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中国的高机动多用途轮式车辆(HMMWV)
HIGH-MOBILITY MULTIPURPOSE WHEELED VEHICLE
作者:环球展望军事网编译 来源:今日中国防务 更新时间:2005-11-2 【字体:

    二个中国汽车制造厂现在发展美国通用汽车公司“悍马”的仿造品,也即是美国陆军M998高机动多用途轮式车辆(HMMWV)。一种是EQ2050,被东风(DongFeng)汽车公司(DFM)发展;一种是SFQ2040,被沈阳飞机制造公司(SAC)的汽车分公司发展。EQ2050已经通过解放军(PLA)道路测试和评估,现在小批量生产中。

    计划

    在1988年北京防卫展,美国通用公司展示了一辆样车,它的M998 4x4高机动多用途轮式车辆(HMMWV)。在展览结束后据说为进一步的测试和评估留在中国。PLA没有显示多少兴趣起初因归于高单价和维护成本,但是这种态度不知什么原因改变,美军HMMWV战车在1991年“沙漠风暴”军事行动期间的出色表现在新闻摄影机前获得高度宣传。

    自从1990年早期以后,中国石油工业已经购买少量的“悍马”车,HMMWV的民用型,经过商业来源。这提供一个机会给中国汽车制造厂接近检查车辆。在2002年,SAC展示了它的HMWWV仿造品,即是SFQ2040。稍后在2003年,另外的一种HMWWV仿造品EQ2050“东风铁甲”(Dongfeng Armour)被DFM制造,在一次汽车展上首次登场。两家公司正在积极地促进他们产品到PLA,希望赢得潜在的巨大替代市场,PLA现在使用的BJ2020S系列轻型车辆。


DFM EQ2050“东风铁甲”:是中国仿造美国的“悍马”H1车。车辆以美国制造的车底盘为基础,除了使用本国制造的发动机之外。少量的车辆为操作试验和评估已经被递送到PLA。(DFM EQ2050 ‘Dongfeng Armour’ is the Chinese copy of the U.S. Hummer H1. The vehicle is based on the U.S.-made chassis but with indigenous diesel engine. A small number of the vehicle has been delivered to the PLA for operational trial and evaluation.)

    两者美国HMMVEE仿造品都依靠大量美国制造的零配件,包括车底盘、齿轮箱和发动机。看来至少DFM完全同意和通用汽车公司合作。两个制造业者宣称他们未来将会在车辆上能够逐渐地增加本国制造含量的百分率,因为PLA不太可能乐意接受完全地依赖国外制造零配件的任何设备。

    最近的报道确认DFM公司EQ2050“东风铁甲”已经完成一个持续好几个月的全面道路和越野测试。一些EQ2050行进到西藏的高地、戈壁沙漠和东北黑龙江省的雪地等区域测试,经受恶劣的天气和道路状况。这被一个小批量生产后继,运送几十辆EQ2050给PLA广州军区特种部队。


EQ2050的一个军用运输型正在接受沙漠越野测试。一些数量的EQ2050据传闻被PLA进行一系列测试,在他们接受用于下一个阶段操作服役前试验和评估之前。(A military truck version of the EQ2050 is receiving off-road test in desert. A number of EQ2050s reportedly undertook a series of tests by the PLA before they are accepted for the next stage of trial and evaluation in operational service.)


在2004/05年DFM已经小批量运送它的EQ2050给PLA。PLA现在正在寻求一种轻型高机动车辆代替它的BJ2020S系列吉普车。HMMWV的多种变化可能吸引PLA进行进一步的购买,但是这将会依赖是否EQ2050能与HMMWV的优良性能相符。(DFM has already delivered a small batch of its EQ2050 to the PLA in 2004/05. The PLA is currently seeking a light-weight high-mobility vehicle to replace its ageing Jeep-size BJ2020S series vehicle. The versatility of the HMMWV may attract the PLA to make further purchase, but this will depend on whether the EQ2050 can match the excellent performance of the original HMMWV. )

    同时SAC试着共同与中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)一起发展的一种车载移动防空导弹系统提供给PLA,北方公司是中国最早的武器制造业厂。安装在SAC公司SFQ2040车辆上的导弹系统,与美国陆军HMMVEE加装的AM-120 SLAMRAAM“复仇者”防空系统类似。SAC也强调它的SFQ2040的低成本,只有美国制造的HMWWV价格的三分之一。


中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO最近展示它的“倚天”(Yitian)机动防空导弹系统,在SAC SFQ2040 HMMWV上安装。系统类似美国陆军的HMMVEE车载AIM-120 SLAMRAAM“复仇者”防空系统。

    设计

    两种车辆以进口的美国通用公司“悍马”H1型车底盘为基础。DFM EQ2050的动力采用东风公司得到许可制造的康明斯EQB150-20 110千瓦/2,700转涡轮增压发动机,但是它也能配备美国制造的V8发动机,本来设计用于HMMWV车辆。车辆有一个5档速度的齿轮箱和一个2档速度的传动箱。车辆有独立悬挂和中央充气系统的四轮驱动。EQ2050已经再设计照明和散热器,不同于最初的HMMWV车辆。


EQ2050已经再设计照明和散热器,不同于最初的HMMWV车。DFM希望车辆会帮助它进入中国军用和民用巨大潜力的高机动车辆市场。(The EQ2050 also has re-designed lights and radiator to make itself look different to the original HMMWV. DFM hopes that the vehicle would help it to enter the high-mobility vehicle market with huge potential in both military and civilian sectors in China.)

    不像钢车身的EQ2050,SAC SFQ2040有一个铝合金车身,使它更加轻超过前者。两者车辆已经具有可有限的对抗小口径武器的装甲保护。车辆可能配备有附加的设备,像是空调、全球定位系统、夜视设备、车载无线、电动绞车和多用途武器站。


沈阳飞机制造厂正在积极地销售它的SFQ2040 HMWWV。车辆以美国制造的车底盘为基础,但是使用本国制造的发动机和齿轮箱。车辆大体上不如美国制造的HMMWV性能,考虑它的价格仅仅是后者的三分之一。(Shenyang Aircraft Industry Co is also actively marketing its SFQ2040 HMWWV. The vehicle is based on the U.S.-made chassis, but with indigenously made diesel and gear box. The vehicle is inferior to the U.S.-made HMMWV in general performance, thought its price is only one third of the latter.)


虽然和它竞争的DFM EQ2050已经进入服役,但是SAC仍然努力销售它的HMMWV仿造品到PLA。

    类似HMMWV,两种车辆可采用包括软顶、硬顶、运输车、掩护型等多种配置中。东风公司最近介绍了EQ2050的二种四轮驱动车型:EQ2028和它的装甲部队/警察型EQ2058。

    规格

    座位: 1+4(基本型)
    配置: 4X4
    重量:(空的) 2,950 公斤
    最大负载: 1,750 公斤
    牵引负载: 2,000 公斤
    尺寸: 长度 5,040 毫米;高度 1,956 毫米;宽度 2,180 毫米
    轴距: 3,300 毫米
    轮距:(前面/后面) 1,820 毫米
    最大道路速度: 120 公里/小时(使用本国制造柴油EQ2050发动机),140 公里(使用HMMWV车V8发动机的EQ2050)
    坡度: 60%(使用本国制造的发动机EQ2050发动机),100%(使用HMMWV车V8发动机的EQ2050)
    涉渡: 0.75 米
    燃料容量: N/A
    最大行程: N/A
    发动机: 康明斯110 千瓦涡轮增压发动机,或进口的V8发动机

    附原文供对照参考:

HIGH-MOBILITY MULTIPURPOSE WHEELED VEHICLE

Two Chinese truck manufacturers are currently developing copies of the General Motors 'Hummer', which is also known as the M998 High-Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) in the U.S. Army: EQ2050 developed by DongFeng Motors (DFM) and SFQ2040 developed by the automobile-making branch of Shenyang Aircraft Industry Corporation (SAC). The EQ2050 has already passed the road tests and evaluations by the PLA and is currently in small batch production.

PROGRAMME

During the 1988 Beijing Defence Exhibition, AM General demonstrated an example of its M998 4x4 high-mobility multirole wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) to the PLA. The vehicle was reportedly left in China after the exhibition closed for further test and evaluation. The PLA did not show much interest initially due to the vehicle’s high unit price and maintenance costs, but this attitude was somehow changed during the 1991 Operation Desert Storm, when the HMMWV gained high publicity in front of press cameras.

Since the early 1990s the Chinese petroleum industry has purchased a small number of Hummer, the civilian version of the HMMWV, through commercial sources. This provided the Chinese auto makers with an opportunity to examine the vehicle closely. In 2002, SAC revealed its HMWWV copy known as SFQ2040. Later in 2003 another HMWWV copy EQ2050 'Dongfeng Armour' developed by DFM made its debut in a car show. Both companies are actively promoting their products to the PLA, hoping to win a share of the potentially huge market of replacing the Soviet-inspired jeep-size BJ2020S series light-weight vehicles currently used by the PLA.

Both HMMVEE copies rely heavily on imported U.S.-made parts including chassis, gear box, and diesel engine. It appears that at least DFM has the full consent and cooperation of the General Motors Corporation. Both manufacturers claimed that they will be able to gradually increase the percentage of indigenously made content on the vehicles in the future, since the PLA is unlikely willing to accept any equipment that relies completely on foreign made parts.

The latest reports confirmed that the DFM EQ2050 'Dongfeng Armour' has completed a comprehensive road and cross-country tests which lasted for several months. Several EQ2050s travelled to Tibet highland, Gebi desert, and snow region in northeast Heilongjiang province to test the vehicle’s performance in harsh weather and road conditions. This was followed by a small batch production to deliver several dozens of EQ2050s to the PLA special operations forces in Guangzhou Military Region.

Meanwhile SAC is trying to impress the PLA with a vehicle-mounted mobile air defence missile system jointly developed with NORINCO, the primary weapon manufacturer in China. The missile system, mounted on a SAC SFQ2040, is similar to the U.S. Army HMMVEE-mounted AIM-120 SLAMRAAM Avenger air defence system. SAC also emphasizes the low cost of its SFQ2040, only one third of the price of the U.S.-made HMWWV.

DESIGN

Both vehicles are based on imported AM General Hummer H1 chassis. The DFM EQ2050 is powered by a Dongfeng licensed built Cummins EQB150-20 110kW/2,700R turbo-charged diesel, but it can also be fitted with the U.S.-made V8 diesel originally designed for HMMWV. The vehicle has a 5-speed gear box and a 2-speed transfer box. The vehicle is four-wheel drive with independent suspensions and central inflating system. The EQ2050 also has re-designed lights and radiator to make itself look different to the original HMMWV.

Unlike the steel body EQ2050, the SAC SFQ2040 has an alumni alloy body, making it much lighter than the former. Bother vehicles have limited armour protection against small calibre weapons. The vehicles can be fitted with additional equipment such as air conditioning, GPS, night vision equipment, vehicle-mounted radio, electronic winch, and multipurpose weapon mount.

Like the HMMWV, both vehicles are available in a range of configurations including soft-top, hard-top, truck, shelter, etc. Dongfeng recently introduced two wagon versions of the EQ2050: the EQ2028 and its armoured military/police version EQ2058.

SPECIFICATIONS

Seating: 1+4 (basic variant)
Configuration: 4X4
Weight (empty): 2,950kg
Maximum load: 1,750kg
Towed load: 2,000kg
Dimension: Length: 5,040mm; Height: 1,956mm; Width: 2,180mm
Wheel base: 3,300mm
Track (front/rear): 1,820mm
Maximum road speed: 120km/h (EQ2050 with indigenous diesel), 140km (EQ2050 with HMMWV's V8 diesel)
Gradient: 60% (EQ2050 with indigenous diesel), 100% (EQ2050 with HMMWV's V8 diesel)
Fording: 0.75m
Fuel capacity: N/A
Maximum range: N/A
Engine: Cummins 110kW turbo-charged diesel, or imported V8 diesel

文章录入:军闻    责任编辑:《环球展望》 
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