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Wind power in Malta

General
The island of Malta has only a minor share of renewables for its energy supply. The most important contribution is from solar thermal installations for the supply of domestic hot sanitary water. Secondly, solid biomass heating and to a lesser extent biogas and bioliquids are being used. For renewable electricity generation only solar PV is being applied. Malta has no indigenous resource of fossil fuels and no gas distribution network.

According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy in the year 2020 for Malta is 10% (in the year 2005 the share was 0.0%). The Directive has a mandatory 10% target for transport.

In April 2009, the Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs announced a "Proposal for an Energy Policy for Malta", a first version of the startegic environmental assessment document is available from the offical website (see references). The public consultation period is up to the end of February 2011. The objectives of the policy are security of supply, competitive pricing and sustainability. Renewable energy policy has a strong focus on PV and solar water heaters. The majority of the incentives to promote renewable energy and improve energy efficiency were implemented; schemes to install photovoltaics (PV) and solar water heaters at domestic level were introduced, and schemes for the industry to improve its energy efficiency and to install solar and wind powered energy were set up. However, no continuation in the schemes has been guaranteed.

Renewable energy projections according to the National Renewable Energy Action Plan for Malta
The National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) for Malta was submitted in July 2010. The target according to Annex I of Directive 2009/28/EC is 10% for the year 2020 and the projected NREAP share in that year is 10.2%.  According to the projection, the most important contribution in the year 2020 is expected from renewable electricity  (renewable transport) (37 ktoe, 68% of all renewable energy). Second important contribution is expected from wind power (0.3 TWh or 22 ktoe, 40% of all renewable energy). The third largest contribution is from biomass (renewable electricity) (0.1 TWh or 12 ktoe, 21% of all renewable energy). Wind power contribution is expected in the year 2020 from onshore wind (15 MW and 38 GWh) and offshore wind (95 MW and 216 GWh). For solar photovoltaic the 2020 contribution is projected to be 28 MW (43 GWh). For solar thermal the 2020 contribution is projected to be 3 ktoe. The renewable electricity production from solid biomass amounts to 86 GWh (7 ktoe) and for biogas it is expected to be 50 GWh (4 ktoe). The consumption of renewable heat is expected to amount to zero ktoe for solid biomass and 2 ktoe for biogas.

Renewable Electricity: wind power
Malta has a reasonable wind resource. Offshore wind is one of the options that has been discussed. Offshore wind is currently the second best technology option in terms of costs. Site-specific analysis was undertaken to assess the offshore wind power potential. Malta will try to build an offshore wind farm on a shallow offshore reef called Sikka l-Bajda. A wind-measuring pole has been built with a height of 80 at the reef. The planned 18 to 20 turbines at the offshore reef of Sikka l-Bajda would generate almost 40% of the renewable energy Malta needs for its 2020 target.

For wind power up to 3.7 kW (urban wind turbines) an investment subsidy of 25% (maximum EUR 233) is available for private consumers. Excess Electricity fed into the grid will be purchased at EUR 0.07 per kWh.

Promotion of the use of micro-wind turbines at public sites is ongoing, and guidelines for micro-wind turbine installations have been released in 2010.

Future programme changes expected
Malta will focus on support mechanisms for the promotion of renewables, thereby targeting for contributions from EU structural funds. Until this date, Malta has only feed-in tariffs for solar PV, ranging from 20 ct/kWh for business establishments to 25-28 ct/kWh for households.

Sources
Progress Reports as submitted to the European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/reports/2011_en.htm (sourced 2013)

Malta Resources Authority, Strategy for Renewable Electricity Exploitation in Malta – Volume 1 Renewable Electricity targets, 2005,
http://www.mra.org.mt/Downloads/Publications/MM%20Phase%201.pdf (accessed January 2012)

Malta Resources Authority, Feed-in Tariffs (Electricity Generated from Solar Photovoltaic Installations) (Amendment) Regulations, 2011,
http://mjha.gov.mt/DownloadDocument.aspx?app=lp&itemid=21802&l=1  (accessed January 2012)

Renewable energies fact sheet for Malta, http://ec.europa.eu/energy/energy_policy/facts_en.htm (accessed August 2008)

The implementation of Directive 2001/77/EC on the promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market, Ministry of resources and rural affairs, May 2008

Interactive EurObserv’ER Database, http://www.eurobserv-er.org (status 2011)

Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/transparency_platform_en.htm

R N. Farrugia et al, The Renewable Energy Potential of the Maltese Islands, Xjenza 2005 (Institute for Energy Technology, University of Malta) http://www.ambjentahjar.org/library/10_032_farrugia.pdf (accessed January 2012)

G. Cassar and A. Sammut, Mediterranean and National Strategies for Sustainable Development Priority Field of Action 2: Energy and Climate Change – Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Malta National Study, March 2007,
http://www.planbleu.org/publications/atelier_energie/MT_National_Study_Final.pdf (accessed January 2012)

B. Restall, Assessment of Stakeholder Perceptions towards Malta's land-based Wind  Energy Plans, University of Malta, October 2010,
http://www.pim.com.mt/pubs/ASSESSMENT_OF_STAKEHOLDER_PERCEPTIONS_TOWARDS_Brian%20Restall.pdf (accessed January 2012) 

National Audit Office, Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Efficiency in Malta, NAO Malta, 2010,
 
http://www.environmental-auditing.org/Portals/0/AuditFiles/Malta_f_eng_Renewable%20Energy%20Sources%20and%20Energy%20Efficiency.pdf  (accessed January 2012) 

Climate Policy Tracker:
http://www.climatepolicytracker.eu/sites/all/files/Malta2011.pdf (accessed January 2012)

Windfair US:
http://www.windfair.us/press/7469.html (accessed January 2012)

The National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs) are all published on the Transparency Platform on Renewable Energy: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/transparency_platform/action_plan_en.htm (accessed July - December 2010)

Renewable Energy Projections as Published in the National Renewable Energy Action Plans of the European Member States, http://www.ecn.nl/nreap (accessed December 2010) 

Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs, National Energy Policy for Malta 2009  Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report, version 1, November 2010, 

http://www.mra.org.mt/Downloads/Consultations/Energy%20Policy%20SEA%20Environment%20Report%2022%2011%202010.pdf (accessed January 2011)
Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs, Promotion of Energy from Renewable Sources Regulations, December 2010, http://www.justiceservices.gov.mt/DownloadDocument.aspx?app=lom&itemid=10682&l=1 (accessed January 2012)

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Last update: January
2013