Ancient History Encyclopedia

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HAPPY HOLIDAYS AND 2015 SUMMARY:We would like to wish all our followers a very Happy Holidays!! We hope you have a safe and happy festive season. Thank you for all your support. We will see you in the New Year!! Here’s our 2015 in review:  http://etc.ancient.eu/2015/12/24/happy-holidays-2015-summary/

HAPPY HOLIDAYS AND 2015 SUMMARY:

We would like to wish all our followers a very Happy Holidays!! We hope you have a safe and happy festive season. Thank you for all your support. We will see you in the New Year!! 


Here’s our 2015 in review:  http://etc.ancient.eu/2015/12/24/happy-holidays-2015-summary/

MESOPOTAMIAN EFFECTS ON ISRAEL DURING THE IRON AGE:

THE Iron Age in the traditional Ancient Near Eastern chronology ranges from somewhere around 1200 BCE to 333 BCE. It begins from the era when it was first thought iron came to be used up to the ascendency of Alexander the Great as the major power of the Ancient Near East

The Iron Age is categorized as the second age following the Bronze Age under the Ancient Times. The categorization of the Iron Age in this chronology is based on the ‘Three-Age System’ originated by a Danish archaeologist named Christian J. Thomsen in the 1800’s. 

Although iron were already is use in the 3rd millennium, many continue to maintain its validity. For many, the Iron Age should end with the rise of Cyrus of Persia as the major power of the Ancient Near East. Based on the different events that occurred in Israel during that period, the Iron Age should be divided into six sub-categories: Iron Age Ia, Iron Age Ib, Iron Age IIa, Iron Age IIb, Iron Age IIIa, and Iron Age IIIb. To acquire a proper understanding on Israel during this period, researchers ought to value both biblical and archaeological results to establish a more credible reading.

Evidence unearthed from the Ancient Near East starting from 1700’s to modern day can be categorized under three general rubrics: ’Archaeology’, 'Epigraphy’, and ’Literature’.

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Article by Benjamin T. Laie on  Ancient History Encyclopedia 


GREEK athletes playing a game similar to modern hockey. From the base of a funerary kouros, later included in the Themistokleian Wall of Athens. 510-500 BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)

http://www.ancient.eu/image/4346/Photo: Mark Cartwright 

GREEK athletes playing a game similar to modern hockey. From the base of a funerary kouros, later included in the Themistokleian Wall of Athens. 510-500 BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)

http://www.ancient.eu/image/4346/


Photo: Mark Cartwright 

VIKING AGE FOOD AND CUISINE 

AN Early Meal: A Viking Age Cookbook & Culinary Odyssey by Daniel Serra and Hanna Tunberg introduces readers to Viking Age food and cuisine from early medieval Scandinavia. Thoroughly based on archaeological finds, historical cooking methods, and current research, the book is a must-read for those interested in Old Norse culture and food history. 

Within its pages, the authors dispel many of the prevalent myths that persist about Viking Age food and cookery, share reconstructed recipes, and impart new information drawn from years of experimental research in the field.

In this exclusive 2015 holiday season interview, Daniel Serra discusses Viking Age food and Old Norse culture with James Blake Wiener of Ancient History Encyclopedia (AHE).

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** All images featured in this interview have been attributed to their respective owners. Images lent to the Ancient History Encyclopedia by Daniel Sera or ChronoCopia Publishing have been done so as a courtesy for the purposes of this interview.

ANCIENT HAIRSTYLES OF THE GRECO-ROMAN WORLD: 

FROM  the dawn of civilization to the present day, human hair has seldom been worn in its natural state. Whether cut, shorn, curled, straightened, braided, beaded, worn in an upsweep or down to the knees, adorned with pins, combs, bows, garlands, extensions, and other accoutrements, hairstyles had the power to reflect societal norms. In antiquity, ancient hairstyles and their depictions did not only delineate wealth and social status, or divine and mythological iconography; they were also tied to rites of passage and religious rituals. 

Hair in the Classical World, now on view at the Bellarmine Museum of Art (BMA) in Fairfield CT, is the first exhibition of its kind in the United States to present some 33 objects pertaining to hair from the Bronze Age to Late Antiquity (1500 BCE-600 CE). The exhibition takes the visitor on a rich cultural journey through ancient Greece, Cyprus, and Rome, in an examination of ancient hairstyles through three thematic lenses: “Arrangement and Adornment”; “Rituals and Rites of Passage”; and “Divine and Royal Iconography.”

In this exclusive 2015 holiday season interview, James Blake Wiener of Ancient History Encyclopedia (AHE) speaks to Dr. Katherine Schwab and Dr. Marice Rose, art history professors in the Department of Visual and Performing Arts at Fairfield University, who teamed up to co-curate this unprecedented exhibition.

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**All photos featured in this interview have been attributed to their respective owners. Images lent to the Ancient History Encyclopedia by the Bellarmine Museum of Art (BMA) at Fairfield University have been done so as a courtesy for the purposes of this interview.

PLACES IN THE ANCIENT WORLD: Ajanta Caves (India) 

THE 30 caves at Ajanta lie to the north of Aurangabad in the Indhyadri range of Western Ghats. The caves, famous for their temple architecture and many delicately drawn murals, are located in a 76 m high, horseshoe-shaped escarpment overlooking the Waghora (tiger) River.

After centuries of neglect and desertion, the caves were accidentally discovered by John Smith, a member of a British hunting party in 1819 CE. With growing popularity within a few years of its rediscovery the once nondescript ravine became a soft target for unscrupulous treasure hunters. Before long, however, Indian antiquarian, archaeologist and architectural historian James Fergusson took a keen interest in their study, preservation and categorisation. It was he who commissioned Major Robert Gill to make reproductions of the paintings and together with James Burgess also numbered the caves.

Major Gill worked on 30 large scale canvases from 1844 to 1863 CE. These were displayed at the Crystal Palace in Sydenham, however, most of these paintings were soon destroyed in a fire in 1866 CE. John Griffiths, principal of the Bombay School of Art, was next commissioned to make copies of the paintings from 1872 CE onwards. It took him thirteen years to complete the project, but disaster struck yet again and well over a hundred canvases were incinerated in 1875 CE at the Imperial Institute.

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Article by Rola DC || Photos by Jean-Pierre Dalbéra on Ancient History Encyclopedia 

PLACES IN THE ANCIENT WORLD: Altamira (Spain): 

ALTAMIRA is a Paleolithic cave located in Santillana del Mar (Cantabria region), in the north of Spain, and was declared World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 1985. The cave was inhabited for millennia and, so it contains remains of the daily activities of the population. 

Nowadays, the cave is 270 m long and the archaeological site can be found inside the cave, near the entrance, however, there are also remains in the outside since the original entrance fell down. The cave can be divided into three sections: the entrance, the great room or polychrome room and the gallery.

The cave was discovered in 1868 by a hunter, Modesto Cubillas, who told Marcelino Sanz de Sautola, a nobleman in the region, about it. However, Sanz de Sautola did not visit the cave until 1875 and started the first excavation works on the site in 1879, when he found objects made with flint, bones and horns, as well as colourants, fauna, and shells that allowed the cave paintings’ dating.

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Article by Lidia Pelayo Alonso on Ancient History Encyclopedia 

PEOPLE OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: Aeschylus (Greek Playwright/’Father of Tragedy’) 

AESCHYLUS (c. 525 - c. 456 BCE) was one of the great writers of Greek Tragedy in 5th century BCE Classical Athens. Known as ‘the father of tragedy’, the playwright wrote up to 90 plays, winning with half of them at the great Athenian festivals of Greek drama

Perhaps his most famous work is Prometheus Bound which tells the myth of the Titan punished by Zeus for giving humanity the gift of fire. All of his surviving plays are still performed today in theatres across the world. An innovator of the genre, Aeschylus is said to have described his work as 'morsels from the feast of Homer’.

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Article by Mark Cartwright on Ancient History Encyclopedia 

READING ANCIENT HISTORY: REFERENCE BOOKS: 

CHECK out our top 5 picks for ancient history reference books, which are a must for any history buff or student! 

  • The Oxford Classical Dictionary
  • The History of the Ancient World: From the Earliest Accounts to the Fall of Rome 
  • History from the Earth
  • The Egyptian Myths: A Guide to the Ancient Gods and Legends 
  • Mesopotamia: Writing Reasoning and the Gods 

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