.) Names written in non-Roman scripts are transcribed phonetically: Sokrates, Pushkin, Pythagoras, Wo Fat. To this category is added any foreign word that is exclusively national or local: pasha "pasha", pasha-ala "pashalic", pasha-i "pashas". The foreign plural is also used, if known: peseta/pesetas. Latin country names are made to conform to Ido's orthography but are otherwise left as-is, while the rest are handled like foreign names: Europa, Asia, Peru, Anglia, Amerika, El Salvador. The names of cities, rivers, etc. are also treated like foreign words: Paris, München, New York, Dniepr.

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ADJECTIVES/ADVERBS

All adjectives in Ido end in -a, but unlike in Esperanto they are invariable regardless of case or number (eg., blanka domo, blanka domi). However, Ido is a lot more exacting in the nature of its adjectives — the Idist must decide between ending a noun root with -a "that which is" or -ala "of or relating to". (Ex. aqua voyo "a water-way", i.e. "a way made of water", aquala ludi "water sports", i.e. "sports relating to water".) Then again, -ala is not necessary in composed words (legi internaciona "international laws"), since it is felt that the first part of the word (inter-) sufficiently indicates the relationship. In any event, -ala, while a very recognizable Latin-based suffix, probably causes confusion from time to time with words already ending in -ala. (Ex. the adjectival form of rivo "shore" is riv-ala "littoral", creating confusion with the already existing word rival-a "rival".)

There are no real rules in Ido regarding where to place adjectives, but there are a few guidelines:

  • If the adjective is longer than the noun it modifies by two or three syllables, put it after the noun: linguo universala “universal language”

  • If the adjective is a participle, put it after the noun: kuzo kisanta “kissing cousin” (kisanta kuzo would mean “kissing a cousin”)

  • If there is more than one adjective, put them after the noun: bestio maligna, odorachanta, ed erotika “an evil, smelly, sexy beast”

  • If the adjective has a complement, put it after the noun: nivuro flava pro urino “Snow yellow from urine”

  • If the adjective has the same length as the noun, go for euphony. And what are the rules of euphony? Basically, avoid putting two vowels together (aquo pura instead of pura aquo). This mostly applies to the written language, as it would be difficult to manage in spoken conversation.

All this seems a bit more complicated than the Esperanto word order Ido seeks to improve; one can usually get by just fine by putting the adjective before the noun in Esperanto, but in Ido one has to anticipate the number of syllables each word will have, the number of adjectives one plans to use, and whether or not it’s a participle. It’s like anticipating and keeping track of the minutes you're using on a cellphone.

One final difference from Esperanto adjectives is that a noun made from an adjective indicates a person or thing, not an abstract quality: richo "rich man"; bono "good guy".

Every now and then one will hear complaints that Esperanto-Ido words ending -a don't look right modifying words ending in -o, since they look like "feminine" adjectives modifying "masculine" nouns. Of course, this is ridiculous. Ido, Esperanto, and indeed most artificial languages have no grammatical gender to keep in agreement, so the trans-gender issue is irrelevant. And if simple phonic aesthetics are the real objection, keep in mind that if Spanish ears are accustomed to hearing el artista guapo and la foto vergonzosa, then la bela artisto and la shamoza fotografuro should pose no great hardship.

Adverbs end in -e. But note that when the subject is an infinitive, clause, or simply doesn't exist, the predicate does not take the adverbial -e, as in Esperanto, but remains unchanged: Esas varmega cadie. Adverbs can precede or follow the verbs they modify, as long as no other words come between them: Il rapide mortis pro shamo / Il mortis rapide pro shamo. The exceptions are ne, tre, and nur, which always precede the words they modify.

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COMPARATIVES

The comparative follows the following model:

Fafa esas min inteligenta kam Howard. Fafa is less intelligent than Howard.
Fafa esas tam inteligenta kam Howard. Fafa is as intelligent as Howard.
Fafa esas plu inteligenta kam Howard. Fafa is more intelligent than Howard.
Fafa havas la minim blanka denti de omni. Fafa has the least white teeth of all.
Fafa havas la maxim verda denti de omni. Fafa has the greenest green teeth of all.

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ACCUSATIVE CASE

The accusative ending -n is used only when the word order itself doesn't make the sense clear. Fafan frapis Howard = Howard frapis Fafa = "Howard hit Fafa". It might also be a good idea to regularly use it after active participles to mark their complements:

la linguo helpanta Ido the auxiliary language Ido or
the language helping Ido

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PRONOUNS

me
tu
vu
ilu
elu
olu
lu
su
I
thou
you
he
she
it
he/she/it
himself/herself/itself (reflexive)
ni
vi
vi
li/ili
li/eli
li/oli
li
su
we
you all
you all
they (masculine)
they (feminine)
they (neuter)
they (general)
themselves (reflexive)
mea
tua
vua
ilua
elua
olua
lua
sua
my
thy
your
his
her
its
his/her/its
his/her/its (reflexive)
nia
via
via
lia/ilia
lia/elia
lia/olia
lia
sua
our
your
your
their (masculine)
their (feminine)
their (neuter)
their (general)
their (reflexive)

In general, one reserves tu for close friends and family, vu for everyone else.

The forms ilu, elu, and olu are most often shortened to il, el, and ol, except when the accusative -n is added.

It is a common misconception that olu is reserved for inanimate objects while lu is an epicene pronoun for animate beings. In fact, though, olu refers to anything of unknown or irrelevant gender, including objects, animals, and people. (Babies and mailcarriers, for example, are both referred to by olu.) Lu, on the other hand, is defined as a “pan-gender” pronoun, the singlular form of “they”, and as such encompasses entities of all genders (male, female, and neuter), both animate and inanimate — just as its plural form li does. Consequently, lu, as a singular pronoun that can distinguish neither gender nor animation, is seldom of any practical use.

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NUMBERS

The numbers are zero, un, du, tri, quar, kin, sis, sep, ok, non, dek, dek-e-un, dek-e-du, du-a-dek, tri-a-dek, cent, mil. Ordinals, multiples, and fractions are made by adding -esm, -opl, and -im, respectively.

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CONCLUSION

Unfortunately, the merits of Ido tend to be overlooked on account of the pettiness of its early supporters and the damage they brought on the planned language movement as a whole. Still, as a spin-off language, Ido did accomplish a lot: it did away with the hated circumflexes, made the dipthongs, accent, correlatives and plurals more natural-looking, and made the controversial accusative case optional. But there it stopped. Ido's attempt to correct Esperanto's arbitrary and inconsistent word derivation and orthography is itself arbitrary and inconsistent, as when it ocassionally hacks off syllables à la Volapük to preserve the Latin stress. (Eg., Latin animus becomes anmo, but Italian opera is opero.) Other improvements are dubious at best, like the substitution of Esperanto's English-based birdo (obscure even to English-speakers) with Italian-based ucelo (obscure to all but Italian speakers), or the use of productive suffixes like -al- and -ur- when those same elements are already part of the roots of other words. (Ex. kav-ala "cavitary" and kaval-a "equine"; sek-uro "section" and sekur-o "safe person".) In short, if Esperanto is a linguistic chimera in need of streamlining, Ido is a centaur -- fewer mismatched parts, but nevertheless too many to be a real improvement.

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SAMPLE TEXT

LA NARACO PRI BABEL
  1. Nu la tero esis di un linguo e pluse un parol-maniero.

  2. E kande li ireskis de esto, li renkontris planajo en la lando Shinar, e habiteskis ibe.

  3. E li dicis l'uni l'atri: Venez, ni facez briki e koquez li faire. E li uzis briki vice petros, e bitumo vice cemento.

  4. E li dicis: Venez, ni konstruktez por ni urbego e turmo, di qua kolmo extensos a la cielo, e ni gloriizez nia nomo ante ni dividesos tra la tota tero.

  5. Nu la Sinioro decensis por vidar la urbego e la turmo, quan la filii di Adam konstruktis,

  6. ed il dicis: Yen, un esas la populo, ed esas un linguo por omni; e co esas quo li faceskar, e li nultempe cesos sua projeto til ke li kompletigos sua laboro.

  7. Venez do, ni decensez, ed ibe ni konfuzez lia linguo, por ke nula de li komprenez la parolo di altra.

  8. E tale la Sinioro dis-semis li de ibe tra la tota tero, e li cesin konstruktar la urbego.

  9. E pro to on nomas ol Babel, pro ke ibe esis konfuzita la linguo di la tota tero; e de ibe la Sinioro dispersis omni sur la surfaco di la tota regiono.

Genezo 11:1-9 tradukita
de la Vulgato da Fafa Floly

HISTORIA BABEL
  1. Erat autem terra labii unius, et sermonum eorundem.

  2. Cumque profiscerentur de oriente, invenerunt campum in terra Senaar, et habitaverunt in eo.

  3. Dixitque alter ad proximum suum: Venite, faciemus lateres, et coquamus eos igni. Habueruntque lateres pro saxis, et bitumen pro caemento;

  4. et dixerunt: Venite, faciamus nobis civitatem et turrim, cuius culmen pertingat ad caelum et celebremus nomen nostrum antequam dividamus in universas terras.

  5. Descendit autem Dominus ut videret civitatem et turrim, quam aedificabant filii Adam,

  6. et dixit: Ecce, unus est populus, et unum labium omnibus: coeperuntque hoc facere, nec desistent a cogitationibus suis, donec eas opere compleant.

  7. Venite igitur, descendamus, et confundamus ibi linguam eorum, ut non audiat unusquisque vocem proximi sui.

  8. Atque ita divisit eos Dominus ex illo loco in universas terras, et cessaverunt aedificare civitatem.

  9. Et idcirco vocatum est nomen eius Babel, quia ibi confusum est labium universae terrae: et inde dispersit eos Dominus super faciem cunctarum regionum.

Genesis 11:1-9 conversus ex
Latino vetulo ab Sancto Hieronymo




UN LINGUO POR GUVERNAR LI OMNA

Tri Ringi por l’elfi amata da l’ Naturo,
Sep por la gnomi en la petra salono,
Non por la homi sub la morto-sigluro,
Un por la Nigra Rejo sur la nigra trono,
Ube jacas l’Ombri en Mordorana lando.
Un Ringo omnun guvernas, Un Ringo lin kaptas,
Un Ringo omnun vokas ed aden tenebro raptas,
Ube jacas l’Ombri en Mordorana lando.

Urka verso da J.R.R. Tolkien
tradukita da FafaFloly
de la Esperanta traduko da William Auld
(kursiva linei de la Ringala enskribo)

ONE TONGUE TO RULE THEM ALL

Three Rings for the Elven-kings under the sky,
Seven for the Dwarf-lords in their halls of stone,
Nine for Mortal Men doomed to die,
One for the Dark Lord on this dark throne
In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.
One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them,
One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them,
In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.


Orkish verse by J.R.R. Tolkien
(lines in italics from the Ring inscription)




LA ALTA LINGUO

«Ho Bela Populani! Ca fortuno esas plu multa kam me esperis,» dicis Pippin. Sam esis senparola. «Me ya dankas vu, Gildor Inglorion,» dicis Frodo inklinante su. «Elen síla lúmenn’ omentielvo, stelo brilas en la horo di nia renkontro,» il adjuntis en la alta linguo di la Elfi.

«Gardez su, amiki!» kriis Gildor ridante. «Parolez nula sekreti! Yen erudito pri la Antiqua Linguo. Bilbo esis bona maestro. Saluto, amiko di la Elfi!» il dicis, inklinante su a Frodo. «Venez ja kun vua amiki ed unionez vu a nia kompanaro!»....

Selektajo de La Kompanaro di la Ringo da J.R.R. Tolkien
traduktita de la Angla da Fafa Floly

THE HIGH SPEECH

“O Fair Folk! This is good fortune beyond my hope,” said Pippin. Sam was speechless. “I thank you indeed, Gildor Inglorion,” said Frodo bowing. “Elen síla lúmenn’ omentielvo, a star shines on the hour of our meeting,” he added in the high elven-speech.

“Be careful, friends!” cried Gildor laughing. “Speak no secrets! Here is a scholar in the Ancient Tongue. Bilbo was a good master. Hail, Elf-Friend!” he said, bowing to Frodo. “Come now with your friends and join our company!”....

Selection from The Fellowship of the Ring by J.R.R. Tolkien




DRO ZASLAVSKIY, O:
QUALE MI LERNIS CESAR DESTRANQUILESAR ED AMAR LA RUSA

La Rusa linguo esas diveninta mondala linguo ... La serio di lingui kuras tra la epoki. Latino esis la linguo di la mondo antiqua, la Franca di la mondo feudala, la Angla di kapitalismo. La Rusa esas la mondala linguo di socialismo. La Franca esas la linguo ornamentizita di kortani e la Angla la jargono di komercisti. Li esis la lingui di la klasi guvernanta e di superba intelektozi. La Angla linguo koruptis popoli en strangera landi. La Rusa esas la unesma mondala linguo di internacionismo. Nulu povas nomar su erudito se ta ne savas la Rusa.

Selectajo de “La granda linguo di nia epoko” da David Zaslavskiy
Revuo literaturala, Moskva, n-ro 1, 1 januario 1949
traduktita da Fafa Floly

DR. ZASLAVSKY, OR:
HOW I LEARNED TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE RUSSIAN

The Russian language has become a world language ... The succession of languages runs through the ages. Latin was the language of the ancient world, French of the feudal world, English of capitalism. Russian is the world language of Socialism. French is the fancy language of courtiers and English the jargon of traders. They were the tongues of the ruling classes and of snobbish intellectuals. The English language corrupted peoples in foreign lands. Russian is the first world language of internationalism. No one can call himself a scholar if he does not know Russian.

Отрывок из «Великий язык нашей эпохи» Давида Заславского
Литературная газета, Москва, № 1, 1 января 1949




ACHTUNG ESPERANTISTI!

Sur ca unesma e maxim granda mentio, ke la Judi ne esas raso ma religio, konstruktesas do en necesa konsequanto sempre plusa mentii. Ad oli apartenas anke la mentio koncernanta la linguo di la Judo. Ol ne esas che il la moyeno por expresar ilua pensi, ma la moyeno por celar li. Dum ke il parolas France, il pensas Jude, e dum ke il tornas Germana versi, il vivas nur segun la naturo di sua nacioneco. Ube la Judo ne divenis la sinioro super altra populi, il devis por boneso o maleso parolar lia linguo, ma quik kande li esis ilua serfi, omna li devis lernar linguo universala (ex. Esperanto!), por ke per anke ca moyeno la Judi plu facile povez dominacar li!

Selektajo de Mein Kampf, Volumo 1, Chapitro 11,
«Populo e Raso», da Adolf Hitler
tradukita de la Germana da Fafa Floly

ACHTUNG ESPERANTISTEN!

Auf dieser ersten und größten Lüge, das Judentum sei nicht eine Rasse, sondern eine Religion, bauen sich dann in zwangsläufiger Folge immer weitere Lügen auf. Zu ihnen gehört auch die Lüge hinsichtlich der Sprache des Juden. Sie ist ihm nicht das Mittel, seine Gedanken auszudrücken, sondern das Mittel, sie zu verbergen. Indem er französisch redet, denkt er jüdisch, und während er deutsche Verse drechselt, lebt er nur das Wesen seines Volkstums aus. Solange der Jude nicht der Herr der anderen Völker geworden ist, muß er wohl oder übel deren Sprachen sprechen, sobald diese jedoch seine Knechte waren, hätten sie alle eine Universalsprache (z. B. Esperanto!) zu lernen, so daß auch durch dieses Mittel das Judentum sie leichter beherrschen könnte!

Auswahl von Adolf Hitlers Mein Kampf,
Erster Band, Kapitel 11 „Volk und Rasse”




LA ÜBER-LINGUO

Brigitte livis sua leciono Germanal ferme decidinta ne studar la linguo. Funde, un-latere, en la linguo di Goethe el vidis por su nula bezono (la lecioni esis impozita ad el da elua matro), altra-latere el sentis su kom profunde nekonkordanta kun la Germana. La linguo iritis el per olua manko di logiko. La cadia exemplo exhaustis elua pacienteso: la prepoziciono ohne (sen) prenas la akuzativo, la prepoziciono mit (kun) prenas la dativo. Pro quo? Ya la du prepozicioni signifikas la pozitiva e negativa aspekto di la sama relato, e do li relatez a la sama kazo. El objecionis a sua instruktisto, yuna Germanulo, qua divenis perturbata ed quik sentis su kulpanta. Il esis simpatioza, dolca homulo qua judikin kom doloriganta apartenar a naciono qua permisis su esar guvernata da Hitler. Pronta vidar en sua naciono omna vicio, il quik kredis ke esas nula kauzo aceptinda pro qua la preposicioni mit ed ohne relatez a du kazi diferanta.

«Lo ne esas logikoza, me savas, ma lo ya esis aceptita dum la yarcenti», il dicis, quale se preganta la yuna Francino kompatar linguo maledikita da historio.

«Me joyas ke vu konfesas lo. Lo ne esas logikoza. Ma linguo ya devas esar logikoza», dicis Brigitte.

La yuna Germanulo konkordis: «Desfortune, mankas a ni ula Descartes. To esas nepardonebla lakuno en nia historio. En la Germana ne esas tradiciono di raciono e klareso, en ol esas multo di nebulo metafizikala e muziko da Wagner, e ni omna savas qua esis la plu granda admiranto di Wagner: Hitler!»

Brigitte esis interesata nek da Wagner nek da Hitler e sequis sua propra pensi: «Linguo qua ne esas logikoza esas lernebla ad infanto, pro ke infanto ne pensas. Ma ol ne esas lernebla ad adulto. Do, segun me, la Germana ne konvenas kom linguo di totmonda komunikado.»

«Vu esas absolute justa», dicis la Germanulo, ed il adjuntis nelaute, «Adminime vu vidas quante absurda esis la esforco Germanal por totmonda dominaco!»

Kontenta kun su ipsa, Brigitte sideskis en sua auto e vehis a Fauchon por komprar botelo de vino....

Selektajo de Nemortiveso da Milan Kundera
tradukita de la Rusa da Fafa Floly

ÜBER-ЯЗЫК

Брижит уходила с урока немецкого, твердо решив им не заниматься. С одной стороны, потому что в языке Гёте не видела для себя никакой надобности (к его изучению ее принудила мать), с другой — потому что ощущала с немецким глубокое несогласие. Этот язык раздражал ее своей нелогичностью. Сегодняшний пример переполнил чашу ее терпения: предлог ohne (без) управляет винительным падежом, предлог mit (с) — дательным. Почему? Ведь оба предлога означают позитивный и негативный аспект одного и того же отношения, поэтому должны были бы управлять одним и тем же падежом. Она сказала об этом учителю, молодому немцу, который смутился и фазу же почувствовал себя виноватым. То был симпатичный мягкий человек, страдающий от того, что он представитель народа, который позволил властвовать над собой Гитлеру. Готовый видеть в своем отечестве все пороки, он мгновенно согласился, что не существует никакого приемлемого основания, чтобы предлоги mit и ohne управляли двумя различными падежами.

— Нелогично, я знаю, но так уж принято в течение веков, — говорил он, словно просил молодую француженку смилостивиться над языком, проклятым историей.

— Я рада, что вы с этим согласны. Это нелогично. А язык должен быть логичным, — говорила Брижит. Молодой немец подпевал ей:

— К сожалению, у нас не было Декарта. Это непростительная брешь в нашей истории. В Германии нет традиции разума и ясности, в ней полно метафизического тумана и вагнеровской музыки, и мы все знаем, кто был величайшим поклонником Вагнера: Гитлер!

Брижит не интересовали ни Вагнер, ни Гитлер, и она следовала за своей мыслью:

— Языком, в котором нет логики, может овладеть ребенок, потому что ребенок не думает. Но им никогда не сможет овладеть взрослый иностранец, поэтому для меня немецкий не является языком мирового общения.

— Вы абсолютно правы, — сказал немец и тихо добавил: — По крайней мере, вы видите, насколько абсурдно было стремление немцев к мировому господству!

Довольная собой, Брижит села в машину и поехала к «Фашон» купить бутылку вина...

Отрывок из романа Бессмертие Милана Кундеры
Перевод с чешского Нины Шулъгиной




LA LINGUO DI AMORADO

Do Bracciani, Olympe, Chigi e me pasis aden la kabineto plezural sekreta di la princino, ube plusa abominindaji celebresis, e me redeskas, pro honoro, a vu konfesar li. Ta Borghèse maledikita havis omna gusto, omna fantaziajo. Eunuko, hermafrodito, nano, muliero evanta oka-dek yari, dindo, simio, tre granda dogo, kaprino e mikra infantulo evanta quar yari — la posnepotulo di la olda muliero — esis la objekti di luxurio quin a ni prizentis la dueni di la princino.

«Ho! Granda Deo!» me klamis vidante omna to, «Quala viciozeso!»

«Ol esas la afero maxim naturala qua on konocas,» dicis Bracciani: «La paruzo di jui necesigas serchar altri. Blazita da ordinaraji, on deziras la stranji, e yen pro quo kriminado divenas la finala grado di luxurio. Me ne savas, Juliette, qualan utileson vu trovos en ca stranja objekti, ma me dicas a vu ke la princino, mea amiko e me certe trovos granda plezuri per li.»

«Nu necesas ke anke me kontentigez me» me respondis, «e me sendubigas vu avance ke vu nultempe vidos me en la dopajo kande esos questiono di krapulo e nedecaji.»

Mem ante ke me finis parolar, la granda dogo, sendube kustumanta a tala amuzado, venis serchosnifladar sub mea jupi.

«Ha! Yen Lucifer komencas!» dicis Olympe ridante. «Juliette, desvestizez vu; livrez vua charmi a la laciva karezi di ca belega bestio, e vu vidos quante kontenta vu esos.»

Me aceptas ... funde, qua hororo povus repugnar me, me qua omnadie serchas omna sorto di hororo tale atenceme? On pozas me sur quar pedi meze di la chambro; la dogo turnas, sniflas me, lekas me, acensas sur me, e finas per mirinde kunifutuar me e spricigar en mea utero. Ma ulo ulquante stranja eventis: la membro di la dogo tante grandeskis dum la agado, ke ilua probi ektirar olu produktis a me enorma dolori. La amuziva bestio lore volis rikomencar; on decidis ke to esus la maxim rapida solvo: fakte debiligita da duesma sprico, il ektiris su esante dufoye spricmakulizinta me per sua spermo.

«Yen,» dicis Chigi, «vu balde vidos Sro Lucifer traktar me quale il traktis Juliette. Extreme libertina pri sua gusti, ca bestio charmanta honorizas beleso irgube il trovas ol: il futuos mea kulo kun la sama plezuro, kun qua il futuis la kunio di la siniorino, me parian. Ma me ne imitos la neago di nia kara amiko, e me futuos ca kaprino dum ke me pleos prostitucatino a Lucifer.»

Me nultempe vidis irgo tale stranja kam can juadon. Chigi, avara ye sua futuuro, ne spricigis; tamen il semblis prenar tre granda plezuri de ca voluptoza extravagajo.

«Regardez me,» dicis Bracciani, «me donos a vi altra spektaklo...»

Il kulfutuigas su da la eunuko e kulfutuas la dindo. Olympe, kun su glutei turnita ad il, tenis inter sua kruri la kapo di la ucelo; el detranchas ol ye la instanto kande la mediko perdas sua semino.

«Yen,» dicis la libertino, «la maxim delicoza de plezuri! On ne povas imaginar la sento facita da dindala anuso kande ol konstriktesas dum ke on tranchas la kolo di la ucelo juste ye la kriza instanto.»

«Me nultempe probis ol,» dicis Chigi; «ma me audis tale forta laudado pri ca maniero di futuar, ke me ja devas probar por me ipsa... Juliette,» il dicis a me, «tenez ca infanto inter vua kruri dum ke me kulfutuos il; pose, ye la instanto kande mea blasfemi anuncos a vu mea deliro, vu tranchez ilua kolo.»

«Bone,» dicis Olympe, «ma servante vua plezuro, mea kara, anke mea amikino devas havar de plezuro. Me pozos la hermafrodito sub elua boko, e karezante samtempe lua du sexui, el sugos alternante la pruvon di lua homuleso ed anke di lua homineso.»

«Vartez,» dicis Bracciani, «la poziciono povas aranjesar tale, ke me povos kulfutuar la hermafrodito e futuigar me da la eunuko, havante super mea nazo la kulo di la oldino, qua kakos adsur mea vizajo.»

«Quala viciozeso!» dicis Olympe.

«Siniorino,» dicis Bracciani, «omna to havas sua expliko; esas ne mem un gusto, ne mem un inklino, di qua on ne povas revelar la kauzo.»

«Me ne kredas co,» dicis Chigi, «Pro ke omna vi ligis vi un ad altra, necesas ke la simio kulfutuez me dum ke la nano, kavalkante la mikra infanto, prizentez a me sua glutei por kisar.»

«Nu to iras belege,» dicis Olympe; «ma Lucifer, la kaprino e me restas hike neokupata.»

«Nulo esos plu facila,» dicis Chigi, «kam pozar omna ni aden la ceno. La kaprino e vu pozez vi proxim me; me alternos de un kulo ad altra, e Lucifer sodomios pri vi kande me ne okupos via kulo; ma me ankore intencas spricigar aden ta mikra infanto, di qua la kolon Juliette tranchos quik kande el vidos me esvanar.»

La ceno aranjesas: nultempe antee ulo tale abomininda esis facita pro luxurio; omna ni tamen spricigis; la infanto esis senkapigita quik ye la justa instanto, e ni disruptis la ceno nur por gloriizar la deala plezuri quin ca stranjajo aquiris por omna ni.

Selektajo de Juliette da la Markezo de Sade
tradukita de la Franca da Fafa Floly

LA LANGUE DE L’AMOUR

Bracciani, Olympe, Chigi et moi, nous passâmes donc dans le cabinet secret des plaisirs de la princesse, où de nouvelles infamies se célébrèrent, et je rougis, d'honneur, de vous les avouer. Cette maudite Borghèse avait tous les goûts, toutes les fantaisies. Un eunuque, un hermaphrodite, un nain, une femme de quatre-vingts ans, un dindon, un singe, un très gros dogue, une chèvre et un petit garçon de quatre ans, arrière-petit-fils de la vieille femme, furent les objets de luxure que nous présentèrent les duègnes de la princesse.

— Oh ! grand Dieu ! m'écriai-je en voyant tout cela, quelle dépravation !

— Elle est on ne saurait plus naturelle, dit Bracciani : l'épuisement des jouissances nécessite des recherches. Blasés sur les choses communes, on en désire des singulières, et voilà pourquoi le crime devient le dernier degré de la luxure. Je ne sais, Juliette, quel usage vous ferez de ces bizarres objets, mais je vous réponds que la princesse, mon ami et moi, nous allons sûrement trouver de grands plaisirs avec eux.

— Il faudra bien que je m'en arrange aussi, répondis-je, et je puis vous assurer d'avance que vous ne me verrez jamais en arrière quand il s'agira de débauche et d'incongruités.

Je n'avais pas fini, que le gros dogue, accoutumé sans doute à ce manège, vint farfouiller sous mes jupes.

— Ah ! voilà Lucifer en train ! dit Olympe en riant. Juliette, déshabille-toi ; livre tes charmes aux libidineuses caresses de ce superbe animal, et tu verras combien tu en seras contente.

J'accepte... Et comment une horreur m'eût-elle révoltée, moi qui, journellement, les recherchais toutes avec tant de soins ? On me place à quatre pattes au milieu de la chambre ; le dogue tourne, me flaire, lèche, monte sur mes reins, et finit par m'enconner à merveille, et me décharger dans la matrice. Mais il arriva quelque chose d'assez singulier : son membre grossit tellement dans l'opération, qu'il n'essayait de le retirer qu'en me causant des douleurs énormes. Le drôle alors voulut recommencer ; on décida que c'était le plus court : une seconde décharge l'ayant effectivement affaibli, il se retire après m'avoir deux fois arrosée de son sperme.

— Tenez, dit Chigi, vous allez voir M. Lucifer me traiter bientôt comme Juliette. Extrêmement libertin dans ses goûts, ce charmant animal honore la beauté partout où il la trouve : il va foutre mon cul avec le même plaisir qu'il vient de baiser le con de madame, je le parie. Mais je n'imiterai point l'oisiveté de notre chère amie, et je vais foutre cette chèvre tout en servant de putain à Lucifer.

Je n'ai jamais rien vu de si bizarre que cette jouissance. Chigi, avare de son foutre, ne déchargea point ; mais il eut l'air de prendre de bien grands plaisirs à cette voluptueuse extravagance.

— Regardez-moi, dit Bracciani, je vais vous donner un autre spectacle...

Il se fait enculer par l'eunuque et encule le dindon. Olympe, les fesses tournées vers lui, tenait entre les cuisses la tête de l'animal ; elle la coupe au moment où le physicien perd sa semence.

— Voilà, dit le libertin, le plus délicieux des plaisirs ! On n'imagine pas ce que fait éprouver le resserrement de l'anus du dindon, quand on lui coupe le cou, positivement à l'instant de la crise.

— Je ne l'ai jamais essayé, dit Chigi ; mais j'ai si fort entendu vanter cette manière de foutre, qu'il faut que j'essaie dans un autre genre... Juliette, me dit-il, tenez cet enfant entre vos cuisses pendant que je l'enculerai ; puis, au moment où mes blasphèmes vous annonceront mon délire, vous lui couperez le cou.

— Bien, dit Olympe, mais en le servant, mon cher, il faut que mon amie ait du plaisir. Je vais placer l'hermaphrodite sous sa bouche, et caressant à la fois dans lui les deux sexes, elle lui gamahuchera tout à tour, et les preuves de sa virilité et celles de sa féminine existence.

— Attendez, dit Bracciani, la posture peut s'arranger en telle sorte que je puisse enculer l'hermaphrodite et me faire foutre par l'eunuque, ayant sous mon nez le cul de la vieille, qui me chiera sur le visage.

— Quelle dépravation ! dit Olympe.

— Madame, dit Bracciani, tout cela s'explique ; il n'est pas un seul goût, pas un seul penchant, dont on ne puisse dévoiler la cause.

— Allons, dit Chigi, puisque vous vous enchaînez tous, il faut que le singe m'encule, pendant que le nain, à cheval sur les reins du petit garçon, me présentera ses fesses à baiser.

— Voilà qui va le mieux du monde, dit Olympe ; il n'y a donc de vacant ici que Lucifer, la chèvre et moi.

— Rien de plus aisé, dit Chigi, que de nous mettre tous en scène. Que la chèvre et vous se placent près de moi ; je varierai d'un cul à l'autre, et Lucifer vous sodomisera quand je n'occuperai pas votre cul ; mais je déchargerai toujours dans celui du petit garçon, dont Juliette coupera le cou dès qu'elle me verra pâmer.

Le tableau s'arrange : jamais rien d'aussi monstrueux ne s'était fait en lubricité ; nous n'en déchargeâmes pas moins tous ; l'enfant fut décapité très à point, et nous ne dérangeâmes le tableau que pour faire l'éloge des divins plaisirs que cette bizarrerie venait de nous procurer à tous.

Morceau choix de Juliette par le marquis de Sade


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