Earth Sciences: Year In Review 2009Article Free Pass
Earthquakes that occur deeper than about 50 km (30 mi) have long been enigmatic to seismologists. At these depths the lithostatic pressure is large enough to inhibit brittle failure, or rock fracturing. In other words, rock at these and greater depths should undergo ductile, or plastic, flow in response to shear stress, yet earthquakes caused by rock fracturing have been recorded at depths as great as 700 km (435 mi). In January a team of geologists from Norway and Germany led by Torgeir Andersen presented new evidence in favour of a proposed mechanism for generating intermediate-depth earthquakes. They analyzed veins of rock that had been formed by flash heating in a Precambrian terrane in Norway. Known as pseudotachylytes, these rocks often occur near fault zones. In this case, geochemical analysis showed that the pseudotachylytes had initially formed at depths greater than 70 km (44 mi) before being exhumed to the Earth’s surface. Using computer modeling, the authors explained their observations by means of a self-localized thermal runaway failure mechanism, a process by which the rocks are softened by released heat. Interestingly, this mechanism does not depend on the existence of free fluid in the pore spaces of rocks and therefore provided a distinct alternative to the dehydration embrittlement hypothesis that was currently favoured as a mechanism for generating intermediate-depth earthquakes.
Scientists from the United States reported the results from a seismic study of a region of seafloor in which “black smokers” vent superheated water enriched with dissolved minerals. Discovered in the late 1970s, these features had been extensively studied because they led to distinct biospheres that did not depend on photosynthesis. In 2003 scientists began monitoring the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Oregon and Washington with a network of eight seismometers buried just beneath the seafloor. Using the high-fidelity seismic data, the scientists located several thousand small earthquakes that were associated with an axial magma chamber that drives the hydrothermal, or deep-sea, venting in the region. By modeling the seismic waveforms, the researchers were able to deduce the style of faulting responsible for the earthquakes. They concluded that cracking associated with the recharge of the axial magma chamber was the key mechanism for localizing and maintaining black-smoker vent fields over long periods of time.
Anne M. Hofmeister of Washington University in St. Louis, Mo., and her colleagues Alan G. Whittington and Peter I. Nabelek of the University of Missouri in Columbia announced new measurements of the thermal conductivity of rocks, and their findings had profound implications for crustal dynamics. The scientists used a new technique known as laser-flash analysis to determine the time that it took for heat to diffuse from one end of a rock sample to the other. This technique properly accounts for biases caused by radiative heat loss and allowed for accurate measurement of the drop in conductivity as the sample was heated. The results of these experiments showed that thermal conductivity was reduced by as much as 50% at the base of the crust compared with previous estimates. This in turn implied that the base of the crust was much hotter than previously thought and that the large amounts of granitic magmas observed in hot mountain belts such as the Himalayas could be generated without the radioactive heat production in the lower crust increasing. Instead, heat generated by the localized deformation of the crust may form the magmas. Another implication was that the positive feedback created by temperature-dependent conductivities may have been integral to the differentiation of the Earth into core, mantle, and crust from its original chrondritic (meteorite-derived) composition.
Scientists studying Earth’s magnetic field reported new constraints on the structure and dynamics of Earth’s core. Bruce A. Buffet of the University of California, Berkeley, Jon Mound of the University of Leeds, and Andrew Jackson of the Institute for Geophysics in Zürich analyzed recently discovered magnetic field fluctuations that have periods on the order of decades. Although the magnetic field fluctuations were observed at the Earth’s surface, they reflected processes of fluid dynamics that took place in Earth’s liquid-iron outer core. The fluctuations were created by torsional oscillations that occurred with a cylindrical geometry. In contrast to the elastic restoring force responsible for seismic waves from earthquakes, a magnetic restoring force creates these hydromagnetic waves. Nevertheless, using methods that seismologists developed to study seismic waves, the scientists modeled the hydromagnetic waves to constrain the structure of the magnetic field in the outer core and the rigidity of the solid inner core. The “core-quakes” that generate the hydromagnetic waves appeared to originate near the equator of the inner core, but their precise source mechanism remained a mystery.
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