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Europe :: Monaco
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  • Introduction :: MONACO

  • The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling GRIMALDI family first seized temporary control in 1297, and again in 1331, but was not able to permanently secure its holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.
  • Geography :: MONACO

  • Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy
    43 44 N, 7 24 E
    total: 2 sq km
    land: 2 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 254
    about three times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC
    total: 6 km
    border countries (1): France 6 km
    4.1 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 12 nm
    Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers
    hilly, rugged, rocky
    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mont Agel 140 m
    agricultural land: 1%
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 0%
    forest: 0%
    other: 99% (2011 est.)
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    second-smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); smallest country with a coastline; almost entirely urban
  • People and Society :: MONACO

  • noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
    adjective: Monegasque or Monacan
    French (official) 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%
    French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque
    Roman Catholic 90% (official), other 10%
    note: immigrants make up more than 60% of the total population, according to UN data (2013) (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    0-14 years: 11.41% (male 1,793/female 1,692)
    15-24 years: 9.03% (male 1,420/female 1,337)
    25-54 years: 34.47% (male 5,239/female 5,286)
    55-64 years: 14.71% (male 2,255/female 2,238)
    65 years and over: 30.37% (male 4,146/female 5,129) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total: 51.1 years
    male: 50 years
    female: 52.3 years (2014 est.)
    0.12% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    6.65 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 224
    9.24 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    3.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    urban population: 100% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.79% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    MONACO (capital) 38,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 1.82 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.06 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 1.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 224
    total population: 89.52 years
    male: 85.63 years
    female: 93.58 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    1.52 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    4% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    7.17 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    13.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    urban: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    urban: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    1.6% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 169
  • Government :: MONACO

  • conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
    conventional short form: Monaco
    local long form: Principaute de Monaco
    local short form: Monaco
    constitutional monarchy
    name: Monaco
    geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo; note - Moneghetti, a part of La Condamine, is sometimes called the 5th quarter of Monaco
    1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of GRIMALDI)
    National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)
    previous 1911 (suspended 1959); latest adopted 17 December 1962; amended 2002 (2013)
    civil law system influenced by French legal tradition
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)
    head of government: Minister of State Michel ROGER (since 29 March 2010)
    cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government
    description: unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 8 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 10 February 2013 (next to be held in February 2018)
    election results: percent of vote by party - Horizon Monaco 50.3%, Union Monegasque 39%, Renaissance 10.7%; seats by party - Horizon Monaco 20, Union Monegasque 3, Renaissance 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 permanent members and 2 substitutes)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the monarch upon the proposals of the National Council, State Council, Crown Council, Court of Appeal, and Trial Court
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Civil Court of First Instance
    Horizon Monaco [Laurent NOUVION]
    Renaissance [SBM (public corporation)]
    Union Monegasque [Stephane VALERI]
    CD, CE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Maguy MACCARIO-DOYLE (since 3 December 2013)
    chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Suite 2K-100, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: (202) 234-1530
    FAX: (202) 244-7656
    consulate(s) general: New York
    the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US ambassador to France, handles diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors are those of the ruling House of Grimaldi and have been in use since 1339, making the flag one of the world's oldest national banners
    note: similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red
    red and white lozenges (diamond shapes); national colors: red, white
    name: "A Marcia de Muneghu" (The March of Monaco)
    lyrics/music: Louis NOTARI/Charles ALBRECHT
    note: music adopted 1867, lyrics adopted 1931; although French is commonly spoken, only the Monegasque lyrics are official; the French version is known as "Hymne Monegasque" (Monegasque Anthem); the words are generally only sung on official occasions
  • Economy :: MONACO

  • Monaco, bordering France on the Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The principality also is a banking center and has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. Monaco, however, is not a tax-free shelter; it charges nearly 20% value-added tax, collects stamp duties, and companies face a 33% tax on profits unless they can show that three-quarters of profits are generated within the principality. Monaco's reliance on tourism and banking for its economic growth has left it vulnerable to a downturn in France and other European economies which are the principality's main trade partners. In 2009, Monaco's GDP fell by 11.5% as the euro-zone crisis precipitated a sharp drop in tourism and retail activity and home sales. A modest recovery ensued in 2010 and intensified in 2013, with GDP growth of more than 9%, but Monaco's economic prospects remain uncertain, and tied to future euro-zone growth. Monaco was formally removed from the OECD's "grey list" of uncooperative tax jurisdictions in late 2009, but continues to face international pressure to abandon its banking secrecy laws and help combat tax evasion. In October 2014, Monaco officially became the 84th jurisdiction participating in the OECD’s Multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters—an effort to combat offshore tax avoidance and evasion. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.
    $6.79 billion (2013 est.)
    $6.213 billion (2012 est.)
    $5.748 billion (2011 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 167
    $6.063 billion (2013 est.)
    9.3% (2013 est.)
    1.2% (2012)
    7% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    $78,700 (2013 est.)
    $73,200 (2012)
    $72,600 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    agriculture: 0%
    industry: 14%
    services: 86% (2013)
    banking, insurance, tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products
    20% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    note: includes all foreign workers (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    agriculture: 0%
    industry: 16.1%
    services: 83.9% (2012 est.)
    2% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $1.06 billion
    expenditures: $1.128 billion (2011 est.)
    17.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    -1.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    calendar year
    1.5% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    $1.115 billion (2011)
    $684.9 million (2010)
    note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Europe 73.2%, Africa 14.6%, America 5.2%, Asia 4.9% (2013 est.)
    $1.162 billion (2011)
    $850.2 million (2010)
    note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Europe 70.4%, Asia 20.8%, America 4.4%, Africa 4.1% (2013 est.)
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.7489 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
    0.78 (2012 est.)
    0.7185 (2011 est.)
    0.755 (2010 est.)
  • Communications :: MONACO

  • total subscriptions: 50,600
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 166 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    total: 33,700
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed-line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 200 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system (2011)
    TV Monte-Carlo (TMC) operates a TV network; cable TV available; Radio Monte-Carlo has extensive radio networks in France and Italy with French-language broadcasts to France beginning in the 1960s and Italian-language broadcasts to Italy beginning in the 1970s; other radio stations include Riviera Radio and Radio Monaco (2012)
    AM 1, FM 11, shortwave 1 (2008)
    5 (1998)
    total: 27,400
    percent of population: 89.9% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
  • Transportation :: MONACO

  • 1 (2012)
    total: 77 km
    paved: 77 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    registered in other countries: 64 (Bahamas 8, Bermuda 2, Liberia 8, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 30, Panama 11, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    major seaport(s): Monaco
  • Military :: MONACO

  • no regular military forces; Directorate of Public Security (2012)
    males age 16-49: 5,749 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 4,629
    females age 16-49: 4,597 (2010 est.)
    male: 153
    female: 141 (2010 est.)
    defense is the responsibility of France
  • Transnational Issues :: MONACO

  • none