Sharon Stoerger MLS, MBA

Articles ~~ Copyright & Intellectual Freedom ~~ For Instructors ~~ For Students
Plagiarism Case Studies ~~ Plagiarism Detection Tools ~~ Term Paper Sites--Examples
Additional Plagiarism Resources ~~ Additional Ethics Resourc


Actions Do Speak Louder than Words: Deterring Plagiarism with the Use of Plagiarism- Detection Software
In the spring semester of 2000, Bear Braumoeller, an assistant professor of government at Harvard University and Brian Gaines, an associate professor of political science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) began their plagiarism study involving UIUC students taking Political Science 100: Introduction to Political Science. This report details Braumoeller and Gaines' experience with the Essay Verification Engine, EVE, which they used to detect instances of plagiarism among the 180 students studied.

Anti-Plagiarism Experts Raise Questions about Services with Links to Sites Selling Papers
Jeffrey R. Young addresses the issue of plagiarism detection services, like PlagiServe and having business connections to term paper sites that sell papers to students.

The background article, also by Young entitled "The Cat and Mouse Game of Plagiarism Detection," can be found at (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access).

Anthropologist at German University Resigns Amid Allegations that He Falsified Data (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
An investigation conducted by the University of Frankfurt (German) found that one of its anthropology professors "falsified data, plagiarized the work of his peers, and attempted to sell ape skulls belonging to the university." Reiner Protsch von Zieten's resignation went into effect at the beginning of February, weeks before the university's commission announced its findings. This February 25, 2005 article from The Chronicle of Higher Education examine the events that sparked the investigation, reaction from colleagues, and other actions that may be taken against Protsch von Zieten.

Are More People Cheating?
Recent controversies, such as the looting accusations against the former chairman of Tyco and the Stephen Ambrose plagiarism case, have many thinking that people are more dishonest than in the past. Historians and ethicists say that this may not actually be the case. This article from the October 4, 2003 edition of The New York Times takes a look at a new book by David Callahan titled, "The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead" (Harcourt, 2004), and explores explanations as to why unethical behavior appears to be on the rampage.

British Student Says University was Negligent for Not Stopping His Plagiarism (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Michael Gunn, an English major at a British university, admits that he plagiarized throughout his academic career. In a few weeks, Gunn is scheduled to complete his degree, but the university is threatening to rescind his grades and withhold his diploma. Gunn states that he did not know that his "cut and paste" techniques were a problem, and he is suing the university for negligence. The university's response and additional information about this situation can be found in a Chronicle of Higher Education article published on June 4, 2004.

Busting the New Breed of Plagiarist
Michael Bugeja, special assistant to the President at Ohio University and creator of Your Path, a character development program, originally published in the September 2000 issue of The Writer's Chronicle. Bugeja believes that some students who commit acts of online plagiarism have very predictable patterns of cheating. He offers 5 strategies to help instructors catch plagiarism.

The Campaign Against Plagiarism: Academic Initiatives (p. 12)
Recent plagiarism cases involving well-known individuals such as Doris Kearns Goodwin and Stephen Ambrose have pointed the spotlight on this issue that continues to plague those in higher education. Vibiana Bowman, a reference librarian at Rutgers University explores this issue in her article that appears in the March 2002 issue of LIRT News. In it, she discusses projects at Rutgers and other academic institutions that are working to combat cases of plagiarism. Plagiarism detection software packages used by many institutions are also presented.

A Campus Fad That's Being Copied
A recent study of 23 institutions across the U.S. has found that more and more students are plagiarizing from Internet sources. Rutgers University management professor, Donald L. McCabe, organized the survey that included large public universities and small private colleges. Thirty-eight percent of undergraduates stated that they participated in some form of Internet plagiarism in the past year, and almost half of the students did not consider this activity to be cheating. This September 3, 2003 article from The New York Times outlines the survey's results and discusses steps being taken to prevent and discourage future academic integrity violations of this nature.

Canada's Simon Fraser U. Suspends 44 Students in Plagiarism Scandal (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Forty-four students at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia who were involved in a plagiarism "scheme" were suspended after nearly a year long investigation into allegations of academic dishonesty. Students at the University who purchased custom designed projects for an economics assignment were also uncovered during the investigation and received failing grades for the course.

Can Tech Detect College Cheaters?
Many privately held plagiarism software companies, like WordCheck Systems, report that business has been very good for them lately. Margaret Kane discusses the methods used by some of these plagiarism detection services and ways students are able to get around them. One question raised in this article is whether we live in a culture that promotes a cheating mentality.

Combating Plagiarism
The September 19, 2003 issue of CQ Researcher takes a look at plagiarism, and asks the question, "Is the Internet causing more students to copy?" Key issues surrounding plagiarism, such as copyright, plagiarism-detection services, and other prevention devices are discussed. Cases of misconduct, including the Jayson Blair incident at The New York Times, are also addressed. Organizations to contact for more information, plus additional resources are also provided. One nice feature of this article is the sample bibliography section, which provides examples for APA, MLA and Chicago citation styles.

Copycats Have High-Tech Foe: Software Can Spot Plagiarism
Historians were the first group to use software detection devices to catch cases of plagiarism. This article from the January 29, 2002 issue of the San Francisco Chronicle discusses how people were less than enthusiastic about these tools in 1991, but they are now used extensively. Descriptions of some of the recent detection devices are also provided.

Dealing with Plagiarists
What would you do if you discovered one of your students plagiarized a paper? Would you

  1. Fail her for the course?
  2. Fail the paper but allow her to remain in the course, on the condition that she signs an acknowledgment of the plagiarism that will remain in her file until graduation?
  3. Give her the opportunity to rewrite the paper, and penalize the final grade by a full letter?

James M. Lang, an assistant professor of English at Assumption College (Worchester, MA) discusses these and what he determined to be the best solution in his situation: none of the above.

Download. Steal. Copy. Cheating at the University
Students are looking more and more to online research paper site as a way of producing a term paper for class. This article that appeared in the November 21, 2001 issue of The Daily Pennsylvanian discusses this trend among high school and college students and steps taken to combat this issue.

E-Cheating--Combating a 21st Century Challenge
When Kim McMurty started teaching college English a few years ago, she never envisioned her students using the Internet to help them cheat in her class. McMurty takes a look at the frequency of plagiarism as well as ways students use the Internet to cheat. She also provides eight suggestions to instructors on how to combat e-cheating in their classes.

Edward Waters College Loses Accreditation Following Plagiarism Scandal (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
This week, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools revoked Edward Waters College's accreditation after an investigation of plagiarism allegations. The Florida Times-Union recently disclosed that Edward Waters plagiarized a document that was sent to the institution's accrediting agency, and these charges led to an investigation into the matter. It appears that sections of and statistics included in the document were taken from a report produced by Alabama A & M. What this may mean to the students at Edward Waters and steps that will be taken to rectify this situation are discussed in this December 9, 2004 article from The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Emory U. Announces that Michael Bellesiles will Take a Paid Leave (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Michael Bellesiles, a history professor at Emory University, has been accused of research misconduct in preparing his controversial book "Arming America: The Origins of a National Gun Culture" (Alfred A. Knopf, 2000). Critics predict that Bellesiles will not return to teach at Emory.

Update: Bellesiles Resigns From Emory After University Report Questions His Research for Book on Guns (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
On Friday, October 25, 2002, Michael Bellesiles, history professor at Emory University resigned from his position. It will become effective at the end of December. His resignation coincided with the release of Emory's investigation report into the Bellesiles controversy. Findings documented in the report state that Bellesiles' "carelessness in the gathering and presentation of archival records" raised questions about his "scholarly integrity."

For more information about the Bellesiles controversy, go to

Fall From Grace (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Life was good for Quincy Troupe. He had published 13 books, won two American Book Awards, was chosen to be poet laureate of California and Troupe was one of the best-paid humanities professors at the University of California at San DIego. Troupe's world came crashing down when a routine background check uncovered a lie about his academic credentials. Reactions to this news and the message about academic integrity issues such as plagiarism and faking academic credentials are discussed in this article from the April 4, 2003 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Fending Off a Plagiarist
Kim Lanegran, an assistant professor of political science, discovered that her good deed resulted in a situation that "nearly defeated" her. Kim shared her dissertation with a student who was doing research in a similar area. Three years after she defended her dissertation, Kim discovered that this student not only plagiarized passages from her work, but submitted a document that was basically her dissertation. Kim discusses her experience in this article from the July 2, 2004 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Four Reasons to Be Happy about Internet Plagiarism
Russell Hunt, a Professor of English at St. Thomas University, suggests that plagiarism that has become easier due to the increase in use by students of high tech information resources need not be seen as a "disaster" but rather as something to be welcomed. Hunt outlines four practices that will be threatened by this type of academic integrity violation. This article, which was published in the December 2002 issue of Teaching Perspectives, is merely an excerpt from a longer article by Hunt entitled, "In Praise of Plagiarism" and can be found in draft form at

A Generation of Cheaters
There are a growing number of students desperate for better grades who think cheating is not a big deal. Some believe that it's not the cheating that's alarming, even though that is becoming more and more of an issue, but the attitudes of students today about cheating. This cover story article discusses the growing problem of cheating in higher education, and the lack of guilt by students who believe cheating is merely a survival tactic in an increasingly competitive world.

Got Cheaters? Ask New Questions,1383,54996,00.html
This brief article by Dustin Goot that appeared in the September 10, 2002 issue of Wired is about James McKenzie who claims that students are not completely to blame for the increase in plagiarism. McKenzie states that instructors need to differentiate between trivial and meaningful research assignments in their classes. Links to other Wired articles on plagiarism are also presented at this site.

Harvard U. Reportedly Revokes Acceptance of Teen Who Admitted Plagiarism (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Blair Hornstine, the New Jersey teen who sued her school district to become the sole valedictorian of her high school class, will not be joining the freshman class at Harvard this fall. Hornstine learned she lost her place at Harvard after she admitted to plagiarizing several sources for guest columns she wrote for a local newspaper. Harvard's student newspaper, The Harvard Crimson, broke the story on Friday, July 11, 2003, and Harvard officials have declined to comment on the story. Details about Hornstine's actions are presented in this article from the July 14, 2003 edition of The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Head of Indian University Quits After Panel Finds He Plagiarized Stanford Professor's Work (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Balwant Singh Rajput, head of Kumaun University in Indian, resigned after an investigation committee found him guilty of "word by word" plagiarism. The panel found that large sections of an article by Rajput and his research associates were taken from a paper written by Renata Kallosh, a particle physicist at Stanford University. This article from the February 10, 2003 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education discusses the investigation's findings and Rajput's claims of innocence.

Historical Association Will No Longer Investigate Allegations of Wrongdoing (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Several high profile plagiarism and scholarly misconduct allegations have plagued the field of history in recent times, but the American Historical Association (AHA) believes that the focus should be on more important issues like education. The AHA announced that the organization will no longer investigate any acts of possible misconduct by historians due to limited resources and lack of power to impose sanctions. Reactions to this decision plus ethics policies in place in other professional organizations are addressed in this article from the May 7, 2003 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education.

UPDATE (1/10/05): The annual conference of the American Historical Association was held in Seattle over the weekend. It may not have been noted on the conference program, but one issue on the minds of many conference attendees was the association's position on academic integrity violations. Conference details and a brief discussion about this issue can be found in "Archives, Outreach, and Ethics Dominate the Agenda at Historians' Annual Meeting." The full text of the article can be accessed in the January 10, 2005 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education at (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)

How to Handle Cyber-Sloth in Academe
Early in his career, Andrew Carnie, an assistant professor of linguistics at the University of Arizona and moderator of the e-list called Linguist List (, would receive questions from students in need of information for assignments. Initially, he would answer these requests, but now he realizes that high school students and undergrads suffer from a laziness condition called "cyber-sloth."

I Have a Question: Is It Web Research or Technology Assisted Plagiarism?
Have you ever encountered the following homework assignment pasted into e-mail? "I have a question…and my paper is due tomorrow morning at 8:00 a.m." Miriam Schulman, the communications director for the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University, has, and this paper discusses some of her experiences with the "Net Generation." Schulman examines whether actions taken by students actually constitute plagiarism, or whether their technology background simply leads them to believe that the world's experts are at their fingertips. Topics, such as passive learning and grazing for information are also examined in this article that appears in the fall 2004 Santa Clara Magazine.

Institutionalized Plagiarism
Silence is least it seems that way in many academic institutions. Allegations of misconduct have been on the rise, and it appears that a "code of silence" may be enabling researchers to plagiarize materials. This article from the August 2, 2004 issue of The Scientist discusses this problem and examines some of the contributing factors.

The Internet Gives College Cheaters a High-Tech Edge
Surveys show that academic dishonesty on college campuses is on the rise. The November 18, 2002 article from The Salt Lake Tribune discusses why this is a growing phenomenon and how teachers are fighting back.

Internet Plagiarism--We All Pay the Price (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Ellen Laird, an English instructor at Hudson Valley Community College, discusses the consequences surrounding an incident involving one of her "A" students. The student turned in an essay that Laird thought was even a bit more advanced than his usual work. After doing a bit of searching on the Web, this instructor stumbles upon the same paper at a term paper site.

Is Honor Up for Grabs? Education Isn't About Surveillance
Robert Boynton, who teaches magazine journalism at New York University, wrote this Washington article that discusses the plagiarism case at the University of Virginia and examines whether or not an honor code deters cheating.

Jane Eyre, To Go
When Victoria Olsen went online in search of "term papers" that her students could find to fulfill an assignment in her Victorian Literature class at Stanford, her searches yielded nothing that was applicable to particular assignment she designed. However, she did find plenty of papers about Jane Eyre that discussed everything from nature to "Jane-as-feminist." Victoria discusses her online "adventure" and the changes that have taken place since the first term paper company ( came on the scene in 1996.

Keeping Kids Honest in the Information Age: Dealing with Cyber-Plagiarism
Lorraine Sherry, a Senior Research Associate at RMC Research Corporation (Denver, CO) put together this article as part of her work with the STAR Center (Support for Texas Academic Renewal). Sherry discusses some reasons why students use the Internet to "cut and paste" information to complete assignments. She also presents data about term paper providers and other sites that "encourage" plagiarism. Tips on how to teach about plagiarism, detection strategies and methods to help prevent plagiarism are also covered.

Magazine's Essay on Plagiarism Seems to Have Been Partly Plagiarized (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Michael Heberling, president of Baker College's Center for Graduate Studies, ironically found some very familiar passages in an article titled, "Probing for Plagiarism in the Virtual Classroom" ( that appeared on May 1. 2003 in Syllabus magazine. In the spring of 2002, Heberling published the article, "Maintaining Academic Integrity in Online Education" ( in The Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, and he found that several passages from his article appeared almost word-for-word without proper attribution in the Syllabus piece. Heberling's reaction and Syllabus' response are included in this May 28, 2003 article from The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Many on Campus Disdain Historian's Practice
This article by Diana Jean Schemo was originally published in the January 15, 2002 issue of The New York Times and discusses the debates on many college campuses that followed the Stephen Ambrose plagiarism scandal. Some professors indicated that Ambrose's books would no longer have a place on their syllabi, while others stated they would continue to use his works.

Brian Martin

Medical Journal Retracts Article After Learning of Forged Signatures (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
An incident of forgery on an article published in the October edition of The New England Journal of Medicine has caused the publication to retract the article. Editors were unaware of the problem until the article was published and one of the individuals whose signature was forged came forward. It was later learned that other signatures had been forged, and this article from the February 12, 2003 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education discusses the reaction to this problem and what steps may be taken to prevent it in the future.

A copy of the full text retraction in The New England Journal of Medicine can be found at (Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view the article, available free).

Mending Misconduct
On Thursday, October 30, 2003, the Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Research Integrity (ORI) announced a disciplinary ruling against Ilya Koltover, a researcher in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University. According to claims made by ORI, Koltover plagiarized and falsified research proposal data. This article from the November 5, 2003 edition of The Scientist discusses Koltover's acts of misconduct, ORI's ruling, and Northwestern's response to the allegations against Koltover.

Mentor vs. Protege
This Chronicle of Higher Education special report from December 17, 2004 takes a look at the issue of plagiarism. We often hear about students who submit plagiarized work, but it isn't often that the opposite is brought to light. One article in this report, "Mentor vs. Protege" examines cases that involve professors who plagiarize their students' work, and investigates the fallout that my occur when students fight back. Links to articles related to this topic, such as (1) The Price of Plagiarism; (2) How Long a Shadow Should Plagiarism Cast; and (3) Choose Caution in Responding to Accusations of Plagiarism are included. An online discussion is also accessible.

Naval Academy Investigates Plagiarism Allegation Against Historian (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Brian VanDeMark, a history professor at the United States Naval Academy, published a book titled Pandora's Keeper: Nine Men and the Atomic Bomb, and now there are allegations that sections of the book may have been plagiarized. An article that appeared in the May 31, 2003 edition of The New York Times ( indicates that VanDeMark's book contains "more than 30 uncredited passages that are identical or nearly identical" to those found in other publications. VanDeMark's response and information about the academy's investigation are outlined in this June 2, 2003 article from The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Update: Professor Brian VanDeMark was demoted and his salary in response to an investigation that revealed he plagiarized material included in his book, Pandora's Keepers: Nine Men and the Atomic Bomb. The U.S. Naval Academy announced their decision on Tuesday, October 28, 2003, and details about this case are provided in this Chronicle of Higher Education article from the October 29, 2003 issue at (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)

The New Plagiarism: Seven Antidotes to Prevent Highway Robbery in an Electronic Age
Jamie McKenzie, editor of the Webzine From Now On: The Educational Technology Journal, offers 7 "antidotes" designed to stop the increasing trend of what McKenzie calls the "new plagiarism" before it becomes an academic epidemic.

New Software Detects Plagiarized Passages
Plagiarism detection software is not just for academia anymore. Due to the number of scandals that have recently come to the surface, such as the ones involving Jayson Blair (New York Times), Jack Kelley (USA Today), and Richard Judd (Harford Courant), commercial entities are seeking help from plagiarism detection software companies, like iParadigm. Details about the growth of these software companies, and additional information about the clients they serve, can be found in this April 6, 2004 article from USA Today.

Newspaper Details Allegations of Academic Fraud and Payoff in Fresno State Basketball Program (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
A report published in the Sunday edition of the newspaper, The Fresno Bee, indicates that Russ Mintz, a statistician for the California State University at Fresno's basketball team, was paid to write papers for team basketball players. This February 11, 2003 Chronicle of Higher Education article outlines the allegations and discusses the investigation.

The article that appeared in The Fresno Bee, entitled "Bulldog Academic Fraud Alleged," can be found at

Oklahoma State U. Bars Plagiarist Professor from the Classroom (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
This month, a geography professor at the University of Oklahoma at Stillwater was informed he would no longer be allowed in the classroom and would be stripped of his title as "regents" professor. The university conducted an investigation against George O. Carney and found he "plagiarized numerous times over his long career." The option to appeal this ruling and future plans for Carney are discussed in this February 25, 2005 article from The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Peking U. Dismisses Professor Accused of Plagiarism (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Chinese government officials and university administrators are starting to take a stand against plagiarism. Evidence of this change in position can be seen in the case of Huang Zongying. Zongying, who was an associate professor of English at Peking University, was fired after a Chinese graduate student brought the misconduct to light. Additional information about the allegations can be found in this August 11, 2004 article from The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Physicist in India Accused of Plagiarism (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
A Web site at accuses Balwant Singh Rajput, the Vice Chancellor of Kumaun University (India) of plagiarizing research by foreign authors. Scientists charge that Rajput has co-written four papers whose contents have been taken directly from international journals. The Web site posts a side-by-side comparison of Rajput's paper with one written by Stanford physicist, Renata Kallosh for comparison of certain passages believed to be plagiarized. Rajput denies the allegations.

An update on this investigation can be found in a February 10, 2003 article from The Chronicle of Higher Education, and can be accessed at

Plagiarism: A Lie of the Mind (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Maurice Isserman, professor of history at Hamilton College and faculty coordinator of the college's writing center, discusses a plagiarism case that hit much harder than allegations against Stephen Ambrose and Doris Kearns Goodwin. This article from the May 2, 2003 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education details the resignation of Hamilton College president, Eugene Tobin, and examines various aspects of plagiarism.

Plagiarism By Design? MIT Press Seeks Recompense from McGraw-Hill for Copying in Book (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Portions of Meredith L. Clausen's book, Pietro Belluschi: Modern American Architect, found their way into Roger Shepherd's book, Structures of Our Time: Thirty-one Buildings That Changed Modern Life. Clausen's work appeared without attribution, and Shepherd acknowledges that there are reasons but not excuses for their inclusion. Other problems with Shepherd's book, plus reactions from the publishers of both works are discussed in this article from the September 14, 2004 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education.

UPDATE (9/20/04): Additional information can be found in a September 20, 2004 Chronicle of Higher Education article titled, "Arts Professor at New School U. Resigns after Admitting Plagiarism." It can be accessed at

UPDATE (11/21/04): The professor who admitted to plagiarism a couple of months ago want his old job back, and he's willing to sue his former institution to do so. Initial reports from the school indicated that Roger Shepherd resigned, but that may not be the case. More information about this incident can be found in the November 17, 2004 article, "Professor Who Acknowledged Plagiarism Accuses New School U. of Firing Him Unfairly," published in The Chronicle of Higher Education. This article is available at

Plagiarism Case Bedevils Kansas School - March 19, 2002
Christine Pelton, a biology teacher at Pelton High School, gave zeros to a group of twenty-eight students who cheated on an assignment for her class. This CNN article discusses what happened after the school board overturned Pelton's decision.

A Plagiarism Detection Tool Creates Legal Quandary
Andrea Foster discusses in this May 17, 2002 Chronicle of Higher Education article whether some plagiarism detection services are violating students' legal rights. One service of particular concern is Turnitin ( Part of the controversies surrounds the fact that Turnitin keeps papers submitted by professors in order to increase the size of their database. Many other detection services merely run papers through a computer program that checks for copied materials off the Internet.

Plagiarism in Dylan, or a Cultural Collage
Questions have surfaced as to whether or not singer/songwriter Bob Dylan borrowed passages from Dr. Junichi Saga's book titled, "Confessions of a Yakuza" without proper attribution. Sentences from the book are similar to lines from songs on Dylan's 2001 album, "Love and Theft." Some say Dylan has always written songs that have been "information collages," whereas others believe that this is just another case of plagiarism. Issues surrounding these allegations, the Internet's role in the rapid dispersion of materials, and Dr. Saga's reaction are discussed in this article form the July 12, 2003 issue of The New York Times. Complete lyrics to Dylan's songs can are available at

Plagiarism in Higher Education: Is There a Remedy?
Recent reports about plagiarism indicate that it is on the rise, and students are admitting to ethical violations such as cutting and pasting from the Internet and purchasing papers from term paper mills. Certain disciplines, like those in science and medicine report more incidents of plagiarism than those in the social sciences. This article from the October 20, 2003 issue of The Scientist examines the issue of academic integrity, and outlines steps that can be taken to reduce the incident of plagiarism in higher education.

Plagiarism in Paleontology
Julio Aguirre, the University of Granada, was reviewing a paper by Mostafa Mansour Imam, when he noticed a disturbing pattern. Aguirre states that Iman has "repeatedly been plagiarizing pictures of diverse organisms previously published by other authors." This article from the September 22, 2004 issue of the Scientist examines the allegations and discusses the reactions to this case.

UPDATE (10/8/04): According to a colleague, Mostafa Imam died of a fatal heart attack earlier this week. Imam, a Saudi Arabia-based researcher, was recently accused of plagiarizing photographs that appeared in articles he published in micropaleontology articles. More information about the recent allegations against Imam, and the response to Imam's death can be found in "Fallout from Fraud," which was published in the October 8, 2004 issue of The Scientist. It can be accessed at

Plagiarism in the News
The Bridgewater College (VA) Online Writing Lab has designed this site to help foster discussions on the ethical use of sources by writers. Numerous articles on plagiarism issues, including the Doris Kearns Goodwin and Stephen Ambrose scandals, have been compiled and posted at this site by Lab staff.

Plagiarism, Norms, and the Limits of Theft Law: Some Observations on the Use of Criminal Sanctions in Enforcing Intellectual Property Rights
Stuart P. Green, Professor of Law at Louisiana State University, examines why laws designed to deter intellectual property crimes, such as plagiarism, do not seem to be very effective or binding. This 76-page article, published in The Hastings Law Journal (Vol. 54, No. 1, 2002), explores a plethora of topics including the history of plagiarism, the psychology of plagiarism, and the harms caused by plagiarism. NOTE: The URL noted above is for an abstract of the article, but links to the full text are included near the bottom of that page.

Playing Dirty in the War on Plagiarism
Plagiarism is a growing problem on today's college campuses. Many think technology is at least partially to blame for this concerning trend. Of even bigger concern, however, is whether students even know that acts of plagiarism are wrong. Vincent Moore, an assistant professor at Tiffin University, discusses this issue in the context of his experiences in dealing or not dealing with plagiarism.

Probing for Plagiarism in the Virtual Classroom
Colleges moving into the realm of distance education are making it easier for students to learn any time, any place and anywhere. Are these new virtual classrooms also making it easier for students to cheat? Lindsey S. Hamlin, a graduate research associate and William T. Ryan, a DBA, both at Florida Atlantic University discuss virtual cheating versus tradition misconduct affecting institutions of higher education. The authors also examine ways instructors can detect & deter cheating in their classrooms plus they provide a list of selected anti-plagiarism sites. This article originally appeared in the May 1, 2003 issue of Syllabus.

Note: Go to for an update about this article.

Professor Accused of Plagiarism Gets to Keep Her Job (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Mary A. Zey, an ag economics professor at Texas A & M, College Station, was charged by university official with committing "flagrant and serious scientific misconduct." She denies the allegations, and the university has decided to give her a second chance and not fire her. Now, Zey wants her reputation restored, and lawsuits may be filed in future months.

Prominent Physicist Fired for Faking Data
Jan Hendrick Schon, a scientist with expertise in superconductivity and molecular scale electronics, was fired from Bell Labs for falsifying data over a 4 year period. A panel appointed by Bell Labs found Schon misrepresented data results 16 times. Some of the data had been published in journals such as Science and Nature. This September 26, 2002 article also briefly discusses the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory case involving Victor Ninov and his claims to have discovered the 118th element.

Rebecca Moore Howard--Articles
Rebecca Moore Howard, Associate Professor of Writing & Rhetoric and Writing Program Director at Syracuse University, is one of the most well-known researchers in the area of composition and plagiarism. This site provides access to a number of Howard's articles on the topic of plagiarism.

Students Plagiarize Less than Many Think, a New Study Finds
A new study published in the May/June 2002 issue of The Journal of College Student Development finds that incidents of online plagiarism are as rampant as one would believe. Two professors at the Rochester Institute of Technology found that students believe that more plagiarism is occurring than they report actually doing. In fact, the professors found that reported cases of online plagiarism are comparable to studies done years ago on paper and book plagiarism.

Students Using the Net to Cheat
Students using the Internet to plagiarize is not unique to the U.S. Universities in the U.K. are also finding that an increasing number of students are participating in this "cut and paste" culture, and some are finding that it is becoming very difficult to detect. This BBC News article from November 13, 2003 examines possible reasons why plagiarism is so popular with today's students, and discusses steps some institutions are taking in an attempt to prevent and deter future academic integrity violations.

Survey: Many Students Say Cheating's OK
A survey done by Rutgers' Management Education Center found that "of 4,500 high school students, 75% of them engage in serious cheating." Many of these students do not consider these acts of plagiarism to be wrong. This CNN article takes a look at this student and things that are being done to reverse this situation.

Term Paper Mills, Anti-Plagiarism Tools, and Academic Integrity
In light of the University of Virginia plagiarism scandal, cheating and academic integrity issues have coming into the forefront. Mark Groark, Diana Oblinger and Miranda Choa take a look at terms paper sites, academic integrity policies, tools to insure academic integrity, and they discuss what all these things mean for institutions.

Times Reporter Who Resigned Leaves Long Trail of Deception
Jayson Blair, a staff reporter for The New York Times, resigned after numerous instances of fabrication, plagiarism and journalism fraud were uncovered. Blair, a prolific writer who had been at the paper for four years, resigned on May 1, 2003 after errors were found in several of his articles and professional misconduct allegations were varified. Details of how Blair was able to commit this type of fraud plus what is being done with the on-going investigation are presented in this article from the May 11, 2003 issue of The New York Times.

Theology Professor Plagiarized Passages in His Book on Ethics, Professional Group Finds (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
On Thursday, January 6, 2005, the Boston Psychoanalytic Society reported in The Boston Globe ( that a book by a Boston College theology professor "contained some passages that excessively paraphrased or borrowed ideas" from Psychoanalysis and Ethics by Ernest Wallwork, an ethics professor at Syracuse University. The group conducted a yearlong investigation, and concluded that The Ethical Dimension of Psychoanalysis: A Dialogue by the Rev. William W. Meissner included plagiarized passages. A discussion about the investigation and reactions to the announcement are available in the January 7, 2005 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Thin Line Splits Cheating, Smarts,1383,54963,00.html
Google Answers, a questions & answer service provided by 500 freelance researchers often struggle with the fine line between appropriate and inappropriate uses of the Internet. This September 10, 2002 Wired article discusses the difficulties surrounding issues involving plagiarism and how even teachers and student often disagree on what constitutes cheating.

Tony-nominated Playwright Accused of Plagiarism
The play "Frozen" by Bryony Lavery has earned a Tony nomination for best play of the year, but Lavery's words may not be his own. In 1997, Malcolm Gladwell of the New Yorker wrote a piece on Dr. Dorothy Otnow Lewis and her book Guilty by Reason of Insanity. Lewis and Gladwell state that a number of passages in "Frozen" are taken directly from the New Yorker article and Lewis' book. Additional details about the accusations can be found in this September 27, 2004 article that appears on BBC News.

University of Virginia

University of Virginia: Recent Updates

University President Accused of Plagiarism
Richard Judd, the president of Central Connecticut State University (CCSU), has been accused of plagiarizing an op-ed piece that appeared in The Hartford Current on February 26, 2004. A reader noticed that the article was very similar to other works on the same topic, and reported this finding to the newspaper's editors. Details about the works used by Judd and actions taken by the CCSU Board of Trustees are discussed in this article.

Additional information about these allegations can be found in an article published in the March 10, 2004 edition of The Chronicle of Higher Education at

UPDATE (3/22/04): Richard Judd announced on Friday, March 19, 2004 that he plans to retire on July 1, 2004. A meeting was scheduled for Friday afternoon by the Board of Trustees' executive committee to discuss the plagiarism allegations against Judd but was deemed unnecessary after Judd's announcement. Additional details about this case are outlined in an article from the March 22, 2004 edition of The Chronicle of Higher Education, and can be accessed at

Up to 14% of Australian University Students May Be Plagiarizing from Web, Study Suggests
A study, commissioned by six Australian universities, determined that up to 14% of Australian students copied material from the Web for their class assignments. CAVAL, Cooperative Action among Victorian Academic Libraries, used to analyze 1,925 essays from different students, and this November 20, 2002 article from The Chronicle of Higher Education details the study and its findings.

The Web's Plagiarism Police
Andy Dehnart researched this piece for Salon by running his 30-page senior thesis through a plagiarism testing service. After his paper had been analyzed, he discovered that he was a plagiarist. He took time to investigate the charges made by this service and discovered that an error had been made. Dehnart examines plagiarism detection tools, and points out that they are not going to solve all plagiarism issues.

What is Plagiarism?
The History News Network staff has posted three different definitions of plagiarism provided by the American Historical Association, Modern Language Association and the American Psychological Association.

Where Cheaters Often Prosper,1383,54571,00.html
Even in the aftermath of the bust, online term paper sites continue to prosper, and they show no signs of slowing down. This August 26, 2002 Wired article discusses the success of term paper sites and how many of the visitors to these sites are teachers. One interesting note is that some of the teachers visiting these term paper sites are submitting resumes to be freelance term paper writers.

With Cheating on the Rise, More Colleges are Turning to Honor Codes (registration to The New York Times is required)

In an attempt to deter cheating, some colleges have resorted to Web search engines and detection software devices to catch students who plagiarize class assignments. Other institutions, however, have gone one step farther and have started looking at their university's honor code. This November 2, 2002 article from The New York Times takes a look at institutions like Duke, the University of Virginia and other who are implementing new honor codes to an attempt to improve academic integrity.

Back to Top of Page

Copyright & Intellectual Freedom

6 Publishers Sue Owner of Online Course-pack Business, Alleging Copyright Violations (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Six academic publishers have filed a copyright-infringement lawsuit against the owner of two Austin, Texas copy shops and an online course-pack distribution business. The suit accuses the owner of "reproducing academic materials for a profit without permission of the publishers or their licensing agent." This article, published in the February 12, 2004 edition of The Chronicle of Higher Education names those involved in this lawsuit, and outlines what this case may mean for digital distribution of course materials.

UPDATE (4/4/04): An out-of-court settlement was reached in the case against Samuel Odunsi, a copy shop owner in Austin, TX. The suit against Odunsi stated that his shop created electronic course packs called, "NetPaks," without proper permission from the publisher. Details about the suit and the settlement can be found in this March 31, 2004 Chronicle of Higher Education article at

10 Big Myths about Copyright Explained
Brad Templeton, founder of ClariNet Communications Corp and Chairman of the Board of Electrical Frontier Foundation discusses myths surrounding copyright like, "If it doesn't have a copyright notice, it's not copyrighted." And "My posting was just fair use!"

Bill Aims to Scale Back Controversial Copyright Act
On Wednesday, May 12, 2004, a number of consumer groups made their case to Congress to amend the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The original language that was passed in 1998 states that "it's illegal to bypass technological copy-protection schemes to make backup copies of purchased work or to cut snippets of copyrighted materials for what has traditionally been called 'fair use'." This article published in the May 12, 2004 issue of InformationWeek discusses the current bill, sponsored by Rep. Dick Boucher, D-Va., and addresses concerns presented by those in Hollywood.

A Bookworm's Battle: Eric Eldred, Inspired by the Internet, Takes a Copyright Case to the Supreme Court

What began in 1995 as a Web site designed to help his triplet daughters decipher "The Scarlet Letter" for their middle school class has now placed Eric Eldred at the forefront of a "high-profile" court case (Eldred v. Ashcroft). Eldred, scholars and library organizations question the constitutionality of the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, which adds 20 years to copyright protection.

Additional details about Eldred v. Ashcroft can be found at

Update: The U. S. Supreme Court's ruling that upholds a 1998 law is detailed in an article from the January 16, 2003 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education and is available at

Copyright & Fair Use
This site, sponsored by the Council on Library Resources, FindLaw Internet Legal Resources and the Stanford University Libraries & Academic Information Resources, has copyright information links to primary materials, current legislation, resources on the Internet and an overview of copyright law.

Copyright as Cudgel
Siva Vaidhyanathan, an assistant professor of culture and communication at New York University discusses issues and controversies surrounding the Digital Millennium Act, how it has been a failure in terms of copyright and what should be done in the future in this August 2, 2002 Chronicle of Higher Education article.

Copyright Issues in Digital Media
Technology has been evolving at such a rapid pace that it is often difficult to keep up with the changes. This poses an extra layer of problems and concerns for those dealings with copyright law issues. This Congressional Budget Office paper, published in August 2004, examines a number of different topics including, (1) the current copyright debate; (2) copyright law and technological change; (3) copyright and the economics of intellectual property regulation; and (4) economic implication of prospective legislative action.

Copyright Resources on the Internet
The Groton Public Schools (Mystic, CT) developed this site as part of their "Copyright Implementation Manual" (CIM). Resources presented at this site are not K-12 specific and are appropriate for anyone looking for copyright information.

The Copyright Web Site
The Copyright Web Site has been called the "leading Internet portal for copyright information", and it provides links to video, audio and digital resources as well as the basics of copyright law. Online copyright registration is also available on this site.

The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age
New technologies and the Internet are changing the ways people access information. The Digital Dilemma project developed out of a long interest in legal issues surrounding computer technology and intellectual property by the Computer Science & Telecommunications Board (CSTB). The committee charged with studying this issue and presenting this report was a diverse group made up of experts from industry, academia and the library & information science community.

Electronic Publishing in Science-Seizing the Moment: Scientists' Authorship Rights in a Digital Age
Electronic Publishing in Science is a product of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) working in conjunction with a diverse group of experts in the area of electronic scientific publishing. This report discusses the challenges to scientific publishing due to new technologies.

Fair Use of Copyrighted Works
California State University, the State University of New York and the City University of New York banded together to form CETUS (Consortium for Educational Technology for University Systems). This online version of the Fair Use of Copyrighted Works was put together by the Working Group on Ownership, Legal Rights of Use and Fair Use.

FindLaw: Intellectual Property Law: Copyright
FindLaw claims to be the "highest-trafficked legal Web site" on the Internet today. Their section on Intellectual Property Law is a good starting point to locate resources dealing with copyright, trademarks, and intellectual property.

Google Web Directory: Copyrights

The copyright section of the Google Web directory has a plethora of links related to copyright and intellectual property.

In the Copyright Wars, This Scholar Sides with the Anarchists
Siva Vaidhyanathan, an assistant professor of culture and communication at New York University (NYU), believes that the legal system may be putting a damper on cultural creativity. His new book, The Anarchist in the Library, which initially started out as a sequel to Copyrights and Copywrongs, addresses culture's need to exist in an environment of sharing in order to thrive. Vaidhyanathan's thoughts and opinions about this topic are presented in this November 19, 2004 article from The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure
The Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights prepared this report that examines and analyzes major areas of copyright and intellectual property issues.

Lawrence Lessig

Students Fight Copyright Hoarders,1284,65616,00.html
Students on a number of college campuses around the U.S. are forming Free Culture groups. These groups are designed to teach other students about copyright law. The various leaders of this group are finding creative ways to spread their message and prevent copyright from stifling creativity. More information about this group and their activities can be found in this November 10, 2004 article from Wired.

NOTE: One of the co-founders of Free Culture Swarthmore, Nelson Pavlosky, successfully sued Diebold Election Systems after the company misused the Digital Millennium Copyright Act to threaten Swarthmore students.

Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act (TEACH Act)

College Media Group Cautions That 2 Copyright Laws Could Collide
This article from the March 18, 2003 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education discusses the possible conflict between the TEACH Act and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

Slow Start for Long-Awaited Easing of Copyright Restriction
In November, 2002, President Bush sign the bill known as the TEACH Act into law. This law was designed to reduce the number of restrictions on the use of copyrighted materials in online classes. It appears that faculty have not taken advantage of this change because many say that the TEACH Act is "too complex and too vague." Activities permitted by this new law and the restrictions that also apply are outlined in this article from the March 28, 2003 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education. Links to guidelines published for the TEACH Act are also provided.

The TEACH Act: Finally Becomes Law
The University of Texas has developed a site for those interested in the TEACH Act. It is primarily focused on issues that affect educators, but librarians may find that it does not cover many of the issues in the Act that affect libraries. This site provides a checklist to determine if you are ready to use the TEACH Act. Links to additional information on copyright and intellectual property issues are also provided.

Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act (TEACH Act)
The TEACH Act, part of the larger Justice Reauthorization legislation (H. R. 2215) was signed into law by President George W. Bush on November 2, 2002. This much anticipated act "redefines the terms and conditions on which accredited, nonprofit educational institutions throughout the U.S. may use copyright protected materials in distance education-including on websites and by other digital means--without permission from the copyright owner and without payment of royalties", and offers major improvements over the previous version of Section 110(2). This site outlines the standards and requirements established by the TEACH Act.

The Tyranny of Copyright
A group of students at Swarthmore College acquired 15,000 e-mail messages and memos in fall 2003 that were either leaked or stolen from Diebold Election Systems. Diebold Election Systems is one of the largest manufacturers of electronic voting systems in the U.S., and the e-mail and memos discussed flaws in the Diebold software and warnings that their network was vulnerable to hacker attacks. The Swarthmore students felt that the public should be made aware of these potential problems, and they posted this data on their Web site. After the data was posted, Diebold sent letters to Swarthmore officials accusing the students of copyright violations. The company demanded that the data be removed from the students' site and the college's server. This article, published in the January 25, 2004 edition of The New York Times discusses Swarthmore's reaction, Diebold's response, and the role the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) plays in this and other similar cases.

UPDATE (2/10/04): Diebold's actions against the students at Swarthmore College who posted materials on the Web about the company's software and network vulnerabilities may have backfired on them. Two students and an ISP have filed a lawsuit against Diebold for "abuse of copyright protections created by the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). Additional details about the case can be found in this TechWorldNews article titled, "Activists Seek Damages from Diebold over Copyright Abuse." The article can be found at, and it was published February 10, 2004.

UPDATE (10/4/04): The U.S. District Court in San Jose, CA ruled in favor of two Swarthmore College students who posted an unflattering memo about Diebold, Inc. on their Web site. Information about this case and the ruling can be found in, "Court Rules for Swarthmore College Students in Copyright Case against Voting-machine Company." This October 4, 2004 Chronicle of Higher Education article can be accessed at (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access).

University of Maryland, University College

University of Texas System

U.S. Copyright Office
The U.S. Copyright Office site was designed "to serve the copyright community of creators and users, as well as the general public." Links are available to the copyright law, application forms for copyright registration and other information resources dealing with copyright.

What Colleges and Universities Need to Know about the Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Many aspects of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) contain information of interest to higher education administrators and faculty. Casey Linde, a policy analyst for EDUCAUSE and based in their Washington, D. C. office, focuses on two points of note in this 1999 article published in CAUSE/EFFECT. The first point deals with limitations on infringement liability for "service providers", and the other one relates to the prohibition on circumvention of technological protection measures (TPMs).

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
WIPO is an international whose mission is to protect and promote intellectual property. Currently, 179 states and over 90% of the world's countries belong to WIPO.

Yahoo! Intellectual Property Links
Yahoo! has compiled a set of annotated links on intellectual property, and they are available at this site.

Back to Top of Page

For Instructors

About Plagiarism, Pixels and Platitudes
Diane Christian Boehm, Director of Instructional Support Programs, University Writing Program at Saginaw Valley State University (Michigan) developed this site with Laura Taggett. Issues surrounding plagiarism and strategies to combat classroom cheating are discussed.

Academic Integrity at Princeton
Princeton University has created this "booklet" that contains articles addressing topics like the challenge of original work, when to cite sources, examples of plagiarism and the question of collaboration.

Anti-Plagiarism Strategies
Robert Harris, an educator with over 25 years of college and university teaching experience, has developed this site that discusses strategies to help increase plagiarism awareness, as well as strategies and prevention tips.

Beating e-Cheating: Strategies for Discouraging Internet Plagiarism
Tammy Kempfert, Editor of Teaching with Technology Today, discusses findings surrounding the plagiarism. She presents the findings and thoughts on some experts in this area.

Bedford Workshops on Teaching Writing Online: Plagiarism
Nick Carbone, a new media consultant at Bedford/St. Martins, presented the workshop materials and outlines found at this site. These materials are available for "any composition instructor or program to use and adopt for in-house training, conference workshops, freely distributed newsletters and other professional outreach or teaching purposes."

Other sections of this site to consult for plagiarism information include:

Catching Digital Cheaters
This Educational CyberPlayground site contains links to Website sources that are used for plagiarism, such as term paper mills, as well as Websites related to fighting plagiarism. Resources for students, higher education professors and K-12 teachers are also provided.

Center for Academic Integrity (CAI)
The Center for Academic Integrity is affiliated with the Kenan Institute of Ethics (, and their mission is "to identify and affirm the values of academic integrity and to promote their achievement in practice."

Cheating, Plagiarism (and Other Questionable Practices): The Internet and Other Electronic Resources
Phyllis Holman Weisbard, a University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian, has presented her research on Internet plagiarism nationally. Her site contains resources on topics such as term paper sites, plagiarism detectors and ways to detect plagiarism.

Coastal Carolina University-Teaching Effectiveness Seminar

Dealing with Plagiarism
Stauffer Library Reference Services at Queens University (Kingston, Ontario) starts off their site by presenting an article entitled "The New Plagiarism: Rise of the 'Copy and Paste' Generation" by Cory Laverty. This site also has information and links to methods for detecting plagiarism and suggestions on how to structure assignments that discourage plagiarism.

Dealing with Plagiarism Issues: How to Detect It? How to Prevent It?
Lorraine Sherry, a Senior Research Associate at RMC Research Corporation (Denver, CO) has compiled Web sites dealing with the issue of plagiarism and has divided the site into four different sections. The topic areas include 1) Defining the Problem; 2) Teaching-Oriented Sites; 3) Detecting Plagiarism; and 4) Suggestions for Preventing Plagiarism.

Defining and Avoiding Plagiarism: The WPA Statement on Best Practices
This statement produced by the Council of Writing Program Administrators (WPA) addresses issues surrounding the growing problem of plagiarism. WPA has organized this document into the following four categories:

  1. What is plagiarism?
  2. What are the causes of plagiarism and the failure to use and document sources appropriately?
  3. What are our shared responsibilities?
  4. Best practices that will make plagiarism difficult and unnecessary.

Defining and Avoiding Plagiarism was adopted by the WPA in January 2003.

Detecting Cheating
In the age of high-tech cheating methods, is it possible for teachers to detect when their students are cheating? Signs that may indicate students are engaging in misconduct, and tips for how to spot and stop cheating are outlined. Links to plagiarism sites and other academic integrity pages are also provided.

Deterring Plagiarism: Some Strategies
Dr. Margaret Procter, coordinator of writing support at the University of Toronto, presents her suggestions at this site on how to reduce plagiarism in the classroom. She has divided her tips into three sections:

  1. Make Assignments an Integral Part of Learning in the Course
  2. Demonstrate Your Expectations
  3. Look at the Process as well as the Product

Downloadable Term Papers: What's a Prof to Do?
Tom Rocklin who developed this site for the Center for Teaching at the University of Iowa, discusses issues surrounding plagiarism and the Internet. He examines term paper sites, how they threaten the education process and steps instructors can take to reduce the threat of plagiarism.

Downloading Detectives: Searching for On-Line Plagiarism
Robin Satterwhite, social science librarian and Marla Gerein, social sciences academic technology specialist at Colorado College are the authors of this site. They have analyzed plagiarism detection sites and provide a summary of their observations. One thing to note is that a few of the detection services are no longer in business.

Electronic Plagiarism Seminar
Gretchen Pearson, Public Services Librarian and Copyright Officer at Le Moyne College, has done numerous presentations on the topic of plagiarism. This site was developed one of her faculty seminars at Le Moyne in December 1999. Pearson last updated this site on June 29, 2006.

A Faculty Guide to Cyber-Plagiarism
The University of Alberta Libraries has posted this comprehensive site designed to help instructors dealing with plagiarism in their classes. Information available at this site include resources on why students plagiarize, plagiarism terminology, preventing, detecting & reporting plagiarism, paper sites and handouts for students.

Google Web Directory: Plagiarism
Numerous links on plagiarism, detection and prevention are available at this directory with the help of pages from the Open Directory project.

How to Recognize Plagiarism: Indiana University
This site was developed by the Instructional Systems Technology (IST) Department at Indiana University at Bloomington. All IST students are required to take this tutorial, but it may be beneficial to other students and faculty who are interested in addressing issues of plagiarism. An overview, cases, examples and even a test are provided.

Learning Connection: Plagiarism
The University of South Australia has compiled an annotated list of resources dealing with the issue of plagiarism. Resources for students and staff are available to help people understand what constitutes plagiarism and ways it can be avoided. The page is divided into two sections: 1) University of South Australia specific resources; and 2) other educational materials on plagiarism.

Plagiarism: A Good Practice
This 43 page report by Jude Carroll and Jon Appleton makes a case for academic institutions redesigning courses and determining the best ways to inform students about university regulations regarding plagiarism while also teaching the skills necessary for proper attribution in research papers. The authors believe instructors should inform students about the effects plagiarism may have on their careers later in life.

Plagiarism: Faculty Resources
Fran Nowakowski at the Dalhousie University Libraries (Halifax, Canada) has created this site that has links to resources on intellectual honesty, assignment design and plagiarism detection & prevention strategies. The site was last updated on January 30, 2006.

Plagiarism: University of Northern Colorado
The Dean of Students at the University of Colorado has posted this tutorial to help students and faculty deal with the issue of plagiarism. This site defines plagiarism, provides details on how to recognize plagiarism and details the plagiarism detection software tool, Links to addition sites that provide more information about plagiarism, detection tools and term paper providers are also available.

Plagiarism and Anti-Plagiarism
Howard Erhlich, Associate Professor of English at Rutgers University, discusses what constitutes plagiarism, the dilemma many instructors face in dealing with cheating and what can be done to combat this growing crisis. Links on to resources on how to fight plagiarism as well as a step-by-step guide on how to detect plagiarism are also provided.

Plagiarism and the Challenge of Essay Writing: Learning from Our Students
Dr. Janice Newton, Department of Political Science at York University, discusses four common factors of plagiarism:

  1. sloppy research methods
  2. reliance on inappropriate reference guides
  3. misunderstanding of the logic and rules of referencing
  4. weak essay writing skills

Plagiarism and the Web
Bruce Leland, an English Professor at Western Illinois University initially prepared the resources in this page for the 1998 Computers and Writing Conference. Leland provides links to some of the more popular term paper sites and offers tips on how to deter and prevent plagiarism.

Plagiarism Detection Software. See section Plagiarism Detection Tools.

Plagiarism in Colleges in USA
Ronald B. Standler, an attorney and consultant, believes that instructors need to take a proactive stance in fighting plagiarism in their classes. He discusses the law of plagiarism, cases in the U. S. involving plagiarism, self-plagiarism and other issues in this document. The Instructors Guide To Internet Plagiarism
Part of the goal of is to "get the word out" about online plagiarism. This site is a good starting place for those needing to find out more about plagiarism and how to prevent it.

Preventing Academic Dishonesty
Barbara Gross Davis, Assistant Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education at the University of California, Berkeley developed this site, and it is based on a chapter from her book entitled "Tools for Teaching" (Josey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco, 1993). Dr. Davis covers cheating that occurs or can occur during exams as well as plagiarized paper assignments at this site.

Preventing Plagiarism & Cheating in Online Courses
This article is part of the Illinois Online Network's (ION) technology tip of the month called "Pointers & Clickers." Links to term paper and custom papers sites plus ways to prevent cheating in online courses are discussed. Other articles of interest in the "Pointers & Clickers" series can be found at

Questioning Author(ity): ESL/EFL, Science, and Teaching about Plagiarism
TESL-EJ, a refereed publication that is recognized as the source of ESL and EFL information around the word, published this article by Sharon Myers, Texas Tech University. Myers discusses plagiarism as defined by the U. S. National Academy of Sciences (, as well the story published in Science about 3 cases of plagiarism by Chinese scientists.

Reintroducing Students to Good Research
Barbara Fister, a librarian at Gustavus Adolphus College (St. Peter, MN) presented the information at this site in her keynote address to the faculty at Lake Forest College (IL). In her speech, she discusses how to make students independent thinkers so they won't have to rely on copying the works of others. Fister also outlines assignments that can be used to encourage this type of behavior in students.

Resources for Teaching - Plagiarism
The Plagiarism section of the Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning (University of Albany) site can be used to educate students and teachers about plagiarism. Tips for "how to spot a fake" are also available on this page.

Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity
J. Navarro, D. Clark and D. Halley, at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) prepared this document that was originally presented as a section of A Handbook on Teaching for UCSB Faculty. The authors outline ways to faculty can prevent cheating as well as how to go about reporting incidents of cheating.

Student Plagiarism in an Online World
Julie J. C. H. Ryan, a graduate teaching assistant at George Washington University and an information security consultant examines how the Web contributes to the increase in plagiarism cases. She also addresses how the Web has a plethora of tools instructors can use to fight this growing epidemic.

Techniques for Encouraging Academic Integrity
Kathleen Kemmerer, Assistant Professor of English at Penn State Hazleton, briefly discusses ways to prevent students from plagiarizing their assignments. She provides links to articles for instructors & students and free & fee based plagiarism detection software tools.

University of Arizona Information Literacy Initiative
The University of Arizona Information Literacy Team has developed a page with plagiarism detection and prevention resources. Topic areas addressed at this site include detection services, faculty & student guides, and plagiarism prevention strategies.

University of Wisconsin at Platteville Karrmann Library: Plagiarism Prevention
Librarians at the University of Wisconsin at Platteville have put together a site designed to help people understand and prevent plagiarism. Tips on how to encourage students not to cheat and ways to identify plagiarism in students' papers are presented. Annotated links to Internet resources for fighting plagiarism as well as information on term paper mills are available.

What is Plagiarism at Indiana University?
Ted Frick, an associate professor in the Department of Instructional Systems Technology at Indiana University, developed this 10 part quiz designed to test student's abilities to understand and recognize plagiarism. The quiz is designed in a multiple choice format, and immediate feedback is given regarding answers.

Back to Top of Page

For Students

Academic Integrity @ Puget Sound
Members of the University of Puget Sound's Academic Standards Committee designed this guide to be an intellectual ownership resource for students. Source citation materials are also included.

Academic Integrity at Princeton
Princeton University has created this "booklet" that contains articles addressing topics like the challenge of original work, when to cite sources, examples of plagiarism and the question of collaboration.

Avoiding Plagiarism: Hamilton College
Sharon Williams, Director of the Writing Center at Hamilton College (Clinton, NY), believes that some students have no idea that what they are doing constitutes plagiarism. She has designed this site to provide general advice on how to avoid plagiarism as well as outlining examples of note taking methods that will show students proper ways to cite and paraphrase sources.

Avoiding Plagiarism: Mastering the Art of Scholarship
The Student Judicial Affairs Office at the University of California, Davis defines what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. They also list several examples of how to properly cite and paraphrase sources.

Avoiding Plagiarism: Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) developed this online handout to help students become more aware of things they can do to avoid plagiarism. Information and illustrations regarding actions that might be seen as plagiarism and tips on when to cite sources are provided. A practice exercise to help students decide if they are at risk for plagiarism is also available.

Avoiding Plagiarism @ Oregon State University
This Oregon State University site outlines several examples of acceptable and unacceptable "borrowing."

Catching Digital Cheaters
This Educational CyberPlayground site contains links to Website sources that are used for plagiarism, such as term paper mills, as well as Websites related to fighting plagiarism. Resources for students, higher education professors and K-12 teachers are also provided.

A Guide to Writing Research Papers: Statement on Plagiarism
Capital Community College (Hartford, CT) Humanities Department faculty and librarians at the Arthur C. Banks Jr. Library prepared this guide which outlines several examples of proper and improper ways to cite sources.

How to Avoid Plagiarism
Northwestern University has outlined guidelines for academic integrity for undergraduate and graduate students. Their "How to Avoid Plagiarism" site provides examples of how to properly attribute graphs, charts, class notes and more.

How to Recognize Plagiarism: Indiana University
This site was developed by the Instructional Systems Technology (IST) Department at Indiana University at Bloomington. All IST students are required to take this tutorial, but it may be beneficial to other students and faculty who are interested in addressing issues of plagiarism. An overview, cases, examples and even a test are provided.

Learning Connection: Plagiarism
The University of South Australia has compiled an annotated list of resources dealing with the issue of plagiarism. Resources for students and staff are available to help people understand what constitutes plagiarism and ways it can be avoided. The page is divided into two sections: 1) University of South Australia specific resources; and 2) other educational materials on plagiarism.

Paraphrasing: Paraphrasing Textual Material
Paraphrasing is a section of the composition support site for nonnative English at the University of Arizona. Paula Gunder and Randall Sadler recognize that the ability to paraphrase materials is an important skill that some writers have not learned. This guide provides a step-by-step method to help teach the correct way to paraphrase sources.

Earl Babbie, Department of Sociology at Chapman University, has developed this site that is included in California State University's Social Sciences Research and Instructional Council: Teaching Resources Depository. Babbie includes different examples of plagiarism and how to properly use and cite other people's works in his discussion.

Plagiarism: How to Avoid It
Plagiarism: How to Avoid It is section 6 of A Research Guide for Students (, and it was originally print version was published in 1995 as "A Research Guide for Today's High School Students." The goal of the site is to provide student information they need to correctly write and document their research. I. Lee, the author of this site is currently a teacher-librarian at St. Francis Xavier S.S. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.

Plagiarism: Student Resources
In addition to resources for faculty, Fran Nowakowski at the Dalhousie University Libraries (Halifax, Canada) has also compiled plagiarism resources for students. Included on this student-focused site are examples and advice on how to not plagiarize.

Plagiarism: University of Northern Colorado
The Dean of Students at the University of Colorado has posted this tutorial to help students and faculty deal with the issue of plagiarism. This site defines plagiarism, provides details on how to recognize plagiarism and details the plagiarism detection software tool, Links to addition sites that provide more information about plagiarism, detection tools and term paper providers are also available.

Plagiarism: What It is and How to Avoid It
This tutorial was created by the Montgomery College Library (Maryland), and it is designed to help students avoid plagiarism in their writing courses. It is recommended that the slides be completed sequentially, but individual topic areas dealing with issues such as citation styles and paraphrasing can also be accessed.

Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It
Writing Tutorial Services or WTS (often pronounced "wits") at Indiana University at Bloomington has put together this often cited document that discusses what constitutes plagiarism. Strategies students can take to avoid academic dishonesty are also provided.

Plagiarism and Academic Integrity at Rutgers University
This tutorial, which is a production of the Rutgers University Library, is an assigned learning module in many courses at the institution. It requires a high-speed Internet connection and the Flash plugin to run it.

Plagiarism Avoided: Taking Responsibility for Your Work
Plagiarism Avoided is a University of British Columbia site on how to avoid plagiarism that is based on the original booklet Plagiarism: What It Is and How to Avoid It by Colin Gordon, Peter Simmons, and Graeme Wynn. Topics covered on this site include a discussion on what is plagiarism, tips on avoiding plagiarism and other examples.

The Plagiarism Court: You Be the Judge
Ramona Islam, multimedia librarian at the DiMenna-Nyselius Library, Fairfield University (Fairfield, CT), has developed this comprehensive tutorial that guides students through the various components of plagiarism and how to avoid it. This site goes beyond merely discussing elements of plagiarism but also provides tips on note taking, paraphrasing and citation styles. A multiple choice quiz at the end of the tutorial will allow students to determine how well they understand the lessons learned in this tutorial.

Problems with Writing a Paper
Cases of scientific fraud have been making the headlines recently, and those incidents have a detrimental effect on public attitudes toward science and scientific funding. Michael D. Mann, PhD in the Department of Physiology & Biophysics at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, discusses unethical behavior in science and stresses the importance of teaching students about proper conduct while they are students. The article "Problems with Writing a Paper" the various types of plagiarism including not reporting contradictory findings and putting your name on work you didn't do.

University of Arizona Information Literacy Initiative
The University of Arizona Information Literacy Team has developed a page with plagiarism detection and prevention resources. Topic areas addressed at this site include detection services, faculty & student guides, and plagiarism prevention strategies.

What is Plagiarism?
What is Plagiarism? is a section of the Georgetown University Honor Code for students. This document addresses 9 different questions and statements often heard from students regarding plagiarism including, "My friends get stuff off the Internet." and "A citation is not a traffic ticket."

What is Plagiarism at Indiana University?
Ted Frick, an associate professor in the Department of Instructional Systems Technology at Indiana University, developed this 10 part quiz designed to test student's abilities to understand and recognize plagiarism. The quiz is designed in a multiple choice format, and immediate feedback is given regarding answers.

The Writing Place: Tips for Writers Avoiding Plagiarism
The Writing Place is a service of the CAS Writing Program at Northwestern University, and they have developed this site to help students learn tips and strategies for avoiding plagiarism. Examples of accidental plagiarism and acceptable paraphrasing are presented at this site.

Back to Top of Page

Plagiarism Case Studies

History News Network: Plagiarism Cases
The Stephen Ambrose plagiarism controversy has gained lots of press and has brought the issues of sloppiness versus deliberate copying into the limelight. The History News Network has links that track the Ambrose case from the initial reports in the press to its present status.

The Center for the Study of Ethics at Utah Valley State College developed this case on plagiarism as part of their Ethics Across the Curriculum seminar. Other cases related to ethics in education that were presented at the seminar can be found at

Plagiarism in the News
The Bridgewater College (VA) Online Writing Lab has designed this site to help foster discussions on the ethical use of sources by writers. Numerous articles on plagiarism issues, including the Doris Kearns Goodwin and Stephen Ambrose scandals, have been compiled and posted at this site by Lab staff.

Selected RRP Case Studies & Materials
Shaké Ketefian adapted this case for the University of Michigan Research Responsibility Program. The case was taken from "Teaching the Responsible Conduct of Research Through a Case Study Approach" (Association of American Medical Colleges, 1994).

Suspicious Signs Exercise
Renoir Gaither, Shapiro Undergraduate Library at the University of Michigan, constructed this case that represents what might be considered to be a problematic paper turned in by an undergraduate student. Its design is conducive to discussions in a workshop environment.

Teaching Ethics for Research, Scholarship & Practice
The Office of the Vice President for Research and the Dean of the Graduate School at the University of Minnesota have developed this site to be a resource for faculty who are integrating research ethics into their curriculum. It is also designed to "foster increased awareness of ethical issues." Numerous case studies on plagiarism issues are presented at this site. Ethics cases covering other subject areas can be found at

Back to Top of Page

Plagiarism Detection Tools

CopyCatch Gold
A forensic linguist at CFL Software Development with extensive experience in plagiarism developed this software for teachers and students. The cost of a single user license for educational use is £250 per year. was founded in August 2000, and is designed to help institutions prevent Internet plagiarism. It is built on the PlagiServe core design. Papers submitted are compared to more than 1 billion "high risk" Web pages in an attempt to detect plagiarism. Free trials of the software are available.

EVE2: Essay Verification Engine
EVE2 claims to come as close as possible to searching every site on the Internet to detect plagiarism by "employing the most advanced searching tools available to locate suspected sites." Free fifteen day trials are available, but the software must be purchased after that time to continue using it. Each license is a one-time fee of $19.99 and updates are free.

Glatt Plagiarism Program
Dr. Barbara Glatt has developed the 3 different software programs designed to detect and prevent plagiarism. The 3 parts are the Plagiarism Teaching Program, the Plagiarism Screening Program and the Plagiarism Self-Detection Program. Costs for the programs runs around $250 each if bought as a complete set or $300 if purchased individually.

A list of publications that have reviewed the Glatt Plagiarism Program can be found at

Google is not designed to be a plagiarism detection tool, but its advanced search engine capabilities are conducive to locating key phrases that may appear in students' research papers. Some instructors have found it is better at detecting plagiarized papers than even Turnitin (

The Google Directory also has numerous links to information about plagiarism detection devices at

Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC): Electronic Plagiarism Detection
JISC completed a plagiarism project in 2001, and they are establishing a plagiarism advisory service as a result of this experience. There were 4 parts to their plagiarism project, and they include:

  1. Technical review of free-text plagiarism detection software
  2. Technical review of source code plagiarism detection software
  3. A pilot of free-text detection software in 5 UK institutions
  4. A good practice guide to plagiarism detection

A listserv has also been to continue discussions dealing with academic dishonest and plagiarism issues.

A copy of JISC's Technical Review of Plagiarism Detection Software Report can be accessed at

JISC Plagiarism Advisory Service
JISC Plagiarism Advisory Service is a new offering that began in September 2002. It is based in the Information Management Research Institute at Northumbria University (UK). New materials are constantly being added to this plagiarism portal, but it currently offers advice & guidance, educational materials for students and other online resources. A plagiarism detection service, supported by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) until August 2004, is based on the platform and allows instructors to conduct electronic comparisons of work complete by students.

Guido Malpohl initially developed this software which is designed to detect academic dishonesty. The software does more than merely compare the text of documents. JPlag also looks at program language syntax and program structure so it can also be used to detect stolen software parts. Instructors may use JPlag for free, but they must first set up an account in order to prevent unauthorized use by students.

Library Electronic Databases
The Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign provides access to numerous electronic resources for students and faculty. Instructors may want to consult these resources when checking for plagiarism. Full text databases like EBSCO and Expanded Academic ASAP (InfoTrac) are two obvious starting points when checking undergraduate assignments. One thing to keep in mind is that some resources that are not full text but provide abstract information are often used by students.

Moss or Measure of Software Similarity is a tool that has been used primarily to detect plagiarism. The way it works is that it detects similarities of C, C++, Java, Pascal, Ada, ML, Lisp or Scheme programs. Moss is free to use for instructors and staff of programming language courses only.
University of California Berkeley students and alumni created to be used to detect plagiarism. One thing to watch out for is that the software doesn't differentiate between quoted materials and original writing.

The Plagiarism Resource Site
Lou Bloomfield, Professor of Physics at the University of Virginia, is the sole author of The Plagiarism Resource Site. The goal of this site is to "help reduce the impact of plagiarism on education and educational institutions." Numerous links are provided to sources on how to deal with plagiarism.

Turnitin, a partner, considers themselves to be "the world's most widely recognized and trusted resource for helping prevent Internet plagiarism." Free trials are also available, and subscription costs vary depending on the type of plan chosen.

Turnitin is currently the subject of a copyright controversy. For more information, check out the following article, "A Plagiarism Detection Tool Creates Legal Quandary" at

WordCHECK is used by a diverse group including information researchers, copyright attorneys and classroom teachers. This plagiarism detection device was developed by Information Analytics, a Lincoln, NE company owned by Kenneth Livingston and Mark Dahmke. WordCHECK may be purchased for a fee.

Comparison of Plagiarism Detection Tools

Back to Top of Page

Term Paper Sites--Examples
There are hundred of term paper companies doing business on the Web. Most, if not all of the sites, claim that papers are to be used as models for research and are not designed to promote plagiarism. Several term paper sites are owned by larger companies, like The Paper Store Enterprises (, and some even have ties to plagiarism detection software companies. For example, detection software companies such as EduTie ( have connections to term paper sites like (, (, and (

The following are examples of sites students may be using to fulfill their research assignments. This list is not designed to encourage or promote plagiarism or the use of term paper sites. They are included to provide insight into the number, types and mode of operation of some of the sites easily accessible to students.

This term paper site boasts "the net's largest catalog of expert-research example term papers." Papers are available by e-mail, fax or FedEx. 12,000 is owned by The Paper Store.

Over 15,000 term paper examples are available at this Paper Store Enterprises ( site . Like 12,000, term papers are available by e-mail, fax or FedEx. People who purchase papers from 15,000 can receive a free paper if they recommend the site to 6 new people during an academic semester.

ASM Communications (West Chester, PA) owns 1-800-000 Termpaper, also known as A1 Termpaper. Over 20,000 papers are available at this site for purchase, but there is no free preview of the products. Custom-written papers are also available.

A1 Term Paper
A1 Term Paper has a database of over 20,000 pre-written papers on file. Costs of the pre-written papers vary and are individually prices in the online catalog. Custom written papers range from $19.95 to $35.00 per page depending on difficulty of subject matter, amount of library research required and time demands.

Academic Research Group
Academic Research Group has been in business for 28 years, and they provide catalog reports, custom reports, thesis & dissertation assistance and ghostwriting of books & articles. Reports in the Academic Research Group collection are professionally written, not purchased from students. Any papers purchased from the site can be faxed (free), shipped the same day, or send via FedEx overnight.

Academic Term Papers
Academic Term Papers boasts that they are the "Web's largest selection of research papers (over 30,000 papers on file) at the lowest rates ($7.00 per page)." No file paper costs more than $120. Custom papers are also available for $19 per page and up depending on difficulty of the subject and the time of the year.

AcaDemon is the "world's first, biggest and best student-to-student site where you can make a profit by selling your term papers." Students who sell papers to AcaDemon will receive 50% of reviews from each paper sold. The site claims that they will reject paper submissions if they detect plagiarism "because of our academic ethics, we cannot publish your paper." provides free essays that have been written by students. The site indicates that they do not encourage plagiarism by students and offers teachers advice on how to prevent plagiarism., a Paper Store Enterprises company (, provides free essays, term papers and book notes. Custom papers are also available for $19.95 per page., another Paper Store Enterprises company (, has been in business since 1994, and they have a collection of over 20,000 example term papers on file. Essays and book reports are also available. Custom papers, written by full-time, professional term paper writers, can be purchased for $19.95 per page, plus a free bibliography. has the same policy as 15,000 People who purchase papers from Buy can receive a free paper if they recommend the site to 6 new people during an academic semester. is considered by some to be one of the easier term paper sites to use. The initial goal of was to "wipe out the standard library." All the reports are free, but you must register to become a member. Since their start in January 1997, they have amassed 72,000 members.
The articles available in, formerly known as the Evil House of Cheat, are primarily in English, but there are also a few in Spanish, German and Danish. Registration is required, but the papers are free. Essays are obtained from submissions to the site, and there are 3 types of papers: Regular (about 2,500 essays), Super (over 5,000 essays), and pending (essays waiting for review).

ChuckIII's College Resources
Over 30,000 essays submitted by students are available for free at this site. ChuckIII's College Resources also offers a custom paper service with prices ranging from $17 per page to $38 per page depending on how quickly the paper is needed. Links to the top 25 and top 50 free and for fee term papers sites are also included.
One requirement of is that a paper must be submitted in order to gain access to their growing database of essays. Numerous links to other term paper sites are also provided.

Collegiate Care
Collegiate Care offers three different types of services: on-file papers, custom papers, and editing. Over 3,000 papers are on-file for $5.95 per page. Custom papers are $16.95 per page with a 4 page minimum requirement. The editing service, which makes the necessary changes to the submitted document and sends it back is $59.95 for up to 10 pages and $3 per page after that.

Coshe's Reports on the Net
Coshe began in 1996 with 12 essays written by its creator. Since that time, the database of papers has grown to over 14,000. There are two payment plans available: $5 per month for unlimited access or $9 for 3 months of unlimited access.

Cyber Essays
Cyber Essays began in January 1998, and they rely on student paper submissions to keep their database growing. All the papers at this site are free.

EssayCrawler - 35,000+ Free Essays, Term Papers, Book Reports, and More
EssayCrawler considers themselves to be "the metacrawler of the essay world." Their metacrawler searches over 100,000 free essays available on the most popular term paper sites. Over 1000 local essays are also available. has been named "the world's premier application essay editing service" by The New York Times Learning Network and "one of the best essay services on the Internet" by The Washington Post. Their staff of over 200 Harvard educated editors critique, proof read and provide admissions consulting services.

EssaySchool boasts that they have a collection of more 60,000 essays that are for "research purposes only." The papers included in the database average approximately 225 words and come with a bibliography and work cited page at no extra charge. Most papers are delivered within five to six hours, but a 30-minutes or less option is also available.
EssayTown claims to be a "legitimate" research paper and essay site. The company's Web site even states that they do not "steal sources" or "plagiarize" material like some other term paper sites do. Professional researchers write the papers, and scan them through plagiarism detection software before providing customers with the finished product.
Over 170,000 essays, term papers, research papers, cliff notes, book reports and summaries are available at Registration is required, and the cost is $14.95 for 6 months of access. A custom writing service is another feature, and papers cost $16.95 per page plus a free bibliography. Prices for custom papers increase for ones needed in less than 48 hours ($24.95 per page). has over 20,000 example term papers available for $9.95 per page plus free bibliography. Custom papers can also be written for $19.95 plus free bibliography.

Free Essay Network - Free Essays, Free Term Papers, Free Book Reports
The Free Essay Network provides links to some of the "premiere" free term paper sites. They also will provide free Web hosting for new term paper sites or anyone.

Free Papers
Free Papers is a service of Free Papers LLC, and began in November 1998. All the papers available at this site are free, and they have been submitted by students.

Genius Papers
Genius Papers started in 1996 and claims to be "one of the original term paper research sites." It has been ranked among the top 10 term paper and book report sites by Yahoo!, Google, and others. The price of $19.95 will get a full year of unlimited access to thousands of term papers.

Golden Essays
More than 25,000 free essays are available at Golden Essays. Custom essays, written by professional writers can be purchased for as low as $8.95 per page. Prices go up papers needed in shorter time periods.

GradeSaver is an online editing service designed for high school, college and post graduate writing and is staffed by Harvard educated editors. The site offers a wide variety of services for a fee including various levels of editing. ClassicNotes, free literature summaries and reviews on titles such as Mrs. Dalloway and One Hundred Years of Solitude are also available.

Internet Paper Mills
Peggy Bates and Margaret Fain, librarians at the Kimbel Library, Costal Carolina University, developed this massive list of term paper sites for the Teaching Effectiveness Seminar. As of May 23, 2009, over 250 general URLs are available. does not consider their site to be like other term paper sites. They state that they do not write papers for students, but offer them unlimited access to "The Ultimate Student Hyperlist" with access to over 50,000 term papers and other research resources. The one time access for "The Ultimate Student Hyperlist" is $24.95. A custom research service is also provided with prices ranging from $30-$300 per completed paper. has three membership options:

  1. $19.99 for 1 month
  2. $29.95 for 3 months
  3. $49.95 for 6 months

Each option is for single user access to their database of over 77,000 student-written papers.
One of the services at is their essay database that contains over 170,000 essays and Cliff Notes. The access fee for the essay database is $14.95 for 6 months. A custom writing service with papers written by professionals are $14.95 per page, and papers needed in less than 48 hours are $24.95 per page. also has a resume writing service for $69.95.

Most Popular Term Papers
This online writing service has academic professional available 24 hours a day to help students with all aspects of the term paper process including writing and research. Most Popular Term Papers can provide assistance with term papers, theses, dissertations and editing. The disclaimer posted on the site states that their materials should be "used responsibly, and avoid academic fraud."
Students can buy or sell essays at Those who wish to sell their papers at this site get to set their own price.

A free term paper site run by students for students. Over 77,000 papers are posted at Net and more are added daily., another term paper site owned by The Paper Store Enterprises (, has a collection of over 20,00 pre-written term paper models. All papers on file cost $9.95 per page, and the bibliography is free. Custom papers cost $19.95 per page with a free bibliography included. has been in the paper writing business since 1996, and it only employs PhD who write in their area of specialization. Over 25,000 prewritten papers can be found in the online database. Custom papers can also be purchased and most can be provided within 24 hours.

Other People's Papers
Other People's Papers was founded in 1997 by a student in New York. The site has changed a lot since that time, and a collection of over 20,000 free essays can now be accessed at the site. Paper donations are welcome but are not necessary to access the database.

Paper Campus
Paper Campus has been in the business of providing term papers for students since 1995, and now it has a collection of over 10,000 essays and term papers written by professionals after 1999. Their current staff of research writers all have MAs or PhDs in their area of specialization and have scholarly publishing experience. Prices for pre-written papers are $8.95 per page and $18.95 for custom written papers.

The Paper Experts
This company has been in business since 1995, and they own and operate the following term paper sites.

  1. (
  2. (
  3. (
  4. (

Paper Masters
Paper Masters is not a term paper database, but a custom term paper site…for a fee. Papers, written by staff members with at least one masters degree, cost $18.95 per page. Affiliates of Paper Masters include:

  1. (
  2. ( staff of research writers have advanced degrees ranging from Masters to PhDs. On-file papers found at this site can be purchased for $8.95 per page. Custom papers, including model dissertations are available for $18.95 per page. Free bibliographies are included with both the on-file and custom paper options.

The Paper Store
The Paper Store has on-file papers available for $9.95 per page and custom papers for $19.95. Writing staff members hold no less than a Masters degree, and they have completed The Paper Store's research and writing training course. Any of the on-file papers can be translated into rough Spanish, French, Italian, German or Portuguese. Affiliates of The Paper Store include:

  1. 15,000 (
  2. (
  3. Buy (
  4. (
  5. Papers 123 (
  6. Papers 24-7 (
  7. (
  8. Planet Papers (
  9. (
  10. (

Papers 123
Papers 123 is another site operated by The Paper Store ( They offer on-file papers for $9.95 and custom papers for $19.95.

Papers 24-7
Writers from The Paper Store ( prepare the research papers found at Papers 24-7. All papers contain "current" information from the late 1990s. On-file papers can be purchased for $9.95 per page, and the custom written papers cost $19.95 per page.

Papers, a company owned by The Paper Experts, has a database of on-file papers for $8.95 per page and available for delivery within 10 minutes of ordering. Custom papers can also be requested for $18.95 per page, and all papers are written by professionals with MAs or PhDs.
This site is another term paper site operated by The Paper Store ( . The current term paper count at this site is over 35,000. claims to be the "largest provider of free Literature summaries and one of the most highly trafficked education resource sites on the Internet." Book notes are available for most classic and popular titles.

Planet Papers
Plant Papers is a collection of term papers and essays submitted by students. All the papers on-file are free, but not all of them contain a bibliography. A custom paper option is available at the site through The Paper Store (
"Meticulously trained academic writers" make up the staff at Over 20,000 essays and term papers are available to choose from, and all of them have been written within the last 3 years. If a paper cannot be found from the library, a custom paper can be prepared. is presented by The Paper Store Enterprises (, and they have over 25,000 example papers available for $9.95 per page. Custom papers are available for $19.95 per page through The Paper Store.

Research Assistance
Research Assistance, a for fee custom term paper site for undergrad and graduate students, claims to be the "best single research source in America." They have recently partnered with School to provide students with even more papers. Prices range from $8-$35 per page. is a site produced by the Big Chalk Corporation (, and they consider this to be the "web's most comprehensive writing and research center." Topics included in the Idea Directory have been adapted in part from 10,000 Ideas for Term Papers, Projects, Reports & Speeches by Kathryn Lamm, and can be purchased on (
Research Papers Online
One of the unique features of this site is the "Instant Gratification" policy which means that papers are delivered immediately to your computer screen. The cost of papers is $4.95 per page, and they are all written by professional writers and have not been previously circulated. boasts that you can "finish you paper in less than 5 minutes for only $8.95 per page!" More than 15,000 papers are included in their "library" and they are written by professional writers. This paper provider states that they only hire writers who have a PhD.

In 1996, School made its debut on the Internet, and it has become one of the more active term paper sites in business today. Kenny Sahr, author of School, subscribes to the philosophy that his sight is not contributing to the increase in plagiarism, but that the students turn to him because school are failing their students. One of the new features on the site is a collaborative project with Research Assistance ( to make even more papers available to students. Free, for fee and custom papers are available from School

Study notes and other full text guides are available at SparkNotes. Free registration is required to access materials. Some instructors report that their students download guides from this site and turn the papers in as their own work. is owned and operated by The Paper Experts, and their staff trained in academic writing have Masters and PhDs. On-file and custom-written papers are available, as well as model dissertations. The cost of on-file papers is $8.95 per page, and the custom papers are $18.95 per page. is another site affiliated with The Paper Experts. As is the case with other site owned and operated by The Paper Experts, pre-written papers cost $8.95 and $18.95 for custom papers.

Term Paper, Research Paper & Essay Help Line (The Doctor)
The Doctor provides papers written by college professors starting at $4.95 per page for high school stock essays. Most of the employees at The Doctor have taught at the college and university level and have masters or doctorate degrees.

Term Paper Sites .com
This site claims to have "only the highest quality sites on the net."
More than 15,000 prewritten papers can be found at Papers ranging from three to 100 pages are available for $8.95 per page. Each paper comes with a free bibliography and source list.

This Paper Store Enterprises Company ( offers access to a database of over 25,000 papers for $9.95 per page. Custom research papers are available for $19.95 per page.

Thousands of Papers
Thousands of Papers is another term paper site owned by Paper Store Enterprises (

Top 100 Term Paper Sites
Top 100 Term Paper Sites is part of the ChuckIII site, and provides access to the top 25 and top 100 essay sites.

Yahoo! Research and Term Papers

A rather long list of term paper sites are listed on this site compiled by Yahoo!.

Back to Top of Page

Additional plagiarism resources can be located at the following sites.

Art Ethics

Ethics in Anthropology

History Ethics

Back to Top of Page

Additional ethics resources can be found at the following sites.

Anthropology Ethics

Art Ethics

Bioethics. See also the Biotechnology Web Page (UIUC)

Business Ethics

Ethics Case Studies

History Ethics


Research Ethics

Social Science Ethics: A Bibliography

Sociology Ethics

Back to Top of Page

*This site is an adaptation of Web pages I created for the Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Created by Sharon Stoerger MLS, MBA
©September 30, 2002
Updated September 30, 2009