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abolition antiquated aristocracy become bourgeois property bourgeois society capital capitalist character Chartist civilisation class antagonisms class struggle Communism Communist League Communist Manifesto Communist Party competition conditions of existence congress constitute countries crises dissolution economic edition of 1888 emancipation Engels London England English edition epoch Europe European exploitation February Revolution fight France Frederick Engels freedom French German German edition hands Icaria ideas instruments of production interests International Karl Marx labour League's Leon Trotsky literature machinery Marx and Engels Marx and F Marxist mass means of production modem modern bourgeois Modern Industry Note by Engels Obshchina oppressed organisation Paris Paris Commune peasant petty bourgeoisie petty-bourgeois philosophical Pierre Proudhon preface private property productive forces proletarian movement proletarian revolution proletariat published radical reactionary regime revolutionary ruling class Russian Social Democracy Socialist and Communist theoretical translation Trotsky wage wage-labour whole workers working-class parties
Page 46 - The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.
Page 49 - It compels all nations, on pain of extinction, to adopt the bourgeois mode of production ; it compels them to introduce what it calls civilization into their midst, ie to become bourgeois themselves. In one word, it creates a world after its own image.
Page 51 - ... monotonous, and most easily acquired knack, that is required of him. Hence, the cost of production of a workman is restricted, almost entirely, to the means of subsistence that he requires for his maintenance, and for the propagation of his race. But the price of a commodity, and therefore also of labour, is equal to its cost of production. In proportion, therefore, as the repulsiveness of the work increases, the wage decreases.
Page 24 - One thing especially was proved by the Commune, viz., that 'the working class cannot simply lay hold of the ready-made State machinery, and wield it for its own purposes.
Page 55 - All the preceding classes that got the upper hand, sought to fortify their already acquired status by subjecting society at large to their conditions of appropriation. The proletarians cannot become masters of the productive forces of society, except by abolishing their own previous mode of appropriation, and thereby also every other previous mode of appropriation. They have nothing of their own to secure and to fortify; their mission is to destroy all previous securities for, and insurances of,...
Page 59 - It has been objected that upon the abolition of private property all work will cease, and universal laziness will overtake us. According to this, bourgeois society ought long ago to have gone to the dogs through sheer idleness; for those of its members who work, acquire nothing, and those who acquire anything, do not work.
Page 52 - Not only are they slaves of the bourgeois class, and of the bourgeois state ; they are daily and hourly enslaved by the machine, by the over-looker, and, above all, by the individual bourgeois manufacturer himself. The more openly this despotism proclaims gain to be its end and aim, the more petty, the more hateful and the more embittering it is.