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Students on Monday protested violence against women in the wake of the shooting spree. Credit Monica Almeida/The New York Times
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ISLA VISTA, Calif. — A deadly attack by a gunman obsessed by grievances toward women near the campus of the University of California, Santa Barbara, has touched off an anguished conversation here and on social media about the ways women are perceived sexually and the violence against them.

“If we don’t talk misogyny now, when are we going to talk about it?” asked Nancy Yang, a second-year global studies major, as she stood a few feet from a memorial created in the wake of the rampage on Friday night that left six people and the gunman dead and 13 wounded.

“Yes, we have to have compassion, and we don’t know what this perpetrator was going through, but there are underlying issues here,” she said. “We can’t do that without thinking about the way we talk about and speak to women. This act does not represent our campus at all, but at the same time there’s a palpable sense that there needs to be more dialogue about the factors that led to it.”

Even as students are still dealing with the shock of hearing gunshots in front of a local convenience store and seeing the dead and wounded bodies in the street, many here are urging others to consider the implications of the attack. And they are also thinking about the catcalls, leers and the fears of sexual violence that have them traveling in packs and carrying pepper spray in their purses.

Of course, they say, a lewd look is not the same as a sexual assault. An unwanted comment is not the same as a gunshot. But many women interviewed on this sun-splashed campus and commenting online said they believed that some of the attitudes toward women expressed by the gunman, Elliot O. Rodger, in his perverse manifesto of rage and frustration reflect some views that are echoed in the mainstream culture.

This conversation comes as college administrators nationwide are confronting increased attention, including from the White House, over reports of sexual abuse against female students.

For many women here, the attacks were like a nightmare caricature of the safety concerns they deal with regularly on a campus where a high-profile gang rape recently prompted widespread concerns about safety and where an outsize reputation for alcohol-fueled parties led some to wonder if the beachside campus culture in any way played into the violence.

In dozens of interviews, women voiced concerns about incessantly hearing jokes about rape or what physical features make a woman desirable. At some parties, several women said, their buttocks have been grabbed at the entry door.

“I do live in fear — this is a difficult part of our reality,” said Maddie Clerides, 19, a sophomore majoring in global studies. Ms. Clerides said she was not alone in her worries. After the shootings, many women left the campus in fear or at the urging of their parents.

“We don’t walk in groups because we like being in cliques; we have real concerns,” she said. “We’re doing everything we can to be safe, but there’s no doubt that this is scary. We don’t invite this on ourselves by the way we look.”

The conversations have also exploded on social media, with hundreds of thousands of people using the hashtag #yesallwomen to discuss violence against women and reveal deep-seated feelings of anger and horror at the sexual expectations and violence directed at women.

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On Twitter and Facebook, women voiced their own experiences with verbal and physical harassment and abuse. There were postings from some who said they wore fake wedding rings to avoid advances from men and others who said that saying no to a man “was only the start of negotiation.”

Several others wrote about being told by boyfriends and husbands that they deserved being abused. They spoke of law enforcement and school administrators ignoring pleas for help.

One woman began using the hashtag on Saturday as a response to the hashtag #notallmen, which had been used to argue that men should not be universally portrayed as sexist aggressors. So yes, women on social media said over and over again, not all men are harassers, but all women have experienced such harassment.

Even as the hashtag continued to be one of the top trends on Twitter on Monday, used with more than one million postings, there was considerable backlash, with some saying it portrayed men unfairly and urging a more universal message. The user credited with beginning the hashtag apparently shut down her account after saying that she had been repeatedly harassed online over the weekend.

Jill Dunlap, a director of the Women’s Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, said that she hoped the online discussions would help fuel a wider dialogue on campus.

“This whole conversation is about acknowledging that, yes, women have gone very far, but there is still real inequity,” Ms. Dunlap said. “It has just been accepted as fact that women cannot walk alone at night. Now people are saying, ‘Well that’s not really fair, that’s not what we call equality.’ We’re seeing more people say you don’t have to accept it or be polite. It opens up a conversation of how to really change cultural expectations.”

Still, many here suspected that such conversations would not come easily from all corners of campus. Ariana Richmond, a sophomore with a double major in global and feminist studies, organized a march on Monday morning to voice anger about Friday’s attack and, she wrote in an invitation to classmates, “all other acts of violence and disrespect towards womyn that have taken place this year.”

Just a handful of supporters showed up, and Ms. Richmond said that when she voiced her concerns on campus she was often accused of “reverse sexism.”

“The hardest issue for anyone to talk about is misogyny, and that’s what this is — we face harassment every day that stems from the same thing,” she said. “We’ve become so desensitized to it that we don’t even flinch most of the time. But these are real threats directed against women, and we have to call this what it is: a hate crime directed against women.”

Many women spoke of compulsively reading the killer’s manifesto, seeing extreme echoes of sentiments they had all heard before.

A few urged caution, saying this gunman, like others who have marauded across American life, should be seen more as a deranged madman than a metaphor for something larger.

“This was the act of one man,” said Casey Lockwood, who recently graduated with a degree in sociology and still lives in Isla Vista. “I think it’s connected to the imperfect nature of every human being, not just men. I don’t know if we can use it as a sociological window into anything.”

But, on this largely liberal campus, few seemed to see it that way.

Hannah Goodwin, a graduate student in film studies, said she was so alarmed by Friday’s attack that she felt compelled to send a lengthy email to her students on Saturday, urging them to think about their own actions and the prevalence of sexual violence around them.

“It fosters an environment of fear rather than of community and shared learning,” Ms. Goodwin wrote, “and you should never have to experience this anywhere, regardless of what clothing you wear, what color hair you have, your gender, etc. I know you all know this, but it bears repeating: No one ever has the right to demand access to others’ bodies, and you never owe anyone access to your body.”