Index of WAVE Icons

Hover over the icons with your mouse for a brief description or click on an icon for a detailed description.

Errors:

Alerts:

HTML Alerts:

  • ALERT: Suspicious alternative text
  • ALERT: Redundant alternative text
  • ALERT: A nearby image has the same alternative text
  • ALERT: Very long alternative text
  • ALERT: Complex image may require long description
  • ALERT: Background images should NOT contain important content
  • ALERT: Fieldset without a legend
  • ALERT: Missing fieldset
  • ALERT: Unlabeled form element with title
  • ALERT: Possible heading
  • ALERT: Incorrectly ordered headings
  • ALERT: Incorrect use of empty list
  • ALERT: Incorrect use of empty list
  • ALERT: Italic - <i> provides visual formatting only. Use <em> for content that should be emphasized.
  • ALERT: Bold - <b> provides visual formatting only. Use <strong> for content that should be strongly emphasized.
  • ALERT: Possible blockquote
  • ALERT: Very small text
  • ALERT: Popup window
  • ALERT: Problematic link text
  • ALERT: Frame with suspicious title
  • FEATURE / ALERT: Hidden skip link
  • ALERT: Invisible content
  • ALERT: Accesskey
  • ALERT: Tabindex
  • ALERT: Page refreshes or redirects
  • ALERT: Missing Structure

Script Alerts:

  • ALERT: Event handler
  • ALERT: Javascript element
  • ALERT: Javascript jump menu may be present
  • ALERT: Noscript element

Media Alerts:

  • ALERT: Link to media
  • ALERT: Applet
  • ALERT: Link to Word document
  • ALERT: Link to Excel document
  • ALERT: Link to PowerPoint document
  • ALERT: Link to WordPerfect document
  • ALERT: Link to OpenOffice.org document
  • ALERT: Link to Acrobat PDF document
  • ALERT: <object> or <embed>
  • ALERT: Flash
  • ALERT: Shockwave
  • ALERT: Quicktime
  • ALERT: RealPlayer
  • ALERT: Windows Media Player

Accessibility Features:

Structural & Semantic Elements:

WAVE 4.0 Icons, Titles, and Descriptions

Errors

Icon Title Description Recommended Actions
ERROR: Missing alternative text Alternative text is not present for an image. Each image must have an alt attribute. That alt attribute contains accurate, adequately descriptive, and succinct alternative text for that image. If an image does not convey content, it should have null alternative text (alt="")
ERROR: Spacer image missing alternative text Alternative text is not present for an image used as a layout spacer. A spacer image is typically used to control page layout. Supply null alternative text (alt="") if the image does not convey content.
ERROR: Linked image missing alternative text Alternative text is not provided for an image that is the only thing within a link. Because each link provides a function, if the only content within a link is an image, that image must supply alternative text that describes the content of the image and/or the function of the link.
ERROR: Image button missing alternative text Alternative text is not present in a form image button. Supply alternative text that describes the function of the image input element.
ERROR: Image map missing alternative text Alternative text is not present for an image that has hotspots. Ensure the alternative text for the main image map image is appropriate. The alternative text is typically empty (alt=""), unless the image conveys content not conveyed in the hotspots. Ensure that the linearized reading/navigation order and alternative text of each hot spot is correct.
ERROR: Image map area missing alternative text Alternative text is not present for an image map area (hotspot). Supply alternative text that describes the function of the image map area (hotspot). Ensure that the linearized reading and navigation order of each hot spot is correct.
ERROR: Server-side image map A server-side image map is present. Replace the server-side image map with a client-side map or provide redundant links for all clickable areas.
ERROR: Invalid longdesc The longdesc attribute does not contain a URL. The longdesc attribute of an image must be a URL of another web page containing the long description.
ERROR: Form label missing A form <input>, <select>, or <textarea> does not have a corresponding label. (Note: Labels are not required for image, submit, reset, button, or hidden form element types.) Properly associate a form label with the input element.
ERROR: Empty form label A form label is present, but it does not contain any content. Supply appropriate text within the <label> element that describes the function of the associated form element.
ERROR: Multiple form labels A form element has two labels associated with it. Each form element can have at most one <label> associated with it.
ERROR: Orphaned form label A form label is present, but it is not associated with any form <input>, <select>, or <textarea>. Properly associate the label with its corresponding <input>, <select>, or <textarea> or remove the <label>.
ERROR: Frame missing title A frame does not have a "title" attribute or value. Provide a frame title that clearly provides the content or functionality of the frame.
ERROR: Broken skip navigation link A skip navigation link exists, but the anchor for the link does not exist. Ensure that the anchor for the skip navigation or skip to content link exists within the page.
ERROR: Empty heading A heading contains no content. Ensure that all headings contain informative content. This is necessary because users may navigate or search by headings.
ERROR: Marquee A <marquee> element is present. Eliminate the <marquee> element. It is not standards-compliant HTML and causes accessibility issues.
ERROR: Blinking content The <blink> element is present. Remove all distracting blinking content.
ERROR: <title> is missing or not informative The page title is missing or not descriptive. Provide a meaningful page title that succinctly describes the content of the page.
ERROR: Empty link A link contains no text. Provide text within the link that describes the functionality and/or target of that link.
ERROR: Empty table header A table header contains no text. Provide text within the table header. If the cell is not a table header, mark it up as a <td>.

Alerts

HTML Alerts

Icon Title Description Recommended Actions
ALERT: Suspicious alternative text The alternative text:
  • begins with "graphic of", "bullet", or "image of",
  • is an empty space (alt=" "),
  • is an image file name (e.g. alt="photo.gif"), or
  • is one of the following: "image", "graphic", "photo", "photograph", "drawing", "painting", "artwork", "here", "click here", "click", "logo", "bullet", "arrow", or "more".
Change the alternative text so that it provides an equivalent alternative to the image. You do not need to inform the user that the object is an image (e.g., avoid "image", etc.).
ALERT: Redundant alternative text The alternative text for an image is the same as nearby or adjacent text. Change either the alternative text or the adjacent text to eliminate the redundancy. In most cases, you can give the image null alternative text (alt="") because the content of the image is already provided in context through text.
ALERT: A nearby image has the same alternative text Two images near each other have the same or very similar alternative text. This may not be an error, depending on the context. If the images are near each other, you should probably change the alternative text of one of the images to eliminate the redundancy.
  • If the content of both images is provided through the alternative text of one image, the other image may be given null alternative text (alt="").
  • Eliminate one of the graphics entirely or combine them into one image.
  • Alter the structure in other ways that are appropriate for the context.
ALERT: Very long alternative text The alternative text exceeds 100 characters. If appropriate, shorten the alternative text or alternatively, provide brief alternative text plus a longer description.
ALERT: Complex image may require long description The image may be a complex image that requires a longer description. If the image is a complex image that cannot be adequately described in alternative text, provide a longer description in page context, another page, and/or by using longdesc.
ALERT: Background images should NOT contain important content A background image is present. Because there is no way to directly apply alternative text to background images, ensure that no important content is provided in the background image.
ALERT: Fieldset without a legend A fieldset is present, but the corresponding <legend> is missing. Supply an appropriate legend to the fieldset. Legend is optional in XHTML, but should be provided for accessibility reasons.
ALERT: Missing fieldset A group of check boxes or radio buttons is not enclosed in a fieldset. Grouped form elements, particularly check boxes and radio buttons, should be associated. A fieldset groups the form elements and the fieldset legend provides a description of the fieldset.
ALERT: Unlabeled form element with title An <input>, <textarea>, or <select> element is missing a label, but has a title. A label element is the most appropriate way of identifying form elements. However, most modern assistive technologies will read a title value for a form element if it is missing a title. Ensure that the title value adequately describes the functionality of the form element.
ALERT: Possible heading Text appears to be used as a heading (is bold, underlined, italicized, etc.) but is not marked up as such. If appropriate, replace the visual styling with the appropriate heading element.
ALERT: Incorrectly ordered headings Headings are not in a logical order (e.g., first heading is not h1 or heading levels are skipped). In most cases, a document should begin with an h1 and should not skip heading levels.


ALERT: Empty list A <ul> or <ol> does not contain any list items. Lists should not be used for decorative or formatting purposes. Use CSS to apply this visual affect or use <blockquote> if the text is a quote.
ALERT: Italic An italic element (<i>), which provides visual formatting only, is present. Use <em> for content that should be emphasized. If the italic element is being used on content that should have emphasis, replace it with the <em> element. Otherwise, consider using CSS to achieve the same visual effect.
ALERT: Bold A bold element (<b>), which provides visual formatting only, is present. Use <strong> for content that should be strongly emphasized. If the bold element is being used on content that should have strongly emphasis, replace it with the <strong> element. Otherwise, consider using CSS to achieve the same visual effect.
ALERT: Possible blockquote A paragraph has the appearance of being a quotation and is not marked up with <blockquote> or <q>. If the text in question is actually a quotation, use the <blockquote> or <q> element.
ALERT: Very small text Text is 9 pixels or smaller. Text which is 9 pixels or smaller is very difficult to read, particularly for those with low vision. Ensure text is at least 10 pixels high. Use relative font sizes to ensure the text can scale.
ALERT: Popup window A link is set to open a new window. Cause the link to open in the same window or inform the user that the link will open a new window.
ALERT: Problematic link text Link text does not make sense out of context, contains extraneous text (such as "click here"), or is the same as another link on the page, but links to a different location. Reword the link so that it is more descriptive of its destination when read out of context of the rest of the document, remove any extraneous text (such as "click here"), and ensure that links with the same link text link do not link to different locations.
ALERT: Frame with suspicious title A frame title is not descriptive. Replace the frame title with one that clearly explains the purpose or content of the frame.
FEATURE / ALERT: Hidden skip link A skip link is present, but is hidden from view. If possible, make the skip link visible to allow sighted keyboard users better access OR display the link visually when it receives keyboard focus.
ALERT: Invisible content Content is hidden using CSS display:none or visibility:hidden. Content hidden in this manner is not read by screen readers. If the information is intended to be presented to the user, either display the content or hide it in an accessible manner.
ALERT: Accesskey An accesskey attribute is defined. Due to potential conflicts with browser and screen reader shortcut keys, it is typically recommended to not use accesskeys.
ALERT: Tabindex A tabindex attribute is specified Remove tabindex if the natural tab order is logical or restructure page content to ensure that the tab/reading order is logical.
ALERT: Page refreshes or redirects The page is set to automatically change location or refresh. Give the user control over time-sensitive content changes.
ALERT: Missing Structure This page has no headings or document structure. Provide a clear, consistent heading structure. Each page should typically have one <h1> and sub-headings as appropriate. Headings provide a document outline, semantic structure, and facilitate navigation and understanding.

Script Alerts

Icon Title Description Recommended Actions
ALERT: Event handler An event handler is present.
  • Ensure that the event handler is device independent (does not require a mouse or keyboard) or that multiple event handlers are used to allow for both keyboard and mouse interactivity.
  • Ensure that the actions that are performed as a result of these event handlers do not introduce accessibility issues.
  • Ensure that this event is only attached to elements that can receive keyboard focus (<a>, <input>, etc.).
  • If an onmouseover/out effect is only cosmetic (e.g. it causes an image to "glow" or to change color), no change is necessary.
  • If the onmouseover/out effect exposes new content, this content will likely not be accessible to most assistive technologies. Provide a redundant, alternative way to access the same content or remove the mouse-over effect.
ALERT: Javascript element A javascript element is present. Ensure that the javascript does not require the use of a mouse or introduce other accessibility issues.
ALERT: Javascript jump menu may be present A javascript jump menu may be present (e.g. a select element that triggers page changes with the onchange event handler). Eliminate the javascript jump menus because they are unfriendly to those who cannot use a mouse. Allow the user to activate an adjacent button to trigger the action.
ALERT: Noscript element A <noscript> element is present. Ensure that the noscript content allows access to the same functionality as the scripted content. The noscript element cannot be used to provide an accessible alternative to inaccessible javascript.

Media Alerts

Icon Title Description Recommended Actions
ALERT: Link to media A link to an audio or video file is present. Ensure that captioning and a transcript is provided for video content and ensure that a transcript is provided for audio content.
ALERT: Applet An <applet> element is present. Provide an alternative, HTML-based means of accessing the same functionality and/or use the Java accessibility API to create applets that are directly accessible
ALERT: Link to Word document A link to a Word document is present. Provide an HTML alternative and/or ensure the Word document is natively accessible.
ALERT: Link to Excel document A link to an Excel document is present. Provide an HTML alternative.
ALERT: Link to PowerPoint document A link to a PowerPoint document is present. Provide an HTML alternative and/or ensure the PowerPoint document is natively accessible.
ALERT: Link to WordPerfect document A link to a WordPerfect document is present. Provide an HTML alternative.
ALERT: Link to OpenOffice.org document A link to an OpenOffice.org document is present. Provide an HTML alternative and/or ensure the OpenOffice.org document is natively accessible.
ALERT: Link to PDF document A link to a PDF document is present. Provide an HTML alternative and/or create a tagged PDF file that is directly accessible to assistive technologies.
ALERT: <object> or <embed> An unidentified <object> or <embed> element is present. If the object is not already in HTML format, provide an HTML alternative or ensure the object is accessible. Provide a link to download any required plugins.
ALERT: Flash A Flash object is present. If the Flash object does not present content, hide it from screen readers. If content is presented, provide an HTML alternative and/or make the Flash object natively accessible, including providing captions for any embedded video-type content and ensuring that the Flash object is keyboard-accessible.
ALERT: Shockwave A Shockwave object is present. Provide an HTML alternative
ALERT: Quicktime A Quicktime movie is present. Provide captions and a text transcript. Provide audio descriptions, if necessary
ALERT: RealPlayer A RealPlayer media object is present. Provide captions and a text transcript. Provide audio descriptions, if necessary
ALERT: Windows Media Player A Windows Media Player object is present. Provide captions and a text transcript. Provide audio descriptions, if necessary

Accessibility Features

Icon Title Description Recommended Actions
FEATURE: Alternative text Alternative text is present in an image. Ensure the alternative text conveys equivalent content, is accurate, and is succinct.
FEATURE: Null or empty alternative text Alternative text is null or empty (e.g. alt=""). Ensure that this graphic does not convey any important information or the information is conveyed in the surrounding context.
FEATURE: Null or empty alternative text on spacer Alternative text is null or empty (e.g. alt="") on a spacer image. Ensure that this graphic does not convey any important information or the information is conveyed in the surrounding context.
FEATURE: Linked image with alternative text Alternative text is present in an image that is a link. Ensure the alternative text conveys the equivalent content of the image and/or the function of the link.
FEATURE: Image button alternative text Alternative text is present in an image input element. Ensure the alternative text describes the function of the image input element.
FEATURE: Image map alternative text Alternative text is present for an image that has hotspots. Ensure the alternative text for the image map image is appropriate. The alternative text is typically empty (alt=""), unless the image conveys content not conveyed in its hotspots.
FEATURE: Hotspot alternative text Alternative text is present in an image map area. Ensure the alternative text describes the function of the image map hotspot. Ensure that the linearized reading/navigation order and alternative text of each hot spot is correct.
FEATURE: Long description A longdesc attribute is present for an image. Ensure that the long description is accurate and adequate. Because longdesc is not fully supported, also provide a link to the long description page within the context of the image.
FEATURE: Skip link A link is present which allows users to skip over sections of the web content. Ensure that the link is functioning properly and that the link text adequately describes the link functionality.
FEATURE: Form label A form label is present and associated with an <input>, <textarea>, or <select> element. Ensure that the label is accurate, adequately descriptive, succinct, and that it is associated with the correct <input>, <textarea>, or <select> element.
FEATURE: Fieldset A fieldset is present. Ensure that the fieldset encloses the proper form elements and that the legend is accurate, adequately descriptive, and succinct.
FEATURE: Frame title A frame title is present. Ensure that the title is accurate, adequately descriptive, and succinct.
FEATURE: WAI-ARIA An ARIA role, state, or property is present. WAI-ARIA is a specification used to provide rich internet application accessibility. Ensure that each role, state, and/or property is implemented correctly.

Structural & Semantic elements

Icon Title Description Recommended Actions
(dotted magenta border)
  A <table> element is present. Ensure the reading order of the table is logical and that accessibility features are provided for data tables.
(dashed magenta border)
  A <div> element is present Make sure that the div element encloses the proper areas.
1 Reading order A new table cell or <div> element begins. The number indicates the reading order. Ensure that the linearized reading/navigation order matches your intended order and that the order would be logical if all of the layout tables and page elements were linearized.
Layout table A table is present that does NOT have any header (<th>) cells. Ensure that the table is indeed a layout table and that it does not contain tabular data. If it is a layout table, eliminate all header cells (e.g., change <th> to <td>).
Data table A table is present and table header cells (<th>) are present. Ensure that the table is indeed a data table with tabular data, and that it is not used merely for layout. Mark up the header cells appropriately (using <th> elements) and associate the data cells with the proper header cells. Provide an appropriate summary attribute to the table.
Table header cell A table header cell (<th>) is present. Ensure that the cell is actually a header cell for tabular data. If it is not, change the <th> to <td>.
Row header cell A table header cell (<th>) is present and has scope="row". Ensure that the cell is actually a header cell for tabular data and that it is a row header.
Column header cell A table header cell (<th>) is present and has scope="col". Ensure that the cell is actually a header cell for tabular data and that it is a column header.
Inline Frame An inline frame (iframe) is present. Ensure that content within the iframe is accessible.
- Heading level X A heading element is present. Ensure that the text in question is truly a heading and that it is structured correctly in the page outline.
Emphasized text An <em> element is present. Ensure that the text should be emphasized. If not, remove the <em> element or replace with <i> or CSS styling.
Strongly emphasized text A <strong> element is present Ensure that the text should be emphasized strongly. If not, remove the <strong> element or replace with <b> or CSS styling.
Ordered list An ordered (numbered) list is present (the <ol> element). Ensure that an ordered (numbered) list is appropriate for the context (i.e., the list items are in a sequential order).
Unordered list An unordered (bulleted) list is present (the <ul> element). Ensure that an unordered (bulleted) list is appropriate for the context (i.e., the list items are parallel).
Definition list A definition list (<dl>) is present. Ensure that a definition list is appropriate for the context and that definition terms (<dt>) and descriptions (<dd>) are provided.
Quote or Blockquote A quote (<q>) or blockquote (<blockquote>) element is present. Ensure that the text is truly a quotation. If not, remove the <q> or <blockquote> element and apply a CSS style to achieve the same effect.
Cite A citation (<cite>) is present. Ensure that the text is truly a citation. If not, remove the <cite> element and apply a CSS style to achieve the same effect.
Title A title attribute is present. Ensure that the title is brief and informative. Title should be used to present advisory information and should not present important content or information that is necessary for accessibility.
Same-page link A link is set to jump to another location in the same document. Ensure that the link goes to a valid destination on the same page.
Anchor target A named anchor is present. Ensure that the destination anchor name matches its corresponding link.
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