(Links followed by (M) available to members of the Environmental Conservation Organization)
|1891||The Society of the Elect and the Association of Helpers - (also known as the "Secret Society,"), was created by Cecil Rhodes, Alfred Milner, William T. Stead, Reginald Baliol Brett, and Lord Esher, in London. Rhodes died in 1902, leaving the society, and his fortune, under the control of Milner, who established the Rhodes Scholar program. Good background here.|
|1910||The Round Table - a periodical, first published by Milner's "Secret Society" for Britain's intellectual community. The writers, and those associated with the publication became known as the Round Table Group, and later, the Chatham House crowd. Comprehensive background.|
|1912||Edward Mandell House - published Philip Dru: Administrator,a novel describing how the world could best be governed by a benevolent administrator. House traveled in Europe in 1909, and met Woodrow Wilson November 25, 1911. Chronology: Met Sir Edward Grey (member of Milner's group) in 1913.|
Wilson, U.S. President - Edward Mandell
House served as Wilson's campaign manager, and then as chief
advisor. Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy.|
Federal Reserve Act (M) enacted - creating the first "central bank" in America. Paul Warberg, whose family controlled the Reichsbank in Germany, was the architect of the system.
|1914||World War I Begins - Wilson campaigned against U.S. entry into the war, then entered the war in 1917, one year before it ended.|
Wilson's 14 Points - presented to a joint
session of Congress on January 8. The document was developed by
Colonel Mandell House and advisors known as the "Inquiry."|
The League of Nations - first proposed in The Round Table, in December, in an article entitled The League of Nations: A Practical Suggestion, written by Edward Mandell House and Lionel Curtis, a member of the original Rhodes/Milner "Secret Soceity."
Paris Peace Conference - House is Wilson's
chief deputy at the conference where he expanded his association with
leaders of the Milner group.|
Genesis of the CFR and RIIA - At a meeting on May 30, at the Majestic Hotel in Paris, Edward M. House, Lionel Curtis, Lord Eustace Percy, Harold Temperley, Herbert Hoover, Christian Herter, James T. Shotwell (Columbia), Charles Seymore (Yale), Archibald C. Coolidge (Harvard), were among 50 individuals who decided to create the Council on Foreign Relations in the U.S., and the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London.
The Treaty of Versailles - signed June 28, ended the war and incorporated The Covenant of the League of Nations as the first 30 Articles - very much as had been proposed by House and Curtis.
League of Nations rejected by
U.S. Senate - despite herculean
efforts on both sides of the Atlantic.|
Royal Institute of International Affairs - organized by the Milner group, housed at the Chatham House in London.
|1921||Council on Foreign Relations - organized as U.S. counterpart to Royal Institute of International Affairs. John W. Davis, attorney to J.P. Morgan, was first president. Paul Warberg and J.D. Rockefeller were among initial funders. Began publishing Foreign Affairs in 1922. Described by Senator Barry Goldwater in 1979.|
|1925||Mein Kampf - published by Adolf Hitler.|
|1929||Stock Market Crash - Sets the stage for world wide depression, international response, and another war.|
|1930||Bank of International Settlements (M) - created in Basel, Switzerland. J.P. Morgan & Company, and others involved with the creation of the Federal Reserve, were among the founders.|
|1932||Franklin D. Roosevelt - begins his presidency amid the great depression. "The New Deal" was formulated by leftist, Henry A. Wallace, Secretary of Agriculture, and Secretary of State, Cordell Hulll, who, as a Senator, supported Wilson's League of Nations. Hull began drafting a United Nations Charter two weeks after Pearl Harbor.|
|1933||The Wilderness Society - founded by Bob Marshall, a socialist.|
Federation - founded.|
|1938||World marches toward war - A chronology of events leading to World War II, the event which gave rise to the United Nations.|
FDR delivers "Four Freedoms"
speech - (January 6), and the Atlantic
Conference (August 14), embody the idea of disarming sovereign nations under
Declaration of War on Japan (December 8); Declaration of War on Germany (December 11).
|1942||Declaration by "United Nations" - first official use of the name "United Nations," suggested by Roosevelt. Chronnology of related events.|
Conference - Articles 5 - 7 refer to "United
Nations" and post-war permanent organization.|
United Nations Association - created by Eleanor Roosevelt.
Woods Agreements - created the World Bank (M), and the International
Monetary Fund (M). Henry Morganthau delivered the closing
address. (Background and conference
Dumbarton Oaks Conversations - produce the draft recommendations for a United Nations organization. The U.S. Team, led by Edward Stettinius, included Alger Hiss, Ralph Bunche, Leo Pasvolsky, and Grayson Kirk. Overview of the meeting.
Conference - (February) reached agreement on U.N. draft
recommendations and set the date for U.N. conference.
surrenders (May 7).|
U.N. Charter - signed June 26, in San Francisco. Ratified by Senate (89-2) July 28.
International Court of Justice - established in The Hague.
August 6, & 9, atomic bombs dropped on Japan. Japan surrenders (August 14).
UNESCO - created in London, November 16.
joins UNESCO - Julian
Huxley, president of the Eugenics
Society, and author of "The New
Divinity", first Director. Socialist
Joseph Needham, appointed Director of Natural Science.|
World Health Organization created.
World Federalist Association - founded in Asheville, North Carolina|
World Federalist Movement - founded in Switzerland.
Created - by Julian Huxley, in Geneva.
Headquarters in Gland,
Switzerland The U.S.
Government, and several agencies are members.|
Universal Declaration of Human Rights - adopted by U.N. General Assembly
Environmental Education - concept introduced to the U.N. by the IUCN.
|1949||UNESCO Publication 356 (M) - "Toward World Understanding."|
Conservancy - organized.|
|1959||United Nations Development Program - evolved to maturity.|
|1960||Temple of Understanding - organized in New York. Dr. Robert Muller on Advisory Board.|
War (M) - State Department Publication 7277, setting
forth U.S. disarmament policy in favor of
World Wildlife Fund - organized by Julian Huxley and IUCN.
of 1964 - and how it
came to be.|
UNCTAD - United Nations Conference on Trade and Development established.
Resolution 1296 - directed by Dr. Robert Muller, establishes "Consultative Status"
for NGOs (non-government organizations). Lucis Trust among first NGOs
Club of Rome - organized, and published Limits to Growth.
Day - founder, Gaylord Nelson. Another view of Earth Day.|
World Conference on Religion and Peace - opened headquartrs at the U.N. Center. Held conference in Kyoto, Japan, was accredited by ECOSOC in 1973.
Environmental Protection Agency - created.
|1971||RAMSAR Treaty on Wetlands - signed in Ramsar, Iran. IUCN driving force behind RAMSAR.|
|1972||Clean WaterAct - passed by Congress. Wetland definitionexpanded by lawsuit brought by|