What is the relationship between DND and the Canadian Forces?
The activities of the Canadian Forces and the Department of National Defence, like those of every other federal government organization, are carried out within a framework of legislation that is approved and overseen by Parliament. In most respects, the Department of National Defence is an organization like other departments of government. It is established by a statute – the National Defence Act – which sets out the Minister’s responsibilities, including the Minister’s responsibility for the Department and the Canadian Forces.
Under the law, the Canadian Forces are an entity separate and distinct from the Department. As stated in the Act, the Department is headed by a Deputy Minister of National Defence, the Department’s senior civil servant, while the Canadian Forces are headed by the Chief of the Defence Staff, Canada’s senior serving officer. Both are responsible to the Minister.
The Canadian Forces and the Department of National Defence have complementary roles to play in providing advice and support to the Minister of National Defence and in implementing the decisions of the Government on the defence of Canada and of Canadian interests at home and abroad. The separate authorities of the Deputy Minister and the Chief of the Defence Staff give rise to different responsibilities. In broad terms:
- The Deputy Minister has responsibility for policy, resources, interdepartmental coordination and international defence relations; and
- The Chief of the Defence Staff has responsibility for command, control and administration of the Canadian Forces and military strategy, plans and requirements.
The Deputy Minister of National Defence
The Deputy Minister of National Defence is appointed under the National Defence Act by the Governor-in-Council (the Cabinet), on the advice of the Prime Minister. It is the role of the Deputy Minister to articulate a corporate vision for the Department. Deputy Ministers ensure they have the right people, work environment and capacity to ensure the Department's success and are uniquely responsible to exemplify, in their actions and behaviours, the best values of the public service, and to infuse those values into all aspects of the work of their department.
They are also required to manage a complex set of multiple accountabilities which arise out of various powers, authorities and responsibilities attached to the position. The Deputy serves as the senior civilian advisor to the Minister of National Defence and provides him or her with the broadest possible expert support in all of the Minister’s responsibilities, except for partisan political activities. This includes supporting the Minister in consulting and informing Parliament and the Canadian public on defence issues. As a result of their role in the collective management of the government, Deputy Ministers are also accountable to the Prime Minister for responding to the policies of the Ministry as a whole and to the requirements of the Treasury Board and the Public Service Commission.
Specifically, the DM is responsible for:
The Deputy plays the central role in formulating advice for the Minister on policy matters. Within the priorities, objectives and standards established by the Government, the Deputy Minister must provide advice on the possible impact of initiatives on the public, the Department, and the government. Advice must be timely and candid, presented fearlessly, and provide the best possible policy options based on impartial review of the public good and the declared objectives of the Minister and the Government. It must also demonstrate policy coherence from the perspective of departmental and portfolio management.
The Deputy is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Department on behalf of the Minister. By law, Deputy Ministers act under the management and direction of their Minister. In order to fulfill their duties, Deputy Ministers require certain authorities, including the authority to exercise the Minister's powers, which flows from the Interpretation Act. In addition, certain provisions in the Financial Administration Act, the Public Service Employment Act, and the Official Languages Act assign some powers directly to the deputy head.
Deputy Ministers also carry a general obligation of accountability to the Treasury Board for the overall management capacity and performance of the department. In order to assist in managing this accountability and to ensure performance is subject to regular review, deputy ministers are required to implement the Treasury Board Secretariat’s Management Accountability Framework.
The Financial Administration Act itself assigns to the Deputy Minister specific responsibilities for the prudent management of allocated resources, which are subject to compliance with certain policies, regulations, standards, and periodic audit.
Another major element of the Deputy Minister's job as departmental manager involves the management of human resources. Responsibilities relating to personnel management in the public service, including appointment, employer/employee relations, and the organization of departments, are assigned to the deputy head directly rather than through the Minister.
Under amendments made by the Federal Accountability Act, the Financial Administration Act designates Deputy Ministers as accounting officers for their organizations. Under the legislation, the Deputy is accountable before Parliamentary committees and required by law to provide information and explanations to committees, and in so doing to assist Parliament in holding the government to account. This legislative change makes the Deputy responsible for establishing an independent departmental audit committee and for ensuring that an adequate financial oversight regime is in place.
The Deputy is an important link for the Minister to the wider government machinery for policy development and decision-making. A Deputy Minister’s policy advice must also be mindful of the Minister's collective responsibility and ensure that advice is drawn from an appreciation of the government-wide agenda and the impacts of a particular initiative.
In preparing proposals for Cabinet consideration, other departments must be consulted so that the views of the Prime Minister and other Ministers are taken into account, and disagreements identified and resolved. The support and collaboration of other Ministers may also be necessary for the success of a proposal, and the need to coordinate the responsibilities of several Ministers in order to take certain initiatives is now the rule rather than the exception. This is done through inter-departmental working groups and consultation or negotiation with other Ministers or their officials. The Deputy Minister of National Defence sits on a number of interdepartmental committees including the Deputy Minister Coordination Committee on Afghanistan, the Deputy Minister Committee on Economic Trends and Policy and the Deputy Minister's Committee on Global Trends, Foreign Affairs and Defence.
International Defence Relations
The Deputy oversees issues affecting Canada’s international defence relations, including: bi-lateral defence relations with countries around the world and engagement with organization such as the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NORAD, the European Union, the African Union, and the Organization of American States, among others.
Public Service Renewal
Deputies are collectively responsible for the development of the public service of today and tomorrow and as such each Deputy holds the responsibility for advancing the four priorities identified by the Clerk in his Annual Report to the Prime Minister: planning, recruitment, employee development and enabling infrastructure.
The Deputy supports the Minister’s responsibility for federal-provincial relations through ensuring proper consultation on federal-provincial-territorial aspects of policies and programs under the defence mandate, and ensuring coordination with other intergovernmental initiatives
The Deputy assists the Minister in the management of the other organizations of Defence Portfolio, including through responsibility for Defence Research and Development Canada and by overseeing financial and administrative matters of Communications Security Establishment Canada.