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Wind power in Malta
General The island of Malta
has only a minor share of renewables for its energy supply. The most
important contribution is from solar thermal installations for the
supply of domestic hot sanitary water. Secondly, solid biomass heating
and to a lesser extent biogas and bioliquids are being used. For
renewable electricity generation only solar PV is being
has no indigenous resource of fossil fuels and no gas distribution
to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the
Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross
final consumption of energy in the year 2020 for Malta is 10% (in the
year 2005 the share was 0.0%). The Directive has a mandatory 10%
target for transport.
In April 2009, the Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs announced a "Proposal for an Energy Policy for Malta",
a first version of the startegic environmental assessment document is
available from the offical website (see references). The public
consultation period is up to the end of February 2011. The
objectives of the policy are security of supply, competitive pricing
and sustainability. Renewable energy policy has a strong focus on PV
and solar water heaters. The
majority of the incentives to promote renewable energy and improve
energy efficiency were implemented; schemes to install photovoltaics
(PV) and solar water heaters at domestic level were introduced, and
schemes for the industry to improve its energy efficiency and to
install solar and wind powered energy were set up. However, no
continuation in the schemes has been guaranteed.
Renewable energy projections according to the National Renewable Energy Action Plan for Malta The
National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) for Malta was submitted
in July 2010. The target according to Annex I of Directive 2009/28/EC
is 10% for the year 2020 and the projected NREAP share in that year is
10.2%. According to the projection, the most important contribution in
the year 2020 is expected from renewable electricity (renewable
transport) (37 ktoe, 68% of all renewable energy). Second important
contribution is expected from wind power (0.3 TWh or 22 ktoe, 40% of
all renewable energy). The third largest contribution is from biomass
(renewable electricity) (0.1 TWh or 12 ktoe, 21% of all renewable
energy). Wind power contribution is expected in the year 2020 from
onshore wind (15 MW and 38 GWh) and offshore wind (95 MW and 216 GWh).
For solar photovoltaic the 2020 contribution is projected to be 28 MW
(43 GWh). For solar thermal the 2020 contribution is projected to be 3
ktoe. The renewable electricity production from solid biomass amounts
to 86 GWh (7 ktoe) and for biogas it is expected to be 50 GWh (4 ktoe).
The consumption of renewable heat is expected to amount to zero ktoe
for solid biomass and 2 ktoe for biogas.
wind power Malta
has a reasonable wind resource. Offshore
wind is one of the options that has been discussed. Offshore wind is
currently the second best technology option in terms of
costs. Site-specific analysis was undertaken to assess the offshore wind
power potential. Malta will try to build an offshore wind
farm on a shallow offshore reef called Sikka l-Bajda. A wind-measuring
pole has been built with a height of 80 at the reef. The planned
18 to 20 turbines at the offshore reef of Sikka l-Bajda would generate
almost 40% of the renewable energy Malta needs for its 2020 target.
For wind power up to 3.7 kW (urban wind turbines)
an investment subsidy of 25% (maximum EUR 233) is available for private
consumers. Excess Electricity fed into the grid will be purchased at
EUR 0.07 per kWh.
Promotion of the use of micro-wind turbines at public sites is
ongoing, and guidelines for micro-wind turbine installations have been
released in 2010.
Future programme changes
will focus on support mechanisms for the promotion of renewables,
thereby targeting for contributions from EU structural funds. Until
this date, Malta has only feed-in tariffs for solar PV, ranging from 20
ct/kWh for business establishments to 25-28 ct/kWh for households.