Disarmed Enemy Forces
Disarmed Enemy Forces was a designation both for soldiers who surrendered to an adversary after hostilites ended and for those previously surrendered POWs who were held in camps in occupied German territory at that time. It was most referenced by Dwight D. Eisenhower's redesignation of POW's in post World War II occupied Germany. The purpose of the designation was to circumvent the 1929 Geneva Convention, Relative to the treatment of prisoners of war. The prisoners were redesignated as POWs in March 1946. The wording of the 1949 Third Geneva Convention was intentionally altered from that of the 1929 convention so that soldiers who "fall into the power" of the enemy are now protected as well as those taken prisoner in the course of fighting.
5-Star General Dwight David Eisenhower - Supreme Commander o/t Allied Forces in Europe;
Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army; Supreme Commander of NATO; 34th President o/t United States
Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 � March 28, 1969), nicknamed "Ike", was a five-star General in the United States Army�During the Second World War, he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944-45.
Following the German unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945, Eisenhower was appointed Military Governor of the U.S. Occupation Zone, based in Frankfurt am Main. Germany was divided into four Occupation Zones, one each for the U.S., Britain, France, and the Soviet Union�..
He made the decision to reclassify German prisoners of war (POWs) in U.S. custody as Disarmed Enemy Forces (DEFs), thus depriving them of the protection of the Geneva convention. As DEFs, their food rations could be lowered and they could be compelled to serve as unfree labor (see Eisenhower and German POWs). Eisenhower was an early supporter of the Morgenthau Plan to permanently remove Germany's industrial capacity to wage future wars. In November 1945 he approved the distribution of 1000 free copies of Morgenthau's book Germany is Our Problem, which promoted and described the plan in detail, to American military officials in occupied Germany. Historian Stephen Ambrose draws the conclusion that, despite Eisenhower's later claims the act was not an endorsement of the Morgenthau plan, Eisenhower both approved of the plan and had previously given Morgenthau at least some of his ideas about how Germany should be treated.
He also incorporated officials from Morgenthau's Treasury into the army of occupation. These were commonly called "Morgenthau boys" for their zeal in interpreting the occupation directive JCS 1067, which had been heavily influenced by Morgenthau and his plan, as strictly as possible.
List of citations bestowed by other countries.
* Italy: Military Order of Italy, Knight Grand Cross
* Italy: Order of Malta
General Dwight D. Eisenhower was awarded two military decorations by the country of Italy. They are as follows:
1. Military Order of Malta, Knight Grand Cross (Dec. 5, 1947)
2. The Merit of Malta, Sovereign Order of Malta, Grand Cross (April 1,1952)
Herbert L. Pankratz
Social Network Diagram:
Organised persecution of ethnic Germans
The book Other Losses by James Bacque (ISBN 1-55168-191-9) alleges that General Dwight Eisenhower ordered the mistreatment of German Prisoners of War who were detained in American-run POW camps after World War II. See also Eisenhower and German POWs Other US and German sources estimate the number of German POWs who died in captivity at between 56,000 or 78,000 or about 1% of all German prisoners, which is roughly the same as the percentage of American POWs who died in German captivity, and far less than the 64% of Soviet POWs who died while detained by the Third Reich.
Still, the likelihood for a German POW of dying in captivity was 4 times higher when they were captured by Americans than when captured by the British. In fact Eisenhower had them for a period relabeled as Disarmed Enemy Forces in order to rid them of the protection of the Geneva convention. Their food rations were then lowered, and the Red cross was forbidden to visit them.
In addition, millions of German prisoners of war were for several years used as forced labor, both by the Western and Eastern Allies. (See also Eisenhower and German POWs)
In the U.S. an initially successful campaign was carried out in the years 1944 - 1948 to convince the U.S. public that the German people should be dealt with harshly.
At the Potsdam conference after World War II the victorious allies awarded roughly 25% of Germanys pre-war territory to Poland and the Soviet Union. The German population in this area was expelled by force, together with the Germans of the Sudetenland and the German populations scattered throughout the rest of Eastern Europe. One to three million are estimated to have died during the expulsion, mainly women and children. (See also Expulsion of Germans after World War II).
As agreed at Potsdam an attempt was made to convert Germany into an agricultural nation, with would only be allowed a minimum of light industry to pay for food imports. Large numbers of factories were during the years 1945 - 1950 dismantled as reparations or simply destroyed in order to lower the German industrial potential. (see also the Morgenthau Plan).
Due in part to these economic occupation policies, and also due to the refusal of the U.S. to allow food imports to help ethnic Germans, large numbers of German civilians died in the years following the uncondiditonal surrender in what would eventually become West Germany. (See also Eisenhower and German POWs).
� What is certain is that many more POWs and civilians suffered and perished than needed to in the aftermath of World War II, and that the victorious Allies were guided at least partly by a spirit of postwar vengeance in creating the circumstances that contributed to those deaths.
Hundreds of thousands of German Prisoners of War were kept in Soviet custody for 10 years after World War II. These were not repatriated until Konrad Adenauer went to Moscow in 1955 and urged their release. They, along with alleged German collaborators and other ethnic Germans, were imprisoned in Gulag concentration camps. The Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was abolished and Volga Germans were banished from their settlements on the Volga River with many being deported to Siberia or Kazakhstan. (see also Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union)
In the dying days of the World War II and during the occupation of Germany, Soviet forces invaded German villages and raped German women en masse. It is believed by historian Antony Beevor that "a 'high proportion' of at least 15 million women who lived in the Soviet zone or were expelled from Germany's eastern provinces were raped." Several thousand women committed suicide. On the final day of hostilities, 900 women in one village just east of Berlin took their children and drowned them in the river (followed by their own suicides) as soon as they heard the Russian guns coming. Although all militaries have histories of rape, the gang-raping of ordinary German women occurred with the approval of many district commanders. In all, only about 4,000 Soviet soldiers were ever punished for atrocities. (See also Red Army atrocities)
In the 18th century, the German states of Prussia and Austria participated in the Partitions of Poland, in which the historical Kingdom of Poland was erased from the map.
Poland regained its independence only in 1919, when the Treaty of Versailles recreated country as the Second Polish Republic. However, minorities of Ethnic Germans remained in the territories of Poznań, West Prussia, Upper Silesia, and eastern Pomerania within Poland. In Poznań and eastern Pomerania, the number of German speaking citizens was 9% in 1931, and 6% in Upper Silesia.
In 1939, the Germans exploited the fact that Poland contained ethnically German populations as a casus belli in order to justify their actions against the Polish Republic. In this, they were aided by a number of ethnic German Polish citizens who sympathised with Nazism.
In Poland during the German occupation in World War II, the status of Volksdeutsche had many privileges but one big disadvantage: unlike Poles, Volksdeutsche were conscripted into the German army. The Volksliste (a list of peoples categorised according to Nazi philosophies of "racial purity") had 4 categories. No. 1 and No. 2 were considered ethnic Germans, while No. 3 and No. 4 were ethnic Poles that signed the Volksliste. No. 1 and No. 2 in the Polish areas annexed by Germany numbered ~1,000,000 and No. 3 and No. 4 ~1,700,000. In the General Government territory, there were about 120,000 Volksdeutsche.
Volksdeutsche of Polish origins were treated by Poles with special contempt, and the fact of their having signed the Volksliste constituted high treason according to Polish law.
German citizens that remained in the territory of Poland after World War II became as a group personae non gratae. They had the choice of either applying for Polish citizenship or being expelled to Germany. The property that belonged to Germans, German companies or the German state, was either transferred to Soviet Union or confiscated by the Polish state, along with many other properties in communist Poland. German owners, as explicitly stated by the law, were not eligible for any compensation. Those who decided to apply for compensation were subjected to a verification process. There were many acts of violence against Volksdeutsche.
See also: Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918-1938), Bene� decrees, Sudetenland, Flight and expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia during and after World War II.
In the summer of 1945 there were a number of incidents and localised massacres of the German population.
The following examples are described in a study done by the European University Institute in Florence:
� In the Prerov incident, 71 men, 120 women and 74 children were killed.
� 30,000 Germans were forced to leave their homes in Brno for labour camps near Austria. It is estimated that several hundred died in the death march.
� Estimates of killed in the �st� massacre range from 30 - 50 to 600 - 700 civilians. Some women and children were thrown off the bridge into the Elbe River and shot.
Law No. 115 of 1946 (see Bene� decrees) providees: "Any act committed between September 30, 1938 and October 28, 1945, the object of which was to aid the struggle for liberty of the Czechs and Slovaks or which represented just reprisals for actions of the occupation forces and their accomplices, is not illegal, even when such acts may otherwise be punishable by law."
As a consequence all atrocities committed during the expulsion of Germans were made legal, and since the law is still in effect no perpetrator has ever faced charges for his or her crimes during the expulsion.
The children of Norwegian mothers and German soldiers were persecuted after the war, see War children.
German POWs in Norway were forced to clear minefields and then walk over them, leading to the death and mutilation of hundreds of prisoners.
See also: History of South Tyrol.
After the end of World War I, the German-speaking South Tyrol was included in the new boundaries of Italy. Following the rise of the Fascist movement of Mussolini, the ethnic Germans of this enclave faced growing persecution. Their names, and the names of the towns and places in the area, were forcibly changed to Italian. In addition, Mussolini engaged in a vigorous campaign to resettle ethnic Italians into the region. Many Tyroleans fled to Germany during this time, and the matter of South Tyrol became a source of friction between Hitler and Mussolini.
After the end of World War II, the organised persecution of Germans in the South Tyrol largely came to an end, although ethnic strife continued for decades.
Eisenhower and German POWs
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Canadian novelist James Bacque has alleged that nearly one million German prisoners of war, redesignated by U.S. General Dwight Eisenhower as "Disarmed Enemy Forces" in order to avoid recognition under the third Geneva Convention, died of starvation or exposure while held in post-war Western internment camps.
Bacque charges that hundreds of thousands of German prisoners of war (POWs) who entered the camps were not transferred out, so they must have died. He also points to a German report recording the death of 1.4 million German POWs, and Soviet data accounting for only 450,600 of these deaths. (The remainder, he says, must then have died in Western camps.) In his book Other Losses, Bacque recounts interviews with people who claimed to have witnessed trucks full of dead leaving the camps each day, and civilian women who say they were fired upon while trying to throw bread over the camp fence. The fact that Red Cross inspectors were banned, Red Cross food aid was returned, building of shelters was forbidden and soldiers were kept on short rations are seen by Bacque as a "method of the genocide."
Another critic of Eisenhower's policy in Germany was senator Homer E. Capehart.
Eisenhower and post-war American policy
Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower frequently clashed with Gen. George S. Patton, a staunch anti-Communist who favored generous treatment of former German officers and even some former Nazis. Patton felt that "It is no more possible for a man to be a civil servant in Germany and not have paid lip service to the Nazis than it is for a man to be a postmaster in America and not have paid at least lip service to the Democratic Party or the Republican Party when they are in power," and his vocal complaints eventually led to his being relieved of his command as post-war governor of Bavaria. The controversial general who had once been one of the most feared enemies of the German army admired Germans and after the war even called them "the only decent people left in Europe." He complained of what he considered persecution of the German people and saw it as serving the interests of the Soviet Union, not the United States.
American Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr. had written a book outlining the Morgenthau Plan, Germany is Our Problem. In November 1945 General Eisenhower, at the time Military Governor of the U.S. Occupation Zone in Germany, approved the distribution of one thousand free copies of the book to American military officials in Germany. Historian Stephen Ambrose draws the conclusion that not only did Eisenhower approve of the plan, he had, in fact, contributed to it while it was being written.
In response to suggestions from his own military government in Germany that the Potsdam agreement be interpreted less strictly as regards the lowering of the peoples standards of living Eisenhower in October 1945 stated his position to the press as "...I say let Germany find out what it means to start a war."
In order to impress the German people with the Allied opinion of them, a strict non-fraternization policy was adhered to by Eisenhower and the War department. However, thanks to pressure from the State Department and individual US congressmen this policy was eventually lifted in stages. In June 1945 the prohibition against speaking with German children was made less strict. In July it became possible to speak to German adults in certain circumstances. In September the whole policy was completely dropped in Austria and Germany. The prohibition on marriage between Americans and German or Austrian civilians remained until (Austria: January, Germany: December 1946).
For the treatment of German female civilians see War children.
Although Bacque has estimated that 726,000 German prisoners died of starvation or disease while in U.S. captivity, this has been shown to be a gross overestimation. However, "the mortality rate for German POW's in U.S. hands was more than 4 times higher than the rate for those who surrendered to the British". Further, another advantage with surrendering to the British rather than the Americans was that besides treating German prisoners better than the U.S. did, the British were also less likely to hand German prisoners over to the Soviet Union. Large numbers of German prisoners were transferred between the Allies. The U.S gave 765,000 to France, 76,000 to Benelux countries, and 200,000 to the Soviet Union. The U.S. also chose to refuse to accept the surrender of German troops attempting to surrender in Saxony and Bohemia. These soldiers were instead handed over to the Soviet Union. (The Soviet Union in turn handed German prisoners over to other Eastern European nations, for example 70,000 to Poland) Death rates of German soldiers held prisoner in the Soviet Union was 35.8%.
American food policy in post-war Germany
Throughout all of 1945 the Allies forces of occupation ensured that no international aid reached ethnic Germans.  It was directed that all relief went to non-German displaced persons, liberated Allied POWs, and concentration camp inmates.
General Lucius Clay, then Deputy to General Eisenhower, stated:
� I feel that the Germans should suffer from hunger and from cold as I believe such suffering is necessary to make them realize the consequences of a war which they caused.
The German Red Cross was dissolved, and the International Red Cross and the few other allowed international relief agencies were kept from helping Germans through strict controls on supplies and on travel. The few agencies permitted to help Germans, such as the indigenous Caritas Verband, were not allowed to use imported supplies. When the Vatican attempted to transmit food supplies from Chile to German infants the U.S. State Department forbade it.
During 1945 it was estimated that the average German civilian in the U.S. and the United Kingdom occupation zones received 1,200 calories a day. Meanwhile non-German Displaced Persons were receiving 2,300 calories through emergency food imports and Red Cross help. In early October 1945 the UK government privately acknowledged in a cabinet meeting that German civilian adult death rates had risen to four times the pre-war levels and death rates amongst the German children had risen by 10 times the pre-war levels. 
General Lucius Clay stated in October 1945 that:
� undoubtedly a large number of refugees have already died of starvation, exposure and disease�. The death rate in many places has increased several fold, and infant mortality is approaching 65 percent in many places. By the spring of 1946, German observers expect that epidemics and malnutrition will claim 2.5 to 3 million victims between the Oder and Elbe.
In early 1946 U.S. President Harry S. Truman finally bowed to pressure from Senators, Congress and public to allow foreign relief organization to enter Germany in order to review the food situation. In mid-1946 non-German relief organizations were finally permitted to help starving German children. During 1946 the average German adult received less than 1,500 calories a day. 2,000 calories was then considered the minimum an individual can endure on for a limited period of time with reasonable health.
The German food situation became worst during the very cold winter of 1946-1947, when German calorie intake ranged from 1,000-1,500 calories per day, a situation made worse by severe lack of fuel for heating. Average adult calorie intake in U.S was 3,200-3,300, in UK 2,900 and in U.S. Army 4,000.
In a comparative U.S. government study run by former U.S. President Herbert Hoover and published in February 1947, the nutritional situation surveyed in some of Germany's neighbor states (Italy, France, Belgium, Holland and the UK) was close to pre-war normal, while the nutritional situation for certain population groups in Germany (mainly children and the elderly) was disastrously low.
The Historian Nicholas Balabkins notes that the Allied restrictions placed on German steel production, and their control over to where the produced coal and steel was delivered, meant that offers by Western European nations to trade food for desperately needed German coal and machinery were rejected. Neither the Italians nor the Dutch could sell the vegetables that they had previously sold in Germany, with the consequence that the Dutch had to destroy considerable proportions of their crop. Denmark offered 150 tons of lard a month; Turkey offered hazelnuts; Norway offered fish and fish oil; Sweden offered considerable amounts of fats. The Allies were however not willing to let the Germans trade.
Another consequence of the Allied policy of "Industrial Disarmament" (see The industrial plans for Germany) was that there was a drastic fall in fertilizer available for the German agriculture, further decreasing the food production.
German infant mortality rate was twice that of other nations in Western Europe until the close of 1948.
The adequate feeding of the German population in occupied Germany was an Allied legal obligation  under international law: Article 43 of The 1907 Hague Rules of Land Warfare.
Richard Dominic Wiggers draws in "The United States and the Refusal to Feed German Civilians after World War II" the conclusion that not only did the Allies violate international law when it comes to the feeding of enemy civilians, they both directly and indirectly caused the unnecessary suffering and death of large numbers of civilians and POW's in occupied Germany, guided partly by a spirit of postwar vengeance when creating the circumstances that contributed to their deaths.
Allied forced labor policy in post-war Germany
The topic of using Germans as forced labor was first broached at the Teheran conference, where Soviet premier Joseph Stalin demanded at least 4,000,000 German workers to repair enormous damage inflicted by German invasion on Soviet Union . It was included in the Morgenthau Plan and was finally included in the protocol of the Yalta conference where it was sanctioned by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Although not included in the protocol of the Potsdam conference the policy was nevertheless later implemented de facto. In March 1947 4,000,000 Germans were being used as forced labor . General Eisenhower transferred several hundred thousands of POWs to the Soviets which used them, alongside Soviet captured POWs and German civilians, as forced laborers (See also Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union for the fate of the civilians). Death rates for the German civilians doing forced labor in the Soviet Union ranged between 19% - 39%, depending on category. Most German POW survivors of the forced labor camps in the Soviet Union were released in 1953.. The last Germans were repatriated in 1956.
The U.S. used over 500,000 German POWs in Germany in Military Labor Service Units. Great Britain used 225,000 Germans as �reparations labor�. In addition to the 200,000 Germans captured by French forces France demanded 1,700,000 POWs for use as �enforced labor�. In July 1945 they were promised 1,300,000 POWs by the SHAEF. The number of actually delivered prisoners is debated, as is the number of surviving POWs eventually released by the French. General George S. Patton commented in his diary �I�m also opposed to sending POW�s to work as slaves in foreign lands (in particular, to France) where many will be starved to death.� He also noted �It is amusing to recall that we fought the revolution in defense of the rights of man and the civil war to abolish slavery and have now gone back on both principles�. On 12 October 1945 The New York Herald Tribune reported that the French were starving their POWs, and compared their emaciation to that of those liberated from the Dachau concentration camp. German prisoners were for example forced to clear minefields in France and the low countries. By December 1945 it was estimated by French authorities that 2,000 German prisoners were being killed or maimed each month in mine-clearing accidents. On 13 March 1947 the U.S. made an agreement with the French to the effect that roughly 450,000 German prisoners would be released, at a rate of 20,000 a month. This number included the roughly 200,000 prisoners the French had themselves captured.. In Norway the last available casualty record, from August 29, 1945, shows that by that time a total of 275 German soldiers had been killed while clearing mines, while an additional 392 had been maimed.
Lack of records
There are no longer any surviving records showing which German POWs and Disarmed Enemy Forces who were in U.S. custody prior to roughly September 1945. The early standard operating procedure for handling POWs and Disarmed Enemy Forces was to send a copy of the POW form to the Central Registry of War Criminals and Security Suspects (CROWCASS). However, this practice was apparently stopped as impractical, and all copies of the POW forms, roughly 8 million, were destroyed. 
1. ^ John Dietrich. The Morgenthau Plan: Soviet Influence on American Postwar Policy (2002) pg. 27
2. ^ Trouble in Germany Time Magazine Monday, Oct. 22, 1945
3. ^ Perry Biddiscombe "Dangerous Liaisons: The Anti-Fraternization Movement in the U.S. Occupation Zones of Germany and Austria, 1945-1948", Journal of Social History 34.3 (2001) p. 619
4. ^ Niall Ferguson, "Prisoner Taking and Prisoner Killing in the Age of Total War: Towards a Political Economy of Military Defeat" War in History 2004 11 (2) 148�192 pg. 187
5. ^ Niall Ferguson, "Prisoner Taking and Prisoner Killing in the Age of Total War: Towards a Political Economy of Military Defeat" War in History 2004 11 (2) 148�192 pg. 188
6. ^ Niall Ferguson, "Prisoner Taking and Prisoner Killing in the Age of Total War: Towards a Political Economy of Military Defeat" War in History 2004 11 (2) 148�192 pg. 189
7. ^ Niall Ferguson, "Prisoner Taking and Prisoner Killing in the Age of Total War: Towards a Political Economy of Military Defeat" War in History 2004 11 (2) 148�192 pg. 189, (footnote, referenced to: H. Nawratil, Die deutschen Nachkriegsverluste unter Vertriebenen, Gefangenen und Verschleppter: mit einer �bersicht �ber die europ�ischen Nachkriegsverluste (Munich and Berlin, 1988), pp. 36f.)
8. ^ Niall Ferguson, "Prisoner Taking and Prisoner Killing in the Age of Total War: Towards a Political Economy of Military Defeat" War in History 2004 11 (2) 148�192 pg. pg 164.
9. ^ Niall Ferguson, "Prisoner Taking and Prisoner Killing in the Age of Total War: Towards a Political Economy of Military Defeat" War in History 2004 11 (2) 148�192 pg. 186 (Table 4)
10. ^ Steven Bela Vardy and T. Hunt Tooley, eds. Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe ISBN 0-88033-995-0. subsection by Richard Dominic Wiggers, �The United States and the Refusal to Feed German Civilians after World War II� pg. 281
11. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers pg. 281-282
12. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers pg. 278
13. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers pg. 281-282
14. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers pg. 281
15. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers pg. 280
16. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers pg. 279
17. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers pg. 280
18. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers pg. 280
19. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers pg. 282
20. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers pg. 284
21. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers p. 244
22. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers p. 285
23. ^ Herbert Hoover. "The Presidents Economic Mission to Germany and Austria: Report No. 1 - German Agriculture and Food Requirements", February 28, 1947. p. 9
24. ^ Nicholas Balabkins, "Germany Under Direct Controls: Economic Aspects of Industrial Disarmament 1945 - 1948", Rutgers University Press, 1964 p. 125
25. ^ Nicholas Balabkins, "Germany Under Direct Controls: Economic Aspects of Industrial Disarmament 1945 - 1948", Rutgers University Press, 1964 p. 91
26. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers pg. 286
27. ^ Nicholas Balabkins, "Germany Under Direct Controls: Economic Aspects of Industrial Disarmament 1945 - 1948", Rutgers University Press, 1964 p. 101
28. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers p. 274
29. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers p. 279. "In postwar Germany and Japan, the U.S. Army financed the most urgent food imports by citing obligations under Article 43 of The Hague Rules of Land Warfare."
30. ^ Richard Dominic Wiggers p. 288
31. ^ John Dietrich. The Morgenthau Plan: Soviet Influence on American Postwar Policy (2002) pg. 123
32. ^ Dietrich pg. 124
33. ^ Time Magazine Oct. 12, 1953 Homecoming
34. ^ Time Magazine, 7 July 1952 2,500,000 Missing
35. ^ Dietrich pg. 125
36. ^ Dietrich pg. 126
37. ^ Dietrich pg. 127
38. ^ Dietrich pg. 127
39. ^ Dietrich pg. 129
40. ^ S. P. MacKenzie "The Treatment of Prisoners of War in World War II" The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 66, No. 3. (Sep., 1994), pp. 487-520.
41. ^ Dietrich pg. 134
42. ^ Ike and the Disappearing Atrocities New York Times Book Review, February 24, 1991.
43. ^ Ike's Revenge? Time Magazine Monday, Oct. 2, 1989
44. ^ http://wih.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/11/2/148.pdf
� James Bacque, Other Losses revised edition 1999, Little Brown and Company, Boston, New York, Toronto, London ISBN 1-55168-191-9
� James Bacque. Crimes and Mercies: The Fate Of German Civilians Under Allied Occupation, 1944-1950 Little Brown & Company; ISBN 0-7515-2277-5; (August 1997)
� Gunter Bischof and Stephen E. Ambrose. Eisenhower and the German Pows: Facts Against Falsehood (1992)
� V�rdy, Steven B�la and Tooly, T. Hunt: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe Available as MS Word for Windows file (3.4 MB) Section: by Richard Dominic Wiggers, The United States and the Refusal to Feed German Civilians after World War II pp. 274 - 288
� John Dietrich, The Morgenthau Plan: Soviet Influence on American Postwar Policy Algora Publishing, New York (2002) ISBN 1-892941-90-2
� Did the Allies Starve Millions of Germans? -- This James Bacque article seems to be the main source for the genocide accusation
� Stephen Ambrose's lengthy rebuttal of Bacque's claims
� Bacque and US Army historian Fisher's reply to Ambrose
� Letters to the Editor of New Tork Times in response to Ambrose's review of "Other losses".
� The U.S. Army in the Occupation of Germany, by Earl F. Ziemke, Center of Military History, United States Army, 1975
� V�rdy, Steven B�la and Tooly, T. Hunt: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe Available as MS Word for Windows file (3.4 MB) Section: by Richard Dominic Wiggers, The United States and the Refusal to Feed German Civilians after World War II pp. 274 - 288
� Tarczai, Bela: Hungarian Prisoners of War in French Captivity 1945-47 On the Allied transfer of Hungarian POW's for forced labour, and their resulting death rates. Available as a PDF file only (57 kB)
� The Road Ahead: Lessons in Nation Building from Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan for Postwar Iraq, by Ray Salvatore Jennings May 2003, Peaceworks No. 49, United States Institute of Peace
� Americans are Losing the Victory in Europe, and Grim Europe Faces Winter of Misery Life magazine January 7 1946
� Oral History Interview with General William H. Draper Jr. Chief, Economics Division, Control Council for Germany, 1945-46
� Oral History Interview with General Lucius D. Clay Deputy to General Eisenhower, 1945; deputy military governor, Germany (U.S.) 1946; commander in chief, U.S. Forces in Europe and military governor, U.S. Zone, Germany, 1947�49; retired 1949.
� "An ethical blank cheque" British and US mythology about the second world war ignores our own crimes and legitimises Anglo-American war making Richard Drayton Tuesday May 10, 2005 The Guardian
� Prisoner Taking and Prisoner Killing in the Age of Total War: Towards a Political Economy of Military Defeat
The Assassination Of
General George Patton
'Los Crimenes De Los Buenos' by Joaquin Bochaca Published January 1, 2001
(Note: The translation of the passage below from Joaquin Bochaca's book, "Los Crimenes De Los 'Buenos' " was prepared by a participant on Liberty Forum who writes under the name of "Mugwort." The Book by Bochaca, an Argentinian, appears to be a major writing. I hope it soon becomes available in english translation. The short passage below addresses the assassination of General Patton.)
The abuses committed by the Forces of the Occupation in Germany reached such bestial extremes that various people in the Allied command structure opposed it--or tried to. ... Lindbergh mentioned how the American soldiers burned the leftovers of their meals to keep them from being scavenged by the [starving] Germans who hung around the garbage barrels.
He also wrote: "In our homeland the public press publishes articles on how we 'liberated' the oppressed peoples. Here, our soldiers use the word 'liberate' to describe how they get their hands on loot. Everything they grab from from a German house, everything they take off a German is 'liberated' in the lingo of our troops. Leica cameras are liberated, food, works of art, clothes are liberated. A soldier who rapes a German girl is "liberating " her.
"There are German children who gaze at us as we eat ... our cursed regulations forbid us to give tham anything to eat. I remember the soldier Barnes, who was arrested for having given a chocolate bar to a tattered little girl. It's hard to look these children in the face. I feel ashamed. Ashamed of myself, my people, as I eat and look at those children. How can we have gotten so inhumane?" So wrote Colonel Lindbergh, national hero of the United States, who was proposed as a candidate for the presidency of his country, who fought in the air force of his country, who was not a nazi. Many decent American and British citizens can see that.
General Patton, perhaps the most popular of the American generals, immediately opposed the total or partial application of the Morgenthau Plan in his sector of occupation. Soon, he had a run-in with another general of higher rank: General Eisenhower. It's well-known what extremely violent debates they had about how the civilian population of Germany was to be treated. Patton was SENTENCED TO DEATH by the directors of the scenario.
One day Patton's car was run into by a military truck in what seemed like a very strange accident. The General was taken by ambulance to a hospital, where he was observed to have serious, but not life-threatening injuries. But some days later he died of a heart attack.
Patton's death, in any event, was extremely opportune. The General had annnounced that he was thinking of moving to the United States, where he was going to denounce publicly what was taking place in Germany. But he didn't have time. He had fought with too many important people. General Eisenhower had had to pick up the telephone and order that he be halted before he reached Berlin. At Yalta the new "masters of the world" had agreed that the Soviets would be the first to enter the German capital. Patton wanted to prevent the Vandal-like entrance of the Red Army into the capital of the Reich, and made an enemy of Eisenhower. A month before, he could have entered Prague, but was also detained by Eisenhower, leaving him nailed to the ground by an order.
Patton's difficulties with the WAR POWERS over the occupation of Germany were so great that Eisenhower stripped him of his position as Commander of the Third Army, and stuck him with the command of a secondary unit. Patton knew he was in danger of death, and confided as much to his family and close friends. He was feared because of his prestige-he was the most renowned American General, while Eisenhower was nothing more than a political soldier-and his words could alert the public to the reality of what was happening in Germany.
Thus the accident was set up, which was not by any means the first. On the 21st of April 1945, his airplane on which he was being transported to General Headquarters of the Third Army in Feldfield (England) was attacked by what was assumed to be a German fighter-bomber, but it turned out to be a "Spitfire" piloted by an inexpert Polish pilot. Patton's plane was shot up, but was miraculously able to land. On the 3rd of May, some days before the end of the war, the General's jeep was charged by an ox-drawn cart, leaving Patton with light injuries.
October 13, 1945 was when the collision with the truck occurred. When Patton appeared to be getting better from the accident, the "heart attack" occurred. The fact is that after October 13 only the doctors saw Patton, forbidding any other visitors.
Until recently, it was only speculation that Patton had been assassinated. Now it is known for a fact. And it is know for a very simple reason. Because an agent of the well-known OSS (Office of Strategic Services) or American military spy, a certain Douglas Bazata, a Jew of Lebanese origin, announced it in front of 450 invited guests; high ranking, ex-members of the OSS, in the Hilton Hotel in Washington, the 25th of September, 1979. Bazata said, word-for-word:
"For divers political reasons, many extremely high-ranking persons hated Patton. I know who killed him. Because I am the one who was hired to do it. Ten thousand dollars. General William Donovan himself, director of the O.S.S, entrusted me with the mission. I set up the accident. Since he didn't die in the accident, he was kept in isolation in the hospital, where he was killed with an injection."
The tragic fate of Patton convinced other colleagues and their honorable compatriots of the uselessness of fighting against the WAR POWERS. And if any doubts remained, the "Morgan case" was enough to dissipate them. (To be continued .)