Real-Time Rendering, 4th Edition Bibliography

This is the bibliography of the Fourth Edition of the book Real-Time Rendering. Since many of the references have web resources associated with them, we have made this hyperlinked version of the bibliography available. The First, Second, and Third Edition bibliographies are also available.

If we don't have a link or the link is dead, try Google Scholar to find papers. We mostly avoid linking to content behind paywalls, unless the page itself is useful. Chrome has a handy Google Scholar Button plug-in that makes it easier still. You can also try The Wayback Machine; just paste in the URL and see if it's been archived. Better yet, use this Chrome extension to easily see if there's an archived copy.

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  1. Aalto, Tatu, "Experiments with DirectX Raytracing in Remedy's Northlight Engine," Game Developers Conference, Mar. 19, 2018.
    https://www.remedygames.com/experiments-with-directx-raytracing-in-remedys-northlight-engine/
  2. Aaltonen, Sebastian, "Modern Textureless Deferred Rendering Techniques," Beyond3D Forum, Feb. 28, 2016.
    https://forum.beyond3d.com/threads/modern-textureless-deferred-rendering-techniques.57611/
  3. Abbas, Wasim, "Practical Analytic 2D Signed Distance Field Generation," in ACM SIGGRAPH 2016 Talks, article no. 68, July 2016.
  4. Abrash, Michael, Michael Abrash's Graphics Programming Black Book, Special Edition, The Coriolis Group, Inc., 1997.
    http://giant.pourri.ch/Graphics%20Programming%20Black%20Book/Graphics%20Programming%20Black%20Book.pdf
    http://www.jagregory.com/abrash-black-book/
  5. Abrash, Michael, "Latency--The sine qua non of AR and VR," Ramblings in Valve Time blog, Dec. 29, 2012.
    http://blogs.valvesoftware.com/abrash/down-the-vr-rabbit-hole-fixing-judder/
  6. Abrash, Michael, "Raster-Scan Displays: More Than Meets The Eye," Ramblings in Valve Time blog, Jan. 28, 2013.
    http://blogs.valvesoftware.com/abrash/raster-scan-displays-more-than-meets-the-eye/
  7. Abrash, Michael, "Down the VR Rabbit Hole: Fixing Judder," Ramblings in Valve Time blog, July 26, 2013.
    http://blogs.valvesoftware.com/abrash/latency-the-sine-qua-non-of-ar-and-vr/
  8. Abrash, Michael, "Oculus Chief Scientist Predicts the Next 5 Years of VR Technology," Road to VR website, Nov. 4, 2016.
    http://www.roadtovr.com/michael-abrash-explores-next-5-years-vr-technology/
  9. Adams, Ansel, The Camera, Little, Brown and Company, 1980.
  10. Adams, Ansel, The Negative, Little, Brown and Company, 1981.
  11. Adams, Ansel, The Print, Little, Brown and Company, 1983.
  12. Adorjan, Matthias, OpenSfM: A Collaborative Structure-from-Motion System, Diploma thesis in Visual Computing, Vienna University of Technology, 2016.
    https://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2015/Adorjan-2015/Adorjan-2015-thesis.pdf
  13. Aila, Timo, and Ville Miettinen, "dPVS: An Occlusion Culling System for Massive Dynamic Environments," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 86-97, Mar. 2004.
    http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.230.608&rep;=rep1&type;=pdf
  14. Aila, Timo, and Samuli Laine, "Alias-Free Shadow Maps," in Eurographics Symposium on Rendering, Eurographics Association, pp. 161-166, June 2004.
    https://research.nvidia.com/sites/default/files/publications/aila2004egsr_paper.pdf
  15. Aila, Timo, and Samuli Laine, "Understanding the Efficiency of Ray Traversal on GPUs," High Performance Graphics, June 2009.
    http://www.nvidia.ca/docs/IO/76976/HPG2009-Trace-Efficiency.pdf
  16. Aila, Timo, Samuli Laine, and Tero Karras, "Understanding the Efficiency of Ray Traversal on GPUs--Kepler and Fermi Addendum," Technical Report NVR-2012-02, NVIDIA, 2012.
    http://research.nvidia.com/sites/default/files/publications/nvr-2012-02.pdf
  17. Airey, John M., John H. Rohlf, and Frederick P. Brooks Jr., "Towards Image Realism with Interactive Update Rates in Complex Virtual Building Environments," ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics (Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics), vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 41-50, Mar. 1990.
    http://www.cs.unc.edu/techreports/90-001.pdf
  18. Airey, John M., Increasing Update Rates in the Building Walkthrough System with Automatic Model-Space Subdivision and Potentially Visible Set Calculations, PhD thesis, Technical Report TR90-027, Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, July 1990.
    http://www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=ADA228439
  19. Akeley, K., P. Haeberli, and D. Burns, tomesh.c, a C-program on the SGI Developer's Toolbox CD, 1990.
  20. Akeley, Kurt, and Pat Hanrahan, "Real-Time Graphics Architectures," Course CS448A Notes, Stanford University, Fall 2001.
    http://graphics.stanford.edu/courses/cs448a-01-fall
  21. Akenine-Möller, Tomas, "Fast 3D Triangle-Box Overlap Testing," journal of graphics tools, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 29-33, 2001.
    http://fileadmin.cs.lth.se/cs/personal/tomas_akenine-moller/pubs/tribox.pdf
    https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10867651.2001.10487535
  22. Akenine-Möller, Tomas, and Jacob Ström, "Graphics for the Masses: A Hardware Rasterization Architecture for Mobile Phones," ACM Transactions on Graphics, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 801-808, 2003.
    https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f39b/0c8e47a56bb8ebd355a6000a120bd64187d2.pdf
  23. Akenine-Möller, Tomas, and Ulf Assarsson, "On the Degree of Vertices in a Shadow Volume Silhouette," journal of graphics tools, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 21-24, 2003.
    https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10867651.2003.10487591
  24. Akenine-Möller, T., and T. Aila, "Conservative and Tiled Rasterization Using a Modified Triangle Setup," journal of graphics tools, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1-8, 2005.
    https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/92ee/37fb6ba0c710bcc53d73ac5a893de76d4211.pdf
    https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/2151237X.2005.10129198
  25. Akenine-Möller, Tomas, and Björn Johnsson, "Performance per What?" Journal of Computer Graphics Techniques, vol. 1, no. 18, pp. 37-41, 2012.
    http://jcgt.org/published/0001/01/03/
  26. Akenine-Möller, Tomas, "Some Notes on Graphics Hardware," Tomas Akenine-Möller webpage, Nov. 27, 2012.
    http://fileadmin.cs.lth.se/cs/Personal/Tomas_Akenine-Moller/gh20121127.pdf
  27. Akin, Atilla, "Pushing the Limits of Realism of Materials," Maxwell Render blog, Nov. 26, 2014.
    http://blog.maxwellrender.com/tips/pushing-the-limits-of-realism-of-materials/
  28. Alexa, Marc, "Recent Advances in Mesh Morphing," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 173-197, 2002.
    https://www.cmlab.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~robin/courses/gm13/note/morphing-prn.pdf
  29. Alexa, M., and T. Boubekeur, "Subdivision Shading," ACM Transactions on Graphics, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 142:1-142:3, 2008.
  30. Aliaga, Daniel G., and Anselmo Lastra, "Automatic Image Placement to Provide a Guaranteed Frame Rate," in SIGGRAPH '99: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., pp. 307-316, Aug. 1999.
    http://www.cs.upc.edu/~pere/PapersWeb/SC/AliagaLastra.pdf
  31. AMD, "AMD PowerTune Technology," AMD website, 2011.
    https://www.amd.com/Documents/PowerTune_whitepaper_WEB.pdf
  32. AMD, "AMD Graphics Cores Next (GCN) Architecture," AMD website, 2012.
    https://www.amd.com/Documents/GCN_Architecture_whitepaper.pdf
  33. AMD, "Asynchronous Shaders: Unlocking the Full Potential of the GPU," AMD website, 2015.
    http://amd-dev.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wordpress/media/2012/10/Asynchronous-Shaders-White-Paper-FINAL.pdf
  34. AMD, "Radeon: Dissecting the Polaris Architecture," AMD website, 2016.
    http://radeon.com/_downloads/polaris-whitepaper-4.8.16.pdf
  35. AMD, "Radeon's Next-Generation Vega Architecture," AMD website, 2017.
    http://radeon.com/_downloads/vega-whitepaper-11.6.17.pdf
  36. AMD, GPUOpen, "TressFX," GitHub repository, 2017.
    https://github.com/GPUOpen-Effects/TressFX
  37. American Society for Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, "LAS Specification, Version 1.4--R13," asprs.org, July 15, 2013.
    https://www.asprs.org/a/society/committees/standards/LAS_1_4_r13.pdf
  38. Anagnostou, Kostas, "How Unreal Renders a Frame," Interplay of Light blog, Oct. 24, 2017.
    https://interplayoflight.wordpress.com/2017/10/25/how-unreal-renders-a-frame/amp/
  39. Anderson, Eric A., "Building Obduction: Cyan's Custom UE4 Art Tools," Game Developers Conference, Mar. 2016.
    http://twvideo01.ubm-us.net/o1/vault/gdc2016/Presentations/Anderson_Eric_BuildingObduction.pdf
  40. Andersson, Johan, "Terrain Rendering in Frostbite Using Procedural Shader Splatting," SIGGRAPH Advanced Real-Time Rendering in 3D Graphics and Games course, Aug. 2007.
    https://media.contentapi.ea.com/content/dam/eacom/frostbite/files/chapter5-andersson-terrain-rendering-in-frostbite.pdf
  41. Andersson, Johan, and Daniel Johansson, "Shadows & Decals: D3D10 Techniques from Frostbite," Game Developers Conference, Mar. 2009.
    http://amd-dev.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wordpress/media/2012/10/Shadows%20and%20Decals%20in%20the%20Frostbite%20Engine.pps
    http://www.gdcvault.com/play/1661/(100)-Advanced-Visual-Effects-with
  42. Andersson, Johan, "Parallel Graphics in Frostbite--Current & Future," SIGGRAPH Beyond Programmable Shading course, Aug. 2009.
    http://s09.idav.ucdavis.edu/
  43. Andersson, Johan, "DirectX 11 Rendering in Battlefield 3," Game Developers Conference, Mar. 2011.
    http://www.dice.se/news/directx-11-rendering-battlefield-3/
  44. Andersson, Johan, "Shiny PC Graphics in Battlefield 3," GeForce LAN, Oct. 2011.
    https://www.slideshare.net/DICEStudio/shiny-pc-graphics-in-battlefield-3/32-Particle_lighting
  45. Andersson, Johan, "Parallel Futures of a Game Engine," Intel Dynamic Execution Environment Symposium, May 2012.
    http://www.dice.se/news/parallel-futures-game-engine-2/
  46. Andersson, Johan, "The Rendering Pipeline--Challenges & Next Steps," SIGGRAPH Open Problems in Real-Time Rendering course, Aug. 2015.
    https://www.slideshare.net/repii/the-rendering-pipeline-challenges-next-steps
  47. Andersson, Johan, and Colin Barré-Brisebois, "Shiny Pixels and Beyond: Real-Time Raytracing at SEED," Game Developers Conference, Mar. 2018.
    https://www.ea.com/seed/news/seed-gdc-2018-presentation-slides-shiny-pixels
  48. Andersson, M., J. Hasselgren, R. Toth, and T. Akenine-Möller, "Adaptive Texture Space Shading for Stochastic Rendering," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 341-350, 2014.
    https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c187/9a382bae47dab81a2a44a3019a8e18e92fc5.pdf
  49. Andersson, Magnus, Algorithmic Improvements for Stochastic Rasterization & Depth Buffering, PhD thesis, Lund University, Oct. 2015.
    https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/3a3dec14-811b-41ad-a424-242a8ab5dd46
  50. Andersson, M., J. Hasselgren, and T. Akenine-Möller, "Masked Depth Culling for Graphics Hardware," ACM Transactions on Graphics, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 188:1-188:9, 2015.
  51. Andreev, Dmitry, "Real-Time Frame Rate Up-Conversion for Video Games," in ACM SIGGRAPH 2010 Talks, ACM, article no. 16, July 2010.
    http://and.intercon.ru/releases/talks/rtfrucvg/
    http://and.intercon.ru/rtfrucvg_html_slides/
  52. Andreev, Dmitry, "Anti-Aliasing from a Different Perspective," Game Developers Conference, Mar. 2011.
    http://iryoku.com/aacourse/downloads/12-Anti-Aliasing-from-a-Different-Perspective-(DLAA).pdf
  53. Anguelov, Bobby, "DirectX10 Tutorial 10: Shadow Mapping Part 2," Taking Initiative blog, May 25, 2011.
    https://takinginitiative.wordpress.com/2011/05/25/directx10-tutorial-10-shadow-mapping-part-2/
  54. Annen, Thomas, Jan Kautz, Frédo Durand, and Hans-Peter Seidel, "Spherical Harmonic Gradients for Mid-Range Illumination," in Proceedings of the Fifteenth Eurographics Conference on Rendering Techniques, Eurographics Association, pp. 331-336, June 2004.
    https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2383578
  55. Annen, Thomas, Tom Mertens, Philippe Bekaert, Hans-Peter Seidel, and Jan Kautz, "Convolution Shadow Maps," in Proceedings of the 18th Eurographics Conference on Rendering Techniques, Eurographics Association, pp. 51-60, June 2007.
    https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ffbf/40c1b60997917c4c7e4b40563610a34a34b3.pdf
    https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2383857
  56. Annen, Thomas, Tom Mertens, Hans-Peter Seidel, Eddy Flerackers, and Jan Kautz, "Exponential Shadow Maps," in Graphics Interface 2008, Canadian Human-Computer Communications Society, pp. 155-161, May 2008.
    https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9bfb/a4cf4102deeaac9671a1c4d0c0c8f0e99d0c.pdf
  57. Annen, Thomas, Zhao Dong, Tom Mertens, Philippe Bekaert, Hans-Peter Seidel, and Jan Kautz, "Real-Time, All-Frequency Shadows in Dynamic Scenes," ACM Transactions on Graphics, vol. 27, no. 3, article no. 34, Aug. 2008.
    http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.152.7245&rep;=rep1&type;=pdf
  58. Ansari, Marwan Y., "Image Effects with DirectX 9 Pixel Shaders," in Wolfgang Engel, ed., ShaderX2: Shader Programming Tips and Tricks with DirectX 9, pp. 481-518, Wordware, 2004.
    http://www.realtimerendering.com/resources/shaderx/
  59. Answer, James, "Fast and Flexible: Technical Art and Rendering for The Unknown," Game Developers Conference, Mar. 2016.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B8U5MJ4Ll3Eid0w4S3NvZDNzNXM/view
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ClRtgeUsdOg
  60. Antoine, François, Ryan Brucks, Brian Karis, and Gavin Moran, "The Boy, the Kite and the 100 Square Mile Real-Time Digital Backlot," in ACM SIGGRAPH 2015 Talks, ACM, article no. 20, Aug. 2015.
  61. Antonio, Franklin, "Faster Line Segment Intersection," in David Kirk, ed., Graphics Gems III, pp. 199-202, Academic Press, 1992.
    http://www.graphicsgems.org
    https://smile.amazon.com/Graphics-Gems-3-IBM-Version/dp/0124096735
  62. Antonov, Michael, "Asynchronous Timewarp Examined," Oculus Developer Blog, Mar. 3, 2015.
    https://developer3.oculus.com/blog/asynchronous-timewarp-examined/
  63. Apodaca, Anthony A., and Larry Gritz, Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures, Morgan Kaufmann, 1999.
    https://smile.amazon.com/Advanced-RenderMan-Creating-Pictures-Kaufmann/dp/1558606181
  64. Apodaca, Anthony A., "How PhotoRealistic RenderMan Works," in Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures, Morgan Kaufmann, Chapter 6, 1999. Also in SIGGRAPH Advanced RenderMan 2: To RI_INFINITY and Beyond course, July 2000.
    http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/academic/class/15869-f11/www/readings/advancedprman_ch6.pdf
    https://smile.amazon.com/Advanced-RenderMan-Creating-Pictures-Kaufmann/dp/1558606181
  65. Apple, "ARKit," Apple developer website.
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  66. Apple, "OpenGL ES Programming Guide for iOS," Apple developer website.
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  67. de Araújo, B. R., D. S. Lopes, P. Jepp, J. A. Jorge, and B. Wyvill, "A Survey on Implicit Surface Polygonization," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 60:1-60:39, 2015.
    http://webhome.cs.uvic.ca/~blob/publications/survey.pdf
  68. Arge, Lars, Gerth Stølting Brodal, and Rolf Fagerberg, "Cache-Oblivious Data Structures," in Dinesh P. Mehta and Sartaj Sahni, eds., Handbook of Data Structures and Applications, Second Edition, Chapman and Hall/CRC Press, Chapter 35, 2018.
    https://smile.amazon.com/Handbook-Structures-Applications-Computer-Information/dp/149870185X
  69. ARM Limited, "ARM\textregistered Mali\texttrademark Application Developer Best Practices, Version 1.0," ARM documentation, Feb. 27, 2017.
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  70. Arvo, James, "A Simple Method for Box-Sphere Intersection Testing," in Andrew S. Glassner, ed., Graphics Gems, Academic Press, pp. 335-339, 1990.
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    https://smile.amazon.com/Graphics-Gems-Andrew-S-Glassner/dp/0122861663
  71. Arvo, James, "Ray Tracing with Meta-Hierarchies," SIGGRAPH Advanced Topics in Ray Tracing course, Aug. 1990.
    http://www.cs.caltech.edu/~arvo/papers.html
  72. Arvo, James, ed., Graphics Gems II, Academic Press, 1991.
    http://www.graphicsgems.org
    https://smile.amazon.com/Graphics-Gems-II-IBM-No/dp/0120644819
  73. Arvo, James, "The Irradiance Jacobian for Partially Occluded Polyhedral Sources," in SIGGRAPH '94: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, ACM, pp. 343-350, July 1994.
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  74. Arvo, James, "Applications of Irradiance Tensors to the Simulation of non-Lambertian Phenomena," in SIGGRAPH '95: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, ACM, pp. 335-342, Aug. 1995.
    https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=218467
  75. Asanovic, Krste, et al., "The Landscape of Parallel Computing Research: A View from Berkeley," Technical Report No. UCB/EECS-2006-183, EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, 2006.
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  76. Ashdown, Ian, Radiosity: A Programmer's Perspective, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994.
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  77. Ashikhmin, Michael, and Peter Shirley, "An Anisotropic Phong Light Reflection Model," Technical Report UUCS-00-014, Computer Science Department, University of Utah, June 2000.
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  78. Ashikhmin, Michael, Simon Premoze, and Peter Shirley, "A Microfacet-Based BRDF Generator," in SIGGRAPH '00: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., pp. 67-74, July 2000.
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  79. Ashikhmin, Michael, "Microfacet-Based BRDFs," SIGGRAPH State of the Art in Modeling and Measuring of Surface Reflection course, Aug. 2001.
  80. Ashikhmin, Michael, Abhijeet Ghosh, "Simple Blurry Reflections with Environment Maps," journal of graphics tools, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 3-8, 2002.
    http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.14.1070&rep;=rep1&type;=pdf
    https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10867651.2002.10487566
  81. Ashikhmin, Michael, and Simon Premoze, "Distribution-Based BRDFs," Technical Report, 2007.
    http://www.cs.utah.edu/~premoze/dbrdf
  82. Asirvatham, Arul, and Hugues Hoppe, "Terrain Rendering Using GPU-Based Geometry Clipmaps," in Matt Pharr, ed., GPU Gems 2, Addison-Wesley, pp. 27-45, 2005.
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  83. Assarsson, Ulf, and Tomas Möller, "Optimized View Frustum Culling Algorithms for Bounding Boxes," journal of graphics tools, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 9-22, 2000.
    http://www.cse.chalmers.se/~uffe/vfc.pdf
  84. Atanasov, Asen, and Vladimir Koylazov, "A Practical Stochastic Algorithm for Rendering Mirror-Like Flakes," in ACM SIGGRAPH 2016 Talks, article no. 67, July 2016.
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  85. Austin, Michael, "Voxel Surfing," Game Developers Conference, Mar. 2016.
    http://www.mathforgameprogrammers.com/gdc2016/GDC2016_Austin_Michael_VoxelSurfing.pdf
    http://www.mathforgameprogrammers.com/gdc2016/GDC2016_Austin_Michael_VoxelSurfing.pptx
  86. Bærentzen, J. Andreas, Steen Lund Nielsen, Mikkel Gjøl, and Bent D. Larsen, "Two Methods for Antialiased Wireframe Drawing with Hidden Line Removal," in SCCG '08 Proceedings of the 24th Spring Conference on Computer Graphics, ACM, pp. 171-177, Apr. 2008.
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  91. Baker, Dan, "Advanced Lighting Techniques," Meltdown 2005, July 2005.
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  92. Baker, Dan, and Yannis Minadakis, "Firaxis' Civilization V: A Case Study in Scalable Game Performance," Game Developers Conference, Mar. 2010.
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  93. Baker, Dan, "Spectacular Specular--LEAN and CLEAN Specular Highlights," Game Developers Conference, Mar. 2011.
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  94. Baker, Dan, "Object Space Lighting," Game Developers Conference, Mar. 2016.
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  95. Bako, Steve, Thijs Vogels, Brian McWilliams, Mark Meyer, Jan Novák, Alex Harvill, Pradeep Sen, Tony DeRose, and Fabrice Rousselle, "Kernel-Predicting Convolutional Networks for Denoising Monte Carlo Renderings," ACM Transactions on Graphics, vol. 36, no. 4, article no. 97, 2017.
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  96. Baldwin, Doug, and Michael Weber, "Fast Ray-Triangle Intersections by Coordinate Transformation," Journal of Computer Graphics Techniques, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 39-49, 2016.
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  97. Balestra, C., and P.-K. Engstad, "The Technology of Uncharted: Drake's Fortune," Game Developers Conference, Mar. 2008.
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  98. Banks, David, "Illumination in Diverse Codimensions," in SIGGRAPH '94: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, ACM, pp. 327-334, July 1994.
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  99. Barb, C., "Texture Streaming in Titanfall 2," Game Developers Conference, Feb.-Mar. 2017.
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  100. Barber, C. B., D. P. Dobkin, and H. Huhdanpaa, "The Quickhull Algorithm for Convex Hull," Technical Report GCG53, Geometry Center, July 1993.
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