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Standard Browser Usability Features

The State of California (the State) websites strive to be a model of accessibility that meets the access needs of any site visitor. The State has implemented the strict guidelines set forth by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the US Department of Justice (DOJ). The websites meets most of the W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0 – AA Guidelines and Success Criteria) and all of the Section 508, Technical Standards (Subpart B).

One of the pillars of accessible web design is using defaults, and certain design elements that can be adjusted by the end user. This kind of design permits visitors to adjust font size, contrast, and customize other elements to meet their particular viewing needs. Information on some of our special access features, and how to work with custom settings, are described below.


Contrast

High contrast is necessary for many users. The State’s websites uses style sheets and some of the best contrast combinations, black on white, white on dark green, or blue on white. However, some users can see better using high contrast reverse types, such as white on black, or different colors. Below are guidelines for some common web browsers on how the user can customize their own web browser to better view all web pages.


Internet Explorer

Select the “Tools” menu. Select “Internet Options”. Under the “General” tab, select “Accessibility”. Place a check mark in the box to “Ignore colors specified on Web pages” and select the “OK” box. This will return you to the “General” tab. Select the “Colors” box and un-check the “use Windows colors” box. Use the “Text”, “Background”, “Unvisited Links”, and “Visited Links” boxes to select the colors desired (example: white text and black background). Select the “OK” box and then the “OK” box on the “General” tab and the colors should change on the browser.


Firefox

Select the “Tools” menu. Select “Options”. Select the “Content” tab. Select “Colors”. Select colors desired for “Text”, “Background”, “Unvisited Links”, and “Visited Links” (example: white text and black background) and uncheck “Allow pages to choose their own colors, instead of my selections above”. Select the “OK” box, and then the “OK” box again. The colors should change on the browser.


Google Chrome

High Contrast and Custom Color Support – https://sites.google.com/a/chromium.org/dev/user-experience/low-vision-support

There are a number of steps you can take to configure Chrome to run with custom contrast and colors:

  • Install a Chrome Extension which allows you to specify your own custom color combinations, for instance the Change Colors extension.
    • Quick page action to apply/remove styling overrides on a per page, per domain or global basis (overriding Web page colors)
    • Optional background, text, links and visited links color configuration
    • Option for showing/hiding images
    • Option for showing/hiding Flash objects
  • Use a Chrome Theme for some control of the color scheme of the Chrome user interface. As an example, the BitNova Dark theme offers white text on a black background. The Chrome Extensions Gallery offers many other themes, with a variety of color combinations.

Opera

Fonts and colors for unstyled webpageshttp://www.opera.com/help/tutorials/personalize/content/#unstyled_fonts

Sometimes, webpages do not have a specified style for fonts, background color, or link colors. We have selected some default fonts and colors for you, but you may prefer to choose your own. To do this, select Settings > Preferences > webpages and select your preferred fonts, background color, or colors for normal and visited links. You can also enable or disable an underline for links.

Themeshttp://www.opera.com/help/tutorials/personalize/ui/

A theme is a color scheme of the buttons and background images in the browser. You can apply a theme to Opera to entirely change the way Opera looks. To try a new theme:

  • Go to https://addons.opera.com/en/themes/. (Search for Contrast theme) Alternatively, select Appearance > Themes.
  • Select “Find more themes. The available themes display.
  • Choose one you like and select the “Add to Opera” button. The theme is applied so you can see if you like it.
  • In the bar that displays at the top of the window, select either “Done X” to confirm the theme change and keep it, or “Undo” and everything will be back to the way it was. If you don’t make a decision after a short while, the theme is applied automatically.

Manage themes

To see a list of all of the themes you have installed, select Appearance > Themes. You can delete or switch themes, or add new ones by selecting the “Find More Themes” button.


Safari

OS X Yosemite: Display pane of Accessibility preferences – https://support.apple.com/kb/PH18394?locale=en_US

Make items on the screen easier to see and the display easier to read.

To open this pane, choose Apple menu > System Preferences, select Accessibility, then select Display.

Invert colors Invert the colors on your display. For example, text appears in white on a black background.
Use grayscale Remove colors from the screen.
Differentiate without color Use shapes, in addition to or instead of color, to convey status or information.
Increase contrast Increase the contrast of items on the screen (such as borders around buttons or boxes) without changing the contrast of the screen itself.
Reduce transparency Replace the transparent effect used on some backgrounds in OS X with a darker background, to improve contrast and readability.
Display contrast Increase the screen contrast.
Cursor size Increase the size of the pointer.

To quickly set some display options, press Option-Command-F5.

You can enable keyboard shortcuts for inverting colors and changing the contrast in the Accessibility section of the Shortcuts pane of Keyboard preferences. To open the pane, choose Apple menu > System Preferences, select Keyboard, then select Shortcuts.


Fonts

The fonts used on this site are a default size, which allows you to make adjustments according to your preference. The following is the easiest way to change the font size for some common web browsers.


Internet Explorer

Select the “View” menu. Highlight “Text Size”. Default setting will be medium. By changing the settings between largest and smallest; the text displayed on the page will be modified.


Firefox

Select the “Tools” menu. Select “Options”. Select the “Content” tab. Change the “Default Font” and “Size” values (for more advanced options, select “Advanced” next to the “Size” value). Select the “OK” box, and the fonts should change on the browser.


 

Google Chrome

Change text, image, and video sizes (zoom) – https://support.google.com/chrome/answer/96810

You can adjust the size of everything on the webpages you visit, including text, images, and videos.

  • Select the Chrome menu (burger menu) on the browser toolbar
  • Select “Settings.”
  • Select “Show advanced settings.”
  • In the “Web Content” section, use the “Page zoom” drop-down menu to adjust the zoom.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

How to set zoom on your current page

Use the zoom options in the Chrome menu to make everything on a webpage larger or smaller.

  • Select the Chrome menu (burger menu) on the browser toolbar.
  • Find the “Zoom” section in the menu and choose one of the following options:
    • Select the plus sign (+) to make everything on the page larger. You can also use the keyboard shortcuts “Ctrl” and “+” (Windows, Linux, and Chrome OS), or the Command Key (⌘) and “+” on a Mac.
    • Select the minus sign (-) to make everything smaller. You can also use the keyboard shortcuts “Ctrl” and “” (Windows, Linux, and Chrome OS), or the Command Key(⌘) and “” on a Mac.
    • To go into full-screen mode, use the keyboard shortcuts F11 (Windows and Linux), or Command Key (⌘) – Shift-F on a Mac. If you’re using Chrome OS, you can also press the Maximize Window key (max window key) at the top of your keyboard.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

How to set the font size for all webpages

You can adjust the size of text on webpages.

  • Select the Chrome menu () on the browser toolbar.
  • Select “Settings.”
  • Select “Show advanced settings.”
  • In the “Web Content” section, use the “Font size” drop-down menu to make adjustments.

Some websites prevent the browser from changing just text size. For those sites, Chrome won’t be able to adjust the font size.


Opera

Fonts – http://help.opera.com/Windows/12.10/en/fonts.html

 Changing fonts

To specify how fonts in different parts of the browser and webpages are displayed, go to Settings > Preferences > Advanced > Fonts and select an item in the list, and select “Choose”.

Note: You may have to enable “My fonts and colors” in Author mode or User mode to make font changes for webpage elements work.

Font size

If text appears too small on certain pages, increase the minimum font size to ensure readability.

Font color

Not all webpages clearly specify styling for all page elements. Use this preference setting to choose which colors to use, and whether links should be underlined in such cases.

International fonts

If international characters appear incorrectly on a webpage, try changing the font used for the respective language.

 Note: You may have to install fonts that are missing on your system.

 Webpage fonts

Not all webpages clearly specify styling for all page elements. To choose which fonts to use in these cases, go to Settings > Preferences > Webpages.


Safari

Zoom in on webpages – http://help.apple.com/safari/mac/8.0/#/ibrw1068

 You can make text and images larger so they’re easier to view.

  • Make the webpage content larger: Choose View > Zoom In, press the Command Key (⌘) – Plus Sign (+), or pinch open on your trackpad. To make only text larger, choose View > Zoom Text Only before you zoom in.
  • To set a minimum font size for webpages: Choose Safari > Preferences, select Advanced, then select “Never use font sizes smaller than.” Select the pop-up menu and choose the minimum font size you want.
  • Expand to full-screen view: Select the green full-screen button (green dot) in the top-left corner of the browser window, or press Control-Command Key (⌘)-F.  To return to standard view, move the pointer to the top-left corner of the screen, then click the green full-screen button again, or press Control-Command Key (⌘)-F.

Keyboard Shortcuts


Internet Explorer

To do this Press this
Display Help F1
Toggle between full-screen and regular views of the browser window F11
Move forward through the items on a webpage, the Address bar, or the Favorites bar Tab
Move back through the items on a webpage, the Address bar, or the Favorites bar Shift+Tab
Start Caret Browsing F7
Go to your home page Alt+Home
Go to the next page Alt+Right Arrow
Go to the previous page Alt+Left Arrow or Backspace
Display a shortcut menu for a link Shift+F10
Move forward through frames and browser elements (only works if tabbed browsing is disabled) Ctrl+Tab or F6
Move backward between frames (only works if tabbed browsing is disabled) Ctrl+Shift+Tab
Scroll toward the beginning of a document Up Arrow
Scroll toward the end of a document Down Arrow
Scroll toward the beginning of a document in larger increments Page Up
Scroll toward the end of a document in larger increments Page Down
Move to the beginning of a document Home
Move to the end of a document End
Find on this page Ctrl+F
Refresh the current webpage F5
Refresh the current webpage, even if the time stamp for the web version and your locally stored version are the same Ctrl+F5
Stop downloading a page Esc
Open a new website or page Ctrl+O
Open a new window Ctrl+N
Open a new InPrivate Browsing window Ctrl+Shift+P
Duplicate tab (open current tab in a new tab) Ctrl+K
Reopen the last tab you closed Ctrl+Shift+T
Close the current window (if you only have one tab open) Ctrl+W
Save the current page Ctrl+S
Print the current page or active frame Ctrl+P
Activate a selected link Enter
Open Favorites Ctrl+I
Open History Ctrl+H
Open Feeds Ctrl+J
Open the Page menu Alt+P
Open the Tools menu Alt+T
Open the Help menu Alt+H

Working with tabs

The following table describes shortcuts used when working with tabs.

To do this Press this
Open links in a new tab in the background Ctrl+click
Open links in a new tab in the foreground Ctrl+Shift+click
Open a new tab in the foreground Ctrl+T
Switch between tabs Ctrl+Tab or Ctrl+Shift+Tab
Close current tab (or the current window if tabbed browsing is disabled) Ctrl+W
Open a new tab in the foreground from the Address bar Alt+Enter
Switch to a specific tab number Ctrl+n (where n is a number between 1 and 8)
Switch to the last tab Ctrl+9
Close other tabs Ctrl+Alt+F4
Toggle Quick Tabs (thumbnail view) on or off Ctrl+Q

Using zoom

The following table describes shortcuts used for zooming.

To do this Press this
Increase zoom (+ 10%) Ctrl+Plus Sign
Decrease zoom (- 10%) Ctrl+Minus Sign
Zoom to 100% Ctrl+0

Using search

The following table describes shortcuts used for search.

To do this Press this
Go to the search box Ctrl+E
Open your search query in a new tab Alt+Enter
Open the search provider menu Ctrl+Down Arrow

Using Print Preview

The following table describes shortcuts used to preview and print webpages.

To do this Press this
Set printing options and print the page Alt+P
Change paper, headers and footers, orientation, and margins for this page Alt+U
Display the first page to be printed Alt+Home
Display the previous page to be printed Alt+Left Arrow
Type the number of the page you want displayed Alt+A
Display the next page to be printed Alt+Right Arrow
Display the last page to be printed Alt+End
Specify how you want frames to print (this option is available only if you are printing a webpage that uses frames) Alt+F
Close Print Preview Alt+C

Using the Address bar

The following table describes shortcuts used on the Address bar.

To do this Press this
Select the text in the Address bar Alt+D
Display a list of addresses you’ve typed F4
When in the Address bar, move the cursor left to the next logical break in the address (period or slash) Ctrl+Left Arrow
When in the Address bar, move the cursor right to the next logical break in the address (period or slash) Ctrl+Right Arrow
Add “www.” to the beginning and “.com” to the end of the text typed in the Address bar Ctrl+Enter
Move forward through the list of AutoComplete matches Up Arrow
Move back through the list of AutoComplete matches Down Arrow

Opening Internet Explorer toolbar menus

The following table describes shortcuts used to open Internet Explorer toolbar and Command bar menus.

To do this Press this
Open the Home menu Alt+M
Open the Print menu Alt+R
Open the RSS menu Alt+J
Open the Tools menu Alt+O
Open the Safety menu Alt+S
Open the Help menu Alt+L

Working with feeds, history, and favorites

The following table describes shortcuts used when working with feeds, history, and favorites.

To do this Press this
Add the current page to your favorites (or subscribe to the feed when in feed preview) Ctrl+D
Delete browsing history Ctrl+Shift+Del
Open an InPrivate Browsing window Ctrl+Shift+P
Open the Organize Favorites dialog box Ctrl+B
Move selected item up in the Favorites list in the Organize Favorites dialog box Alt+Up Arrow
Move selected item down in the Favorites list in the Organize Favorites dialog box Alt+Down Arrow
Open Favorites Center and display your favorites Alt+C
Open Favorites Center and display your history Ctrl+H
Open Favorites Center and display your feeds Ctrl+J
Open and dock the Favorites Center and display your feeds Ctrl+Shift+J
Open the Add to Favorites menu (or open Subscribe to feed when in feed preview) Alt+Z
Open the Favorites menu from the menu bar Alt+A
Display all feeds (when in feed view) Alt+I
Mark a feed as read (when in feed view) Alt+M
Put the cursor in search box in feed view Alt+S

Editing

The following table describes shortcuts used when editing webpages.

To do this Press this
Remove the selected items and copy them to the Clipboard Ctrl+X
Copy the selected items to the Clipboard Ctrl+C
Insert the contents of the Clipboard at the selected location Ctrl+V
Select all items on the current webpage Ctrl+A
Open Internet Explorer Developer Tools F12

Using the Information bar

The following table describes shortcuts used when working with the Information bar.

To do this Press this
Move focus to the Information bar Alt+N
Click the Information bar Spacebar

Firefox

Windows

Navigation

To do this Press this
Back Alt + ←
BackspaceAlt + ←
Ctrl + [
Forward Alt + →
Shift + BackspaceAlt + →
Ctrl + ]
Home Alt + Home
Open File Ctrl + O
Reload F5
Ctrl + R
Reload (override cache) Ctrl + F5
Ctrl + Shift + R
Stop Esc

Current Page

To do this Press this
Go Down a Screen Page Down
Go Up a Screen Page Up
Go to Bottom of Page End
Go to Top of Page Home
Move to Next Frame F6
Move to Previous Frame Shift + F6
Print Ctrl + P
Save Page As Ctrl + S
Zoom In Ctrl + +
Zoom Out Ctrl + –
Zoom Reset Ctrl + 0

Editing

To do this Press this
Copy Ctrl + C
Cut Ctrl + X
Delete Del
Paste Ctrl + V
Paste (as plain text) Ctrl + Shift + V
Redo Ctrl + Y
Ctrl + Shift + Z
Select All Ctrl + A
Undo Ctrl + Z

Search

To do this Press this
Find Ctrl + F
Find Again F3
Ctrl + G
Find Previous Shift + F3
Ctrl + Shift + G
Quick Find within link-text only
Quick Find /
Close the Find or Quick Find bar Esc – when the Find or Quick Find bar is focused
Focus Search bar Ctrl + K
Ctrl + ECtrl + J
Quickly switch between search engines Ctrl + ↑
Ctrl + ↓
– when Search Bar is focused
View menu to switch, add or manage search engines Alt + ↑
Alt + ↓
F4
– when Search Bar is focused

Windows & Tabs

Some of these shortcuts require the currently selected tab to be “in focus.” Currently, the only way to do this is to select an adjacent object and “tab into” the current tab, for instance, by hitting Alt + D to select the address bar, and then Shift + Tab twice.

To do this Press this
Close Tab Ctrl + W
Ctrl + F4
– except for App Tabs
Close Window Ctrl + Shift + W
Alt + F4
Move Tab in focus Left Ctrl + ←
Ctrl + ↑
Ctrl + Shift + Page Up
Move Tab in focus Right Ctrl + →
Ctrl + ↓
Ctrl + Shift + Page Down
Move Tab in focus to start Ctrl + Home
Move Tab in focus to end Ctrl + End
Mute/Unmute Audio Ctrl + M
New Tab Ctrl + T
New Window Ctrl + N
New Private Window Ctrl + Shift + P
Next Tab Ctrl + Tab
Ctrl + Page Down
Open Address in New Tab Alt + Enter – from Location Bar or Search Bar
Previous Tab Ctrl + Shift + Tab
Ctrl + Page Up
Undo Close Tab Ctrl + Shift + T
Undo Close Window Ctrl + Shift + N
Select Tab 1 to 8 Ctrl + 1to8
Alt + 1to8
Select Last Tab Ctrl + 9
Alt + 9
Tab Groups View Ctrl + Shift + E
Close Tab Groups View Esc
Next Tab Group Ctrl + ` – only for some keyboard layouts
Previous Tab Group Ctrl + Shift + ` – only for some keyboard layouts

History

To do this Press this
History sidebar Ctrl + H
Library window (History) Ctrl + Shift + H
Clear Recent History Ctrl + Shift + Del

Bookmarks

To do this Press this
Bookmark All Tabs Ctrl + Shift + D
Bookmark This Page Ctrl + D
Bookmarks sidebar Ctrl + B
Ctrl + I
Ctrl + B
Library window (Bookmarks) Ctrl + Shift + B
Ctrl + Shift + O

Tools

To do this Press this
Downloads Ctrl + J
Ctrl + Shift + Y
Add-ons Ctrl + Shift + A
Toggle Developer Tools F12
Ctrl + Shift + I
Web Console Ctrl + Shift + K
Inspector Ctrl + Shift + C
Debugger Ctrl + Shift + S
Style Editor Shift + F7
Profiler Shift + F5
Network Ctrl + Shift + Q
Developer Toolbar Shift + F2
Responsive Design View Ctrl + Shift + M
Scratchpad Shift + F4
Page Source Ctrl + U
Error ConsoleBrowser Console Ctrl + Shift + J
Page Info Ctrl + I

PDF Viewer

To do this Press this
Next page N or J or →
Previous page P or K or ←
Zoom in Ctrl + +
Zoom out Ctrl + –
Automatic Zoom Ctrl + 0
Rotate the document clockwise R
Rotate counterclockwise Shift + R
Switch to Presentation Mode Ctrl + Alt + P
Toggle Hand Tool H
Focus the Page Number input box Ctrl + Alt + G

Miscellaneous

To do this Press this
Complete .com Address Ctrl + Enter
Complete .net Address Shift + Enter
Complete .org Address Ctrl + Shift + Enter
Delete Selected Autocomplete Entry Del
Toggle Full Screen F11
Toggle Menu Bar activation (showing it temporarily when hidden) Alt
F10
Show/Hide Add-on Bar Ctrl + /
Caret Browsing F7
Select Location Bar F6
Alt + D
Ctrl + L

Media shortcuts

To do this Press this
Toggle Play / Pause Space bar
Decrease volume
Increase volume
Mute audio Ctrl + ↓
Unmute audio Ctrl + ↑
Seek back 15 seconds
Seek back 10 % Ctrl + ←
Seek forward 15 seconds
Seek forward 10 % Ctrl + →
Seek to the beginning Home
Seek to the end End

Mac

Navigation

To do this Press this
Back Alt + ←
Backspacecommand (⌘) + ←
command (⌘) + [
DeleteAlt + ←
Ctrl + [
Forward Alt + →
Shift + Backspace
command (⌘) + →
command (⌘) + ]
Shift + DeleteAlt + →
Ctrl + ]
Home option + home
Open File command (⌘) + O
Reload F5
command (⌘) + R
Reload (override cache) command (⌘) + shift + R
Stop Esc
command (⌘) + .

Current Page

To do this Press this
Go Down a Screen fn + ↓
Go Up a Screen fn + ↑
Go to Bottom of Page End
command (⌘) + ↓
Go to Top of Page Home
command (⌘) + ↑
Move to Next Frame F6
Move to Previous Frame Shift + F6
Print command (⌘) + P
Save Page As command (⌘) + S
Zoom In command (⌘) + +
Zoom Out command (⌘) + –
Zoom Reset command (⌘) + 0

Editing

To do this Press this
Copy command (⌘) + C
Cut command (⌘) + X
Delete delete
Paste command (⌘) + V
Paste (as plain text) command (⌘) + shift + V
Redo Ctrl + Y
command (⌘) + shift + Z
Ctrl + Shift + Z
Select All command (⌘) + A
Undo command (⌘) + Z

Search

To do this Press this
Find command (⌘) + F
Find Again F3
command (⌘) + G
Find Previous Shift + F3
command (⌘) + shift + G
Quick Find within link-text only
Quick Find /
Close the Find or Quick Find bar Esc – when the Find or Quick Find bar is focused
Focus Search bar command (⌘) + K
Ctrl + E
Ctrl + J
command (⌘) + option + F
Quickly switch between search engines command (⌘) + ↑
command (⌘) + ↓
– when Search Bar is focused
View menu to switch, add or manage search engines option + ↑
option + ↓
– when Search Bar is focused

Windows & Tabs

Some of these shortcuts require the currently selected tab to be “in focus.” Currently, the only way to do this is to select an adjacent object and “tab into” the current tab, for instance, by hitting command (⌘) + L to select the address bar, and then Shift + Tab twice.

To do this Press this
Close Tab command (⌘) + W – except for App Tabs
Close Window command (⌘) + shift + W
Move Tab in focus Left command (⌘) + ←
command (⌘) + ↑
Ctrl + Shift + Page Up
Move Tab in focus Right command (⌘) + →
command (⌘) + ↓
Ctrl + Shift + Page Down
Move Tab in focus to start command (⌘) + home
Move Tab in focus to end command (⌘) + end
Mute/Unmute Audio Ctrl + M
New Tab command (⌘) + T
New Window command (⌘) + N
New Private Window command (⌘) + shift + P
Next Tab control + tab
control + page down
command (⌘) + option + →
Open Address in New Tab option + return – from Location Bar or Search Bar
Previous Tab control + shift + tab
control + page up
command (⌘) + option + ←
Undo Close Tab command (⌘) + shift + T
Undo Close Window command (⌘) + shift + N
Select Tab 1 to 8 Ctrl + 1to8
command (⌘) + 1to8
Alt + 1to8
Select Last Tab Ctrl + 9
command (⌘) + 9
Alt + 9
Tab Groups View command (⌘) + shift + E
Close Tab Groups View Esc
Next Tab Group control + ` – only for some keyboard layouts
Previous Tab Group control + shift + ` – only for some keyboard layouts

History

To do this Press this
History sidebar command (⌘) + shift + H
Clear Recent History command (⌘) + shift + delete

Bookmarks

To do this Press this
Bookmark All Tabs Ctrl + Shift + D
command (⌘) + shift + D
Bookmark This Page command (⌘) + D
Bookmarks sidebar Ctrl + B
Ctrl + I
command (⌘) + B
Library window (Bookmarks) Ctrl + Shift + B
command (⌘) + shift + B
Ctrl + Shift + O

Tools

To do this Press this
Downloads Ctrl + J
Ctrl + Shift + Y
command (⌘) + J
Add-ons command (⌘) + shift + A
Toggle Developer Tools F12
command (⌘) + alt + I
Web Console command (⌘) + alt + K
Inspector command (⌘) + alt + C
Debugger command (⌘) + alt + S
Style Editor Shift + F7
Profiler Shift + F5
Network command (⌘) + alt + Q
Developer Toolbar Shift + F2
Responsive Design View command (⌘) + alt + M
Scratchpad Shift + F4
Page Source command (⌘) + U
Error ConsoleBrowser Console command (⌘) + shift + J
Page Info command (⌘) + ICtrl + I

PDF Viewer

To do this Press this
Next page N or J or →
Previous page P or K or ←
Zoom in command (⌘) + +
Zoom out command (⌘) + –
Automatic Zoom command (⌘) + 0
Rotate the document clockwise R
Rotate counterclockwise Shift + R
Switch to Presentation Mode command (⌘) + Alt + P
Toggle Hand Tool H
Focus the Page Number input box command (⌘) + Alt + G

Miscellaneous

To do this Press this
Complete .com Address command (⌘) + return
Complete .net Address shift + return
Complete .org Address command (⌘) + shift + return
Delete Selected Autocomplete Entry shift + delete
Toggle Full Screen command (⌘)+Shift+F
Alt
F10
Show/Hide Add-on Bar command (⌘) + /
Caret Browsing F7
Select Location Bar F6
command (⌘) + L

Media shortcuts

To do this Press this
Toggle Play / Pause Space bar
Decrease volume
Increase volume
Mute audio command (⌘) + ↓
Unmute audio command (⌘) + ↑
Seek back 15 seconds
Seek back 10 % command (⌘) + ←
Seek forward 15 seconds
Seek forward 10 % command (⌘) + →
Seek to the beginning Home
Seek to the end End

Chrome

Windows and Linux

Tab and window shortcuts

To do this Press this
Opens a new window. Ctrl+N
Opens a new tab. Ctrl+T
Opens a new window in incognito mode. Ctrl+Shift+N
Opens a file from your computer in Google Chrome. Press Ctrl+O, then select file
Opens the link in a new tab in the background. Press Ctrl and click a link
Opens the link in a new tab and switches to the newly opened tab. Press Ctrl+Shift and click a link
Opens the link in a new window. Press Shift and click a link
Reopens the last tab you’ve closed. Google Chrome remembers the last 10 tabs you’ve closed. Ctrl+Shift+T
Opens the link in the tab. Drag a link to a tab
Opens the link in a new tab. Drag a link to a blank area on the tab strip
Opens the tab in a new window. Drag a tab out of the tab strip
Opens the tab in the existing window. Drag a tab out of the tab strip and into an existing window
Returns the tab to its original position. Press Esc while dragging a tab
Switches to the tab at the specified position number on the tab strip. Ctrl+1 through Ctrl+8
Switches to the last tab. Ctrl+9
Displays your browsing history in the tab. Right-click, or click and hold either the Back or Forward arrow in the browser toolbar.
Goes to the previous page in your browsing history for the tab. Press Backspace, or Alt and the left arrow together.
Goes to the next page in your browsing history for the tab. Press Shift+Backspace, or Alt and the right arrow together.
Maximizes or minimizes the window. Double-click the blank area on the tab strip.

Google Chrome feature shortcuts

To do this Press this
Opens the Chrome menu which lets you customize and control settings in Google Chrome. Alt+F or Alt+E or F10
Toggles the bookmarks bar on and off. Ctrl+Shift+B
Opens the History page. Ctrl+H
Opens the Downloads page. Ctrl+J
Opens the Task Manager. Shift+Esc
Sets focus on the first tool in the browser toolbar. You can then use the following shortcuts to move around in the toolbar:
  • Press Tab, Shift+Tab, Home, End, right arrow, and left arrow to move focus to different items in the toolbar.
  • Press Space or Enter to activate toolbar buttons, including page actions and browser actions.
  • Press Shift+F10 to bring up any associated context menu (e.g. browsing history for the Back button).
  • Press Esc to return focus from the toolbar back to the page.
Shift+Alt+T
Switches focus to the next keyboard-accessible pane. Panes include:
  • Highlights the URL in the address bar
  • Bookmarks bar (if visible)
  • The main web content (including any infobars)
  • Downloads bar (if visible)
F6 or Shift+F6
Opens Developer Tools. Ctrl+Shift+J
Opens the Clear Browsing Data dialog. Ctrl+Shift+Delete
Opens the Help Center in a new tab (our favorite). F1
Switch between multiple users. Ctrl+Shift+M

Address bar shortcuts

Use the following shortcuts in the address bar:

To do this Press this
Performs a search using your default search engine. Type a search term, then press Enter.
Performs a search using the search engine associated with the keyword. Type a search engine keyword, press Space, type a search term, and press Enter.
Performs a search using the search engine associated with the URL. Begin typing a search engine URL, press Tab when prompted, type a search term, and press Enter.
Adds www. and .com to your input in the address bar and open the resulting URL. Ctrl+Enter
Opens the URL in a new tab. Type a URL, then press Alt+Enter.
Highlights the URL. Ctrl+L or Alt+D
Places a ‘?’ in the address bar. Type a search term after the question mark to perform a search using your default search engine. Ctrl+K or Ctrl+E
Moves your cursor to the preceding key term in the address bar Press Ctrl and the left arrow together.
Moves your cursor to the next key term in the address bar Press Ctrl and the right arrow together.
Deletes the key term that precedes your cursor in the address bar Ctrl+Backspace
Deletes the entry from your browsing history, if possible. Select an entry in the address bar drop-down menu with your keyboard arrows, then press Shift+Delete.
Selects the first or last entry in the drop-down menu. Press Page Up or Page Down when the address bar drop-down menu is visible.

Webpage shortcuts

To do this Press this
Prints your current page. Ctrl+P
Saves your current page. Ctrl+S
Reloads your current page. F5 or Ctrl+R
Stops the loading of your current page. Esc
Opens the find bar. Ctrl+F
Finds the next match for your input in the find bar. Ctrl+G or F3
Finds the previous match for your input in the find bar. Ctrl+Shift+G, Shift+F3, or Shift+Enter
Reloads your current page, ignoring cached content. Ctrl+F5 or Shift+F5
Downloads the target of the link. Press Alt and click a link
Opens the source of your current page. Ctrl+U
Saves the link as a bookmark. Drag a link to bookmarks bar
Saves your current webpage as a bookmark. Ctrl+D
Saves all open pages as bookmarks in a new folder. Ctrl+Shift+D
Opens your page in full-screen mode. Press F11 again to exit full-screen. F11
Enlarges everything on the page. Ctrl and +, or press Ctrl and scroll your mousewheel up.
Makes everything on the page smaller. Ctrl and , or press Ctrl and scroll your mousewheel down.
Returns everything on the page to normal size. Ctrl+0
Scrolls down the web page. Space bar
Goes to the top of the page. Home
Goes to the bottom of the page. End
Scrolls horizontally on the page. Press Shift and scroll your mousewheel.

Mac

Tab and window shortcuts

To do this Press this
Opens a new window. ⌘ +N
Opens a new tab. ⌘+T
Opens a new window in incognito mode. ⌘+Shift+N
Opens a file from your computer in Google Chrome. Press ⌘+O, then select a file
Opens the link in a new tab in the background . Press and click a link
Opens the link in a new tab and switches to the newly opened tab. Press ⌘+Shift and click a link
Opens the link in a new window. Press Shift and click a link
Reopens the last tab you’ve closed. Google Chrome remembers the last 10 tabs you’ve closed. ⌘+Shift+T
Opens the tab in a new window. Drag a tab out of the tab strip
Opens the tab in the existing window. Drag a tab out of the tab strip and into an existing window
Switches to the next tab. Press ⌘+Option and the right arrow together
Switches to the previous tab. Press ⌘+Option and the left arrow together
Closes the current tab or pop-up. ⌘+W
Closes the current window. ⌘+Shift+W
Displays your browsing history in the tab. Click and hold either the Back or Forward arrow in the browser toolbar.
Goes to the previous page in your browsing history for the tab. Press Delete or ⌘+[
Goes to the next page in your browsing history for the tab. Press Shift+Delete or ⌘+]
Maximizes the window. Press Shift while clicking the + button in the top left corner of the window
Minimizes the window. ⌘+M
Hides Google Chrome. ⌘+H
Hides all other windows. ⌘+Option+H
Closes Google Chrome. ⌘+Q

Google Chrome feature shortcuts

To do this Press this
Toggles the bookmarks bar on and off. ⌘+Shift+B
Opens the bookmark manager. ⌘+Option+B
Opens the Settings page. ⌘+,
Opens the History page. ⌘+Y
Opens the Downloads page. ⌘+Shift+J
Opens the Clear Browsing Data dialog. ⌘+Shift+Delete
Switch between multiple users. ⌘+Shift+M

Address bar shortcuts

To do this Press this
Performs a search using your default search engine. Type a search term, then press Enter.
Performs a search using the search engine associated with the keyword. Type a search engine keyword, press Space, type a search term, and press Enter.
Performs a search using the search engine associated with the URL. Begin typing a search engine URL, press Tab when prompted, type a search term, and press Enter.
Opens the URL in a new background tab. Type a URL, then press ⌘+Enter.
Highlights the URL. ⌘+L
Moves your cursor to the preceding key term in the address bar Press Option and the left arrow together.
Moves your cursor to the next key term in the address bar Press Option and the right arrow together.
Highlights the preceding key term in the address bar Press Shift+Option and the left arrow together.
Highlights the next key term in the address bar Press Shift+Option and the right arrow together.
Deletes the key term that precedes your cursor in the address bar ⌘+Delete
Deletes the entry from your browsing history, if possible. Select an entry in the address bar drop-down menu with your keyboard arrows, then press Shift-Fn-Delete.

Webpage shortcuts

To do this Press this
Prints your current page. ⌘+P
Opens the Page Setup dialog. ⌘+Shift+P
Saves your current page. ⌘+S
Emails your current page. ⌘+Shift+I
Reloads your current page. ⌘+R
Opens the find bar. ⌘+F
Finds the next match for your input in the find bar. ⌘+G
Finds the previous match for your input in the find bar. ⌘+Shift+G or Shift+Enter
Uses selection for find ⌘+E
Jumps to selection ⌘+J
Opens Developer Tools. ⌘+Option+I
Opens the JavaScript Console. ⌘+Option+J
Opens the source of your current page. ⌘+Option+U
Downloads the target of the link. Press Option and click a link.
Saves the link as a bookmark. Drag a link to the bookmarks bar.
Saves your current webpage as a bookmark. ⌘+D
Saves all open tabs as bookmarks in a new folder. ⌘+Shift+D
Opens your page in full-screen mode. Press ⌘-Shift-F again to exit full-screen. ⌘+Shift+F
Enlarges everything on the page. ⌘ + (+)
Makes everything on the page smaller. ⌘ + (-)
Returns everything on the page to normal size. ⌘+0
Opens your home page in your current tab. ⌘+Shift+H
Scrolls down the web page. Space bar
Searches the web. ⌘+Option+F

Safari

To do this Press this
Scroll up, down, left, or right Press the arrow keys.
Scroll in larger increments Press Option while you press an arrow key.
Scroll down a screen Page Down

Space bar

Scroll up a screen Page Up

Shift–Space bar

Scroll to the top-left or bottom-left corner of the page Command (⌘)–Up Arrow or Home

Command (⌘)–Down Arrow or End

Highlight the next item on a webpage Tab highlights the next text field or pop-up menu. Tab also highlights buttons and other controls if “All controls” is selected in the Shortcuts pane of the Keyboard pane of System Preferences.

Option-Tab highlights the same items as Tab plus all other clickable items.

To swap the behavior of Tab and Option-Tab, turn on “Press Tab to highlight each item on a webpage” in the Advanced pane of Safari preferences.

Open a page in a new tab Command (⌘)-click a link

Command (⌘)-click a bookmark

Command (⌘)-Return after typing in the address and search field

Open a page in a new tab, and bring the tab to the front Shift-Command (⌘)-click a link

Shift-Command (⌘)-click a bookmark

Shift-Command (⌘)-Return after typing in the address and search field

Bring the next tab to the front Control-Tab or Shift-Command (⌘)-[
Bring the previous tab to the front Control-Shift-Tab or Shift-Command (⌘)-]
Close all tabs except for one Option-click the close button (X) on the tab you want to leave open
Open in tabs all the bookmarks in a folder in the Favorites bar Command (⌘)-click the folder in the Favorites bar
See a list of recent pages by name Hold down the Back or Forward button until the list appears
See a list of recent pages by web address (URL) Press Option and hold down the Back or Forward button until the list appears
Go to your homepage Command (⌘)-Home key
While typing in the address and search field, restore the current webpage address Esc
Close Reader Esc
Exit full-screen view Esc
Download a linked file Option-click a link to the file
Open a downloaded file Double-click the icon next to the file in the downloads list

Reading List

To do this Press this
Add the current page Shift-Command (⌘)-D
Add a linked page Shift-click a link to the page
Remove a page Swipe left over the page summary using a trackpad or mouse that supports gestures, then click Remove. Or, swipe all the way to the left until the page summary disappears.

Bookmarks

To do this Press this
Add a bookmark to the Favorites bar Click the address and search field to show the page’s full address and its icon, then drag the icon to the Favorites bar
Move a bookmark on the Favorites bar Drag the bookmark left or right
Remove a bookmark from the Favorites bar Drag the bookmark off the top of the bar

Bookmarks sidebar and bookmarks view

To do this Press this
Select bookmarks and folders in the sidebar Command (⌘)-click each bookmark and folder

Shift-Command (⌘)-click to extend the selection

Select the next bookmark or folder Up Arrow or Down Arrow
Open the selected bookmark Space bar
Open the selected folder Space bar or Right Arrow
Close the selected folder Space bar or Left Arrow
Open the selected folder and its subfolders in the sidebar Option–Right Arrow
Open the selected folder and its subfolders in the sidebar Option–Left Arrow
Change the name or address of a bookmark Select the bookmark, then press Return
Cancel editing a bookmark name in the sidebar Esc
Finish editing a bookmark name Return
Create a folder containing the selected bookmarks and folders in bookmarks view Option-click the New Folder button at the bottom of the window
Delete a bookmark Select the bookmark, then press Delete


Feb 2016