President Enrique Peña Nieto will undertake a state visit to the Philippines on November 17, 2015. This is the third state visit to the Philippines from a Mexican head of state; the first was when President Adolfo Lopez Mateos visited President Diosdado Macapagal on October 20–23, 1962 and the second was when President Jose Lopez Portillo visited Ferdinand E. Marcos on November 4–5, 1978.1 President Manuel L. Quezon, on the other hand, was the first Philippine president to conduct a state visit to Mexico on April 8–13, 1937, remarkable in that the Philippines was not yet independent.2

1937 President Quezon visited Mexico
President Manuel L. Quezon was given a warm reception during his visit to Mexico. Left to right: Eduardo Hay, Minister of Foreign Affairs, President Quezon, President Cardenas and the district governor during a visit to Guerrero. The Herald, April 25, 1937 (Photo taken from the Histogravure of Manuel L. Quezon).

Spanish Colonial Period

Mexico and the Philippines shared a wealth of traditions and customs derived from their historical links established over 400 years ago. In 1521, Hernán Cortés conquered Mexico and Ferdinand Magellan claimed Islas de San Lazaro that would later be named the Philippines. When the Philippines became a Spanish colony under Captain-General Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, he established Manila as a capital. Due to the distance of Manila from the Spanish Royal Family in Spain, the administration of the colonial government in the Philippines came from the Viceroyalty of New Spain, otherwise known as Mexico, until 1815.3 In turn, it was Mexico that linked Spain with the Philippines with Mexican officials administering the government, which resulted in a cultural assimilation between Mexico and the Philippines.4

One of the most significant manifestations of this cultural assimilation and diplomatic ties was the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade, “a state-run trade monopoly that plied between Manila and Acapulco” for 250 years.5 The galleon trade transformed the Philippine colony into a Spanish regional center of trade in Southeast Asia. The Philippines, specifically Manila, was opened for world commerce as the galleon trade attracted products from different parts of the world. The galleons bound for Mexico transported trade goods such as spices from the Moluccas, pepper from Java and Sumatra, Persian carpets, cinnamon from Ceylon, ivory from Cambodia, silverware from Japan, and silk from China. Domestic Philippine exports included gold dust, wax, cordage and various kinds of textiles from Cebu, Lubang, Manila, and Ilocos.6 7 8 9 10 In addition, Mexico also supplied goods, such as silver, mail, Spanish wine, Saltillo wool, cochineal, and cocoa, to the Philippines.11

1970 A modern artist's rendition of a galleon
A modern artist’s rendition of a galleon in the port of Manila in the seventeenth century (Photo courtesy of Simeon Abaya, 1970 via Filipinas Heritage Library).

The Manila galleons were built out of local teakwood through Filipino labor in the Philippines. Majority were built in Cavite shipyards, but others were also built in Pangasinan, Albay, Mindoro, Iloilo, and Marinduque. The labor was composed of at least 8, 000 men called Cagayan, recruited by the Spaniards to prepare the timber and build ships. Accounts said that at least 80% of the crew members of the galleons are Filipinos. For 250 years, at least sixty thousand Filipinos have sailed from Manila to Acapulco. Some were said to have migrated in Mexico and in the United States. In the 1770s, this pattern of migration increased when direct trade was introduced between Manila and San Blas, a port north of Acapulco.12

As a result, thousand of Filipinos settled in Espinalillo, Guerrero, as thousands of Mexican settled in the Philippines. Much of the Espinalillo population had Filipino surnames, adapted Filipino words, and assimilated Filipino customs, including rice cooking and tuba (palm wine) making. In 1618, Filipino seamen were hired by Mexicans to teach them how to make tuba. The drink has since became famous in Mexico to the extent that Spanish wine and brandy export diminished.13

In 1810, Mexico began to revolt against Spain that would later be termed Mexican War of Independence.14 Because of this, in 1815, Spain decided to take direct control of the Philippines. By the time Mexico gained its independence on September 16, 1821, its administrative control over the Philippines has ceased. Despite this, relations between Mexico and the Philippines continued in 1842 when it established a Mexican representation in Manila. Furthermore, in 1878, Evaristo Butler Hernandez became the first official consul of Mexico to be designated in the Philippines.15

Commonwealth Period (1935–1946)

In 1935, Alfredo Carmelo y de las Casas was assigned the first Honorary Consul of Mexico to the Philippines. To further improve the relations between Mexico and the Philippines even ahead of formal diplomatic relations, President Manuel L. Quezon visited President Lazaro Cardenas del Rio on April 8–13, 1937. President Quezon was given a warm reception at the Mexican border, Laredo. He also laid a wreath at the Monumento de los Héroes de la Revolución in Mexico City.16 He was the last foreign head of state to be an official guest in Chapultepec Castle.

1937 President Manuel L. Quezon with the President of Mexico Lazaro Cardenas
President Manuel L. Quezon with the President of Mexico Lazaro Cardenas from La Vanguardia, April 24, 1937 (Photo taken from the Histogravure of Manuel L. Quezon).

When President Quezon established the Commonwealth government-in-exile, Mexico and the Philippines joined the United Nations on the same day, the alliance established to control the war efforts of the Allied Forces in World War II.17 In Francis Burton Harrison’s diary, he narrated that:

Quezon came in greatly exhilarated, having just signed the United Nations pact together with the Mexican Ambassadorwith whom he left the White House, arm-in-arm, saying to the press: “This is not put on–this is the way our two countries really feel towards one another.”

1942 Representatives of 26 United Nations at Flag day ceremonies
Representatives of 26 United Nations at Flag day ceremonies on June 13, 1942 in the White House to reaffirm their pact. On this day, the Philippines and Mexico joined the United Nations, the alliance against the Axis Powers. By joining the United Nations, the Philippines was accorded the status of a fully independent nation even ahead of the recognition of Philippine independence by the United States on July 4, 1946. Seated, left to right: Dr. Francisco Castillo Najera, Ambassador of Mexico; President Roosevelt; Manuel Quezon, President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines; and Secretary of State Cordell Hull. (Photo courtesy of the United States Library of Congress)

On the 7th anniversary of the Commonwealth of the Philippines on November 15, 1942, Mexican President Manuel Camacho gave a speech paying tribute to the bravery of the Filipino troops as well as the courage of President Quezon in their struggle to regain the Philippines’ freedom from the Japanese. During World War II, Mexico sent a contingent of the Mexican Air Force composed of at least 300 volunteers trained in the United States to participate in the liberation of the Philippines. They were in the battlefield on June 1945 until the Japanese surrender in August 1945.18

The Third Republic (1946–1972)

When the independence of the Philippines was achieved on July 4, 1946, Mexico was one of the first 22 countries who recognized the birth of the new republic. It sent an envoy to the inauguration celebration held in front of the Rizal Monument in Manila. Furthermore, on September 17, 1953, the Diplomatic Mission of Mexico in Manila was formally established through Carlos Gutierrez Macias as Minister Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. This Diplomatic Mission led to the establishment of the Mexican embassy on July 25, 1961.

On October 20, 1962, Mexican President Adolfo Lopez Mateos came for a state visit, the first state to the Philippines from a Mexican head of state. President Mateos and his wife, First Lady Eva Samano de Lopez were given a red-carpet welcome upon their arrival at the Manila International Airport. He was also accorded with military honors, including a 21-gun salute, by a composite battalion of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.19

1962 Welcome ceremony for President Adolfo López Mateos
Welcome ceremony for President Adolfo López Mateos and First Lady Eva Samano de Lopez at the Manila International Airport (Photo courtesy of Philippine Diplomatic Visits).

Later in the evening, a state dinner was tendered by President Diosdado Macapagal in honor of President Mateos. In President Macapagal’s speech, he emphasized “that the friendship offered by the Philippines to Mexico is loyal and sincere, and is entirely free from any selfish motive.” After which, President Mateos was conferred the Order of Sikatuna with the rank of Raja by President Macapagal.20

 

1962 State Dinner in honor of President Adolfo Lopez Mateo
State Dinner in honor of President Adolfo Lopez Mateos at Malacañan Palace (Photo courtesy of the National Library of the Philippines).

 

1962 Order of Sikatuna, Rank of Raja to President Adolfo López Mateos
President Macapagal conferring the Order of Sikatuna, Rank of Raja to President Adolfo López Mateos during the State Dinner at Malacañan Palace (Photo courtesy of Philippine Diplomatic Visits)

On December 31, 1963, President Macapagal signed Proclamation No. 189, s. 1963 to proclaim 1964 as “The Year of Philippine-Mexican Friendship,” “to strengthen centuries-old relations deeply rooted in the common historical and cultural heritage of the two countries.”21

Bagong Lipunan (1972–1981)

On November 4, 1978, Mexican President Jose Lopez Portillo arrived in Manila for a state visit. President Portillo was welcomed by President Ferdinand Marcos, the First Lady, the Cabinet and the members of the Diplomatic Corps at the Manila International Airport.22 During one of their discussions, President Portillo offered scientific and technological assistance in the exploration and development of the oil resources of the Philippines.23 President Marcos, in return, proposed to strengthen the diplomatic ties between the two nations in his toast during the state luncheon in honor of President Portillo.

On October 22–23, 1981, President Marcos attended the 22-nation summit conference, commonly known as the Cancun conference in Cancun, Mexico, as the sole representative of Southeast Asia through the invitation of Mexican President Jose Lopez Portillo and Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky. The president presented four major proposals addressing issues on world hunger, monetary and international trade, and energy in his statement at the opening session of International Meeting on Cooperation and Development.24

10/23/1981 Reagan Thatcher Boigny Sattar Benjedid Genscher Trudeau Portillo Fahd Pahr Guerreiro Ziyang Marcos Kraigher Nyerere Suzuki Burnham Mitterrand Gandhi Shagari Falldin Campins Waldheim Cancun Summit Class Photo of Heads of State Cancun Sheraton Hotel Beach
Class photo of Heads of State from the Cancun Summit in Cancun, Mexico. (From left to right) Front row, President Reagan, Felix Boigny, Abdus Sattar, Chadli Bendjedid, Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Pierre Trudeau, Jose Lopez Portillo, Prince Fahd, Willibald Pahr, Ramiro Guerreiro, Zhao Ziyang, Ferdinand Marcos. Back row, Sergej Kraigher, Jules Nyerere Margaret Thatcher, Zenko Suzuki, Forbes Burnham, Francois Mitterrand, Indira Gandhi, Alhaji Shehu Shaguri, Thorbiorn Falldin, Luis Herrera Campins, Kurt Waldheim (Photo courtesy of Ronald Reagan Presidential Museum and Library).

Fifth Republic (1986–present)

On May 12, 1997, President Fidel V. Ramos conducted a state visit to Mexico, the second state visit of a Philippine head of state to Mexico after President Manuel L. Quezon. The president and his wife, Amelita Martinez Ramos, were welcomed by President Ernesto Zedillo in an official ceremony. In this visit, President Ramos prepared eight bilateral agreements that were aimed to strengthen economic, political, and cultural relations between the two countries. In a private meeting, both presidents ratified the Agreement of Tourism Cooperation of 1995.25

President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo visited Mexico thrice during her presidency. The first was on November 21, 2001 during the the international conference of Christian Democratic Parties. The second was on October 23–24, 2002 when she attended the 10th APEC Leaders Meeting in Los Cabos, Mexico.26 The third was on November 23, 2004 when she met with President Vicente Fox for an official working visit. The two leaders met to continue promoting and strengthening the bilateral relations between the two countries.27

On November 3, 2011, First Lady Margarita Zavala paid a courtesy call on President Benigno S. Aquino III. President Aquino hosted  a lunch reception in her honor, which was attended by Foreign Affairs Secretary Albert F. del Rosario, members of the Cabinet, and legislators.28

2011 BSAIII with the First Lady of Mexico
President Benigno S. Aquino III exchanged pleasantries with the First Lady of Mexico Margarita Zavala de Calderon during a courtesy call at the Music Room of the Malacañan Palace on Wednesday (November 23). The Mexican First Lady is the chairperson of the consultative council for the System of the Integrated Development of the Family, a Mexican government program designed to assist in the integration of the less advantaged persons and families into the mainstream of society. In photo are Mexican Ambassador to the Philippines His Excellency Tomas Calvillo and DFA Secretary Albert del Rosario (Photo by Malacañang Photo Bureau).

Through the years, Mexico and the Philippines have signed the following agreements: Bilateral Agreement on Air Transport in 1952, Cultural Agreement in 1969, Agreement on Technical-Scientific Cooperation for Agriculture in 1994, Agreement on Cooperation for Tourism in 1995, Agreement on the Suppression of Non Ordinary Visas in 1997, Agreement on the Cooperation for the Fight against Illegal Trafficking and Abuse of Drugs in 1997, Memorandum of Agreement for Academic Cooperation between the Department of Foreign Affairs of Mexico and the Philippines in 1997.29

View: the Philippines and Mexico relations in photos

Diplomatic Visits between the Philippines and the Mexican government

Philippine state visits to Mexico

Head of state Date of visit Purpose of visit
Manuel L. Quezon30 April 8–13, 1937 State visit
Fidel V. Ramos31 May 12, 1997 State visit

Mexican state visits to the Philippines

Head of state Date of visit Purpose of visit
President Adolfo Lopez Mateos32 October 20–23, 1962 State visit
President Jose Lopez Portillo33 November 4–5, 1978 State Visit

Philippine official visits to Mexico

Head of state Date of visit Purpose of visit
President Ferdinand E. Marcos34 October 21–29, 1981 Summit – North-South Summit International Meeting on Cooperation and Development
President Fidel V. Ramos35 May 9–13, 1997 Official Visit
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo36 November 21, 2001 Summit – Christian Democrats Meeting
October 25–27, 2002 Summit – APEC Economic Leaders Meeting

Philippine working visits to Mexico

Head of state Date of visit Purpose of visit
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo37 November 22–23, 2004 Working visit

Filipino Recipients of Mexican Decorations / Awards38

Order of the Aztec Eagle (Orden de Aguila Azteca)

Established on December 29, 1943, Order of the Aztec Eagle (Orden de Aguila Azteca) was an award specifically designated for heads of state, diplomats, and other foreigners who have rendered meritorious service to Mexico.39

Name Position Rank of decoration Date conferred / Authorized*
Carlos P. Romulo* Secretary of Foreign Affairs Grand Cross July 2, 1952
Ezpeleta Mariano Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary Sash November 1955
Manuel Zamora Chief of Presidential Protocol Sash January 26, 1963
Diosdado Macapagal President of the Philippines Grand Collar May 20, 1965*
Emmanuel Pelaez Vice-President of the Philippines Sash, First Class May 20, 1965*
Salvador P. Lopez Ambassador Sash, First Class May 20, 1965*
Rufino Hechanova Secretary of Finance Sash, First Class May 20, 1965*
Alejandro Roces Secretary of Education Sash, First Class March 25, 1969*
Pedro Angara Aragon Minister Counselor and Charge D’Affaires Sash, Second Class May 20, 1965*
Octavio Maloles Ambassador Sash March 18, 1966
Ferdinand Marcos President of the Republic Grand Collar December 28, 1969
Librado Cayco Ambassador Sash 1971
Luis Perdices Minister- Counselor Plaque January 24, 1971
Victorino Paredes Ambassador Sash December 13, 1983
Clemencio Fortu Montesa Ambassador Sash July 2, 1997
Delia Mezez- Rosal Ambassador Sash April 13, 2000
George Bello Reyes Ambassador Sash October 22, 2014

Order of the Defenders of the Republic

Name Position Rank of decoration Date conferred
Manuel L. Quezon President of the Philippines April 10, 1937

Mexican Recipients of Filipino Decorations / Awards

Order of Sikatuna

This award was established by President Elpidio Quirino in 1951 as an award to outstanding local or foreign diplomats. It is named after Datu Sikatuna, chief of Bohol, who made a blood compact with Spanish Governor Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. [Learn more]

Name Position Rank of decoration Date conferred
Adolfo López Mateos40 President of Mexico Grand Collar (Raja) October 20, 1962
Ernesto Madero Ambassador of Mexico Grand Cross (Datu) March 5, 1974
Francisco Garcia Ambassador of Mexico Grand Cross (Datu) August 12, 1968
Guillermo Corona Ambassador of Mexico Grand Cross (Datu) January 9, 1980
Joaquin Garcia Bernal Ambassador of Mexico Grand Cross (Datu) January 6, 1983
Vicente Luis Coca Alvarez Ambassador of Mexico Commander (Lakan) June 27, 1995
Federico Barrera Fuentes Ambassador of Mexico Commander (Lakan) February 7, 1971

EPILOGUE

From 1565 to 1815, Mexico and the Philippines established contact through the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade. The longest shipping line in history, the galleon trade used one hundred and eight galleons, thirty being lost by shipwreck or capture, in its 250 years of existence.41 Two revered religious images in the Philippines were among the artifacts brought by the galleons from Mexico to Manila. On May 31, 1606, the image of the Black Nazarene was brought to Manila by Augustinian Recollect missionaries.42 43 Eighteen years later, on July 18, 1624, the galleon El Almirante brought the Virgin of Antipolo to the Philippines. Both religious images survived fires that broke on board during their journeys. The successful expedition of El Almirante was attributed to the Virgin of Antipolo being later named as Nuestra Señora de la Paz y Buen Viaje (Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage).44

Furthermore, the galleon trade introduced crops like camote, tomate, cocoa, maize and varieties of chili from Mexico. The Philippines transported products such as the “Mango de Manila,” the coconut, various spices such as cloves and cinnamon as well as the by-products of palm such as vinegar to Acapulco. The distillation of tuba was introduced and became common in Jalisco and Guerrero in eastern Mexico.45

It is believed that during the 16th century, Filipinos introduced the distillation process in making palm wine to Mexicans. The process combined with indigenous knowledge led to the creation of mezcal or distilled agave spirits which was further developed into the alcoholic beverage known as tequila.46 Blair and Robertson wrote that when tuba or palm wine was introduced to Mexicans, the reception was overwhelming that they “drank none except what the Filipinos made.”47 The Mexicans, especially on the coast of Navidad and Colima, eventually preferred Filipino palm wine over Spanish wines which ruined wine trade industry of Spain and Peru. Because of this, Filipinos were petitioned to return to the Philippines and their palm groves be burned.48

Another resemblance of the Mexican culture in the Philippines lies in the termstiangui and palenque. The Mexican word palenque originally refers to a temple complex in Guatemala. In the Philippines, the word palenque means “market.” Scholars speculate that the term originated from the structure of the plaza complex of the Spanish colonial Philippines, where markets were built outside the  Spanish churches. Tiangui however, originated from the Aztec Empire, as a political formation to which the market plays a significant role in providing revenues for the state. In the Philippines, tiangui refers to rotating markets and retail stores.49

The Philippines and Mexico share the same patron saint.50 On July 16 1935, Pope Pius XI named Our Lady of Guadalupe as the patroness of the Philippines.51

____________________

Endnotes

Embajada de Mexico en Filipinas, Aspectos Importantes Acerca de las Relaciones México – Filipinas,” accessed on November 10, 2015, http://embamex.sre.gob.mx/filipinas/index.php/es/relaciones-bilaterales.

Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “Presidential Trips: The Full List,” accessed on November 3, 2015, http://www.gov.ph/presidential-trips/the-foreign-trips-of-the-presidents/.

Embajada de Mexico en Filipinas, Aspectos Importantes Acerca de las Relaciones México – Filipinas,” accessed on November 10, 2015, http://embamex.sre.gob.mx/filipinas/index.php/es/relaciones-bilaterales.

Embajada de Mexico en Filipinas, Aspectos Importantes Acerca de las Relaciones México – Filipinas,” accessed on November 10, 2015, http://embamex.sre.gob.mx/filipinas/index.php/es/relaciones-bilaterales.

Floro L. Mercene, “Manila Men in the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century,” (Quezon City: UP Press, 2007), p. xvi.

Benito Legarda Jr., After the Galleons: Foreign Trade Economic Change and Entrepreneurship in the Nineteenth-Century Philippines, (Quezon City: Ateneo De Manila University Press, 1999).

Shirley Fish, The Manila-Acapulco Galleons : The Treasure Ships of the Pacific: With an Annotated List of the Transpacific Galleons 1565-1815, (London: AuthorHouse, 2011).

Hazel McFerson, Mixed Blessing: The Impact of the American Colonial Experience on Politics and Society in the Philippines, (Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2002).

Robert W. Schmieder, Rocas Alijos, Scientific results from the Cordell Expeditions, (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996).

10 Patricio Abinales, State and Society in the Philippines, (Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005).

11 Philip Russell, The History of Mexico: From Pre-Conquest to Present, (London: Routledge, 2011), p. 90.

12 Floro L. Mercene, “Manila Men in the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century,” (Quezon City: UP Press, 2007), p. 1.

13 Benito Justo Legarda, After the Galleons: Foreign Trade, Economic Change & Entrepreneurship in the Nineteenth Century Philippines, (Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1999), p. 45.

14 Philip Russell, The History of Mexico: From Pre-Conquest to Present, (London: Routledge, 2011), p. 112.

15 Embajada de Mexico en Filipinas, Aspectos Importantes Acerca de las Relaciones México – Filipinas,” accessed on November 10, 2015, http://embamex.sre.gob.mx/filipinas/index.php/es/relaciones-bilaterales.

16 Alfredo B.

17 A. Hamish Ion, Barry D. Hunt, War and Diplomacy Across the Pacific, 1919-1952, (Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1988), p. 161.

18 Harold Eugene Davis, John J. Finan, Frederic Taylor Peck, Latin American Diplomatic History: An Introduction, (Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 1977), p. 237.

19 The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “Official Week in Review: October 14 – October 20, 1962,” accessed on November 11, 2015, http://www.gov.ph/1962/10/22/official-week-in-review-october-14-october-20-1962/.

20 The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “Official Week in Review: October 14 – October 20, 1962,” accessed on November 11, 2015, http://www.gov.ph/1962/10/22/official-week-in-review-october-14-october-20-1962/.

21 Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “Proclamation No. 189, s. 1963,” accessed on November 11, 2015, http://www.gov.ph/1963/12/31/proclamation-no-189-s-1963/.

22 Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “Official Week in Review: October 30 – November 5, 1978,” accessed on November 11, 2015, http://www.gov.ph/1978/11/06/official-week-in-review-october-30-november-5-1978/.

23 Pacifico Castro, Diplomatic Agenda of Philippine Presidents 1946 -1985, (Manila: Foreign Service Institute, 1985), p. 300.

24 Pacifico Castro, Diplomatic Agenda of Philippine Presidents 1946 -1985, (Manila: Foreign Service Institute, 1985), p. 351.

25 Precidencia de la Republica, “State Visit by the President of the Philippines,” accessed on November 11, 2015, http://zedillo.presidencia.gob.mx/welcome/PAGES/briefingroom/sv_philippines97.html.

26 Embajada de Mexico en Filipinas, Aspectos Importantes Acerca de las Relaciones México – Filipinas,” accessed on November 10, 2015, http://embamex.sre.gob.mx/filipinas/index.php/es/relaciones-bilaterales.

27 Precidencia de la República, “Recibe Presidente Vicente Fox a su homóloga de Filipinas Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo,” accessed on November 11, 2015, http://fox.presidencia.gob.mx/actividades/?contenido=15934.

28 The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, First Lady of Mexico visits Philippines,” accessed on November 11, 2015, http://www.gov.ph/2011/11/23/first-lady-of-mexico-visits-philippines/.

29 Embajada de Mexico en Filipinas, Aspectos Importantes Acerca de las Relaciones México – Filipinas,” accessed on November 10, 2015, http://embamex.sre.gob.mx/filipinas/index.php/es/relaciones-bilaterales.

30 Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “Presidential Trips: The Full List,” accessed on November 3, 2015, http://www.gov.ph/presidential-trips/the-foreign-trips-of-the-presidents/.

31 Precidencia de la Republica, “State Visit by the President of the Philippines,” accessed on November 11, 2015, http://zedillo.presidencia.gob.mx/welcome/PAGES/briefingroom/sv_philippines97.html.

32 Embajada de Mexico en Filipinas, Aspectos Importantes Acerca de las Relaciones México – Filipinas,” accessed on November 10, 2015, http://embamex.sre.gob.mx/filipinas/index.php/es/relaciones-bilaterales.

33 ___, Sugar News, (Manila: Philippine Sugar Association, 1978), p. 450, link.

34 Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “Presidential Trips: The Full List,” accessed on November 3, 2015, http://www.gov.ph/presidential-trips/the-foreign-trips-of-the-presidents/.

35 Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “Presidential Trips: The Full List,” accessed on November 3, 2015, http://www.gov.ph/presidential-trips/the-foreign-trips-of-the-presidents/.

36 Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “Presidential Trips: The Full List,” accessed on November 3, 2015, http://www.gov.ph/presidential-trips/the-foreign-trips-of-the-presidents/.

37 Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “Presidential Trips: The Full List,” accessed on November 3, 2015, http://www.gov.ph/presidential-trips/the-foreign-trips-of-the-presidents/.

38 From the Embassy of Mexico

39 Robert Werlich, Orders and Decorations of All Nations: Ancient and Modern, Civil and Military, (Washington, D.C.: Quaker Press, 1974), p. 84.

40 The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “Official Week in Review: October 14 – October 20, 1962,” accessed on November 11, 2015, http://www.gov.ph/1962/10/22/official-week-in-review-october-14-october-20-1962/.

41 Benito Legarda Jr., After the Galleons: Foreign Trade Economic Change and Entrepreneurship in the Nineteenth-Century Philippines, (Quezon City: Ateneo De Manila University Press, 1999), p. 32.

42 Floro L. Mercene, “Manila Men in the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century,” (Quezon City: UP Press, 2007), p. 129.

43 Quiapo Church website, “The Image,” accessed on November 11, 2015, http://www.quiapochurch.com:8080/MBBN/about/The-Image.

44 Floro L. Mercene, “Manila Men in the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century,” (Quezon City: UP Press, 2007), p. 129.

45 Prem Poddar et al., Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures: Continental Europe and its Empires, (UK: Edinburgh University Press, 2008), p. 574.

46 Eric Zolov, Iconic Mexico: An Encyclopedia from Acapulco to Zocalo, (California: ABC-CLIO, 2015).

47 Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898, accessed on November 11, 2015, http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15564/15564-h/15564-h.htm.

48 Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898, accessed on November 11, 2015, http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15564/15564-h/15564-h.htm.

49 Prem Poddar et al., Historical Companion to postcolonial Literatures: Continental Europe and its Empires, (UK: Edinburgh University Press, 2008), p. 577.

50 Eduardo Chavez, Our Lady of Guadalupe and Saint Juan Diego: The Historical Evidence, (New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2006), p. xxx.

51 Carl Anderson, Our Lady of Guadalupe: Mother of the Civilization of Love, (New York: Doubleday Religion, 2009), p. 189.