The Chelyabinsk meteorite punctured the ice of Chebarkul Lake near Chelyabinsk, Russia. Photograph from Asahi Shimbun/Getty Images.

The Chelyabinsk meteorite punched a hole in the ice of a lake near Chelyabinsk, Russia. Photograph from Asahi Shimbun/Getty Images.

The 10,000 ton asteroid that exploded above the Russian city of Chelyabinsk in February produced such a powerful shockwave that it raced around the world twice, according to a new study published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

Researchers report that 20 world-wide monitoring stations, designed to detect ultra-low frequency sound waves emanating from nuclear-test explosions, managed to record the waves produced by the asteroid’s explosion for the first time ever.

The Russian meteor hit the atmosphere at 11.6 miles (18.6 kilometers) per second. The concussive blast was heard at monitoring stations as far away as Greenland and Antarctica.

Traveling at hypersonic speeds, near Mach 60,  the meteor experienced increasing air pressure as it pierced the denser part of Earth’s atmosphere, finally imploding 14 miles (23 kilometers) above the Earth. Hundreds of fragments rained down, with the largest pieces weighing up to half a ton. (See pictures of the damage it caused.)

Fragments of the Chelyabinsk meteorite are examined under a microscope on March 1, 2013, at the Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry in Moscow, Russia. Photograph by Stanislav Krasilnikov, ITAR-TASS/Corbis.

Fragments of the Chelyabinsk meteorite are examined under a microscope at the Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry in Moscow. Photograph by Stanislav Krasilnikov, ITAR-TASS/Corbis.

The research team also confirmed that the blast from this 56-feet-wide (17-meter-wide) space rock had an estimated force of 460 kilotons of TNT—equivalent to about 30 atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima during World War II.

The February 2013 event now ranks as the second largest impact on Earth since the Tunguska fireball in 1908. The 1908 event released nearly ten megatons of TNT and scorched millions of trees over hundreds of square miles. (Related: “Russian Meteorite Spotlights History’s Other Crashes.”)

The last comparable meteoroid atmospheric detonation occurred above the skies of Sulawesi, Indonesia, back in 2009 and was measured at 50 kilotons.

Scientists estimate a Chelyabinsk-like airburst occurs about once a century, while a much bigger Tunguska-like event, thankfully, may only come around once every few centuries. (Related: “Russian Meteor a Surprise—But Many More Out There.”)

 

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Comments

  1. Peter Deutsch
    Aliquippa PA USA
    July 9, 7:40 am

    “The answer is to question.”

    Megatons and kilotons really are the same fundamental units with a slightly different prefix.Those are the least of the problems. Try working out ton as in the energy yield of a ton of tnt exploding.
    The prefix kilo means thousand and mega means million. To keep things more uniform would it be better to say ten thousand kilotons rather than ten megatons or 0.46 megatons rather than 460 kilotons? Or four hundred sixty thousandths of a megaton? To figure these things out one needs to get in there and try things out. Then one is in a better position to say.
    See what Kimi from Finland did above with gasoline. Or take the speed v and mass m of the asteroid as given and work out the combination (1/2) times m times v squared. That is the energy (of motion)of the asteroid. Go visit the wikepedia several times as is necessary, and figure it out and check your work. Wikepedia gives such basic input. That’s all the National Geographic people had to do, convert ‘one half m v squared’ to tons of TNT (Trinitrotoluene) explosion energy yield. TNT exploding thoroughly yields one Calorie- a large calorie per gram.
    Now all one has to do is work with those units…. The more people actually attempt these things the more likely it is that all the important mistakes will be caught. And right answers will be found. Kudos also to the people above who ask question about the hole through the ice and what is actually left behind. Search, look up and share other examples, on line and yes in books and in periodicals.

  2. Kevin Woolf
    Canada
    July 4, 12:51 pm

    Neat! One thing though, it would be helpful to keep all your units the same to allow easier direct comparisons. (10 Megatons vs 460 Kilotons )

  3. Mickey Herd
    South Africa
    July 4, 10:53 am

    Thankfully they don’t come round often.

  4. Kimi
    finland
    July 3, 7:43 pm

    Imagine a pool, filled with gasoline, which is 1 meter deep, 100 meters wide and 5142 meters long. You blow it up, thats the impact energie of this asteroid

  5. Frank
    July 3, 8:03 am

    I agree with Mikel! I want to see this sucker!

  6. Sean
    July 3, 2:28 am

    Since the meteorite exploded into hundreds of peices I doubt there would be anything large enough that would be easy to find in the bottom of a lake.

  7. Mikel Alvarez
    SPAIN TENERIFE
    July 2, 7:13 pm

    have you submarine photos of this meteorite?

  8. Adegbesan Adebimpe
    nigeria
    July 2, 1:42 pm

    God will help us