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Humoral immune responses of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination and experimental challenge

M. bovis. Nol P, Lyashchenko KP, Greenwald R, Esfandiari J, Waters WR, Palmer MV, Nonnecke BJ, Keefe TJ, Thacker TC, Rhyan JC, Aldwell FE, Salman MD.




Abstract

National Wildlife Research Center, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; Animal Population Health Institute, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Medford, New York, USA; National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, Ames, Iowa, USA; Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Monitoring serum antibody production kinetics to multiple mycobacterial antigens can be useful as a diagnostic tool for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection as well as for the characterization of disease progression and efficacy of intervention strategies in several species. Humoral immune responses to multiple M. bovis antigens by white-tailed deer vaccinated with BCG orally via a lipid-formulated bait (n=5), orally in liquid form (n=5), and subcutaneously (n=6) were evaluated over time after vaccination and after experimental challenge with virulent M. bovis and compared to those of unvaccinated deer (n=6). Antibody responses were evaluated using rapid test (RT), multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), lipoarabinomannan ELISA (LAM-ELISA), and immunoblot to whole-cell sonicate and MPB83. The MAPIA and RT detected minimal to no antibody responses over baseline to multiple M. bovis antigens in vaccinated white-tailed deer after challenge. This was in contrast to the presence of more readily detectable antibody responses in non-vaccinated deer with more advanced disease.

The LAM-ELISA results indicated an overall decrease in detectable antibody produced against lipoarabinomannan-enriched mycobacterial antigen in vaccinated animals as compared to non-vaccinated animals after challenge. Immunoblot data were inconsistent, but did suggest the occurrence of unique antibody responses by certain vaccine groups to Ag85 and HSP70. These findings support further research toward the improvement and potential use of antibody-based assays, such as MAPIA, RT, and LAM-ELISA as ante-mortem tools to assess disease progression in white-tailed deer in both experimental and field vaccine trials.

1: Clin Vaccine Immunol. 01/2009. (E-pub ahead of print



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