Baker Genalogy

Martin and Hannah Clark Baker of Halifax Co., VA. and Garrard Co., KY.
and their Descendants

Secondary Names:

Alcorn, Bruner, Cambron, Campbell, Cleveland, Colquitt, Cooksey, Colvin, Corley, Fuqua. Gardner, Gifford, Green, Griffith, Hale, Hamlett, Hanks, Hay, Herron, Hicks,  Holtzclaw, House, Hubbard, Huff, Huffman, Hungate, Ison, Kendall, Kilburn, Lambert, Laughlin, Lee, Litterel (al), Lyon, McGhee, McMannis, Moore, Ogg, Peavler, Rice, Robards, Shinn, Shipman, Skaggs, Sneed, Stone, Steele, Sturges, Swango, Taylor, Tandy,Votaw, Warren, Wright.

These are some of the names of those women and men who married into this Baker line in the 1700s, 1800s and early 1900s.  Recent names are not included.



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In Memorian:

In June 2009, we lost two dear members of this family:

Dr. Thomas Everett Baker, a native of Louisville, KY.
Professor, Stephen F. Austin College, Sherman, TX.

June Stone, Oswego, OR., an avid Baker/Rice/Stone genealogist


Table of Contents

 Clickon title to go to that section
(Otherwise you may just scroll down to the section.)

Brief, Early History of This Baker Line

<>Baker Generations of this line,  #1 through # 5

Baker Specific E-Mail Lists   (For posting queries)

Best Genealogical Sources on the Net

Excellent On-Line Genealogy Newsletters

A  List of My BAKER  "Cousins"  with thanks to all of them who have contributed information to my tree

An Early, Baker Family History
with Notes from Kentucky's Frontier History

This Baker Family in Virginia:        Martin  Baker, as of now, is first found in Surry Co., VA. We as yet have no idea where nor when he was born.  There appears to have been at least five Martin Bakers in Colonial VA.; at least two of those, however, may have been the same man living in different locations. Also several Martin Bakers are listed as passengers on ships arriving from England from the early to mid 1700s. Nothing more is known about them.  Records are often non-existant because thirty nine VA. court houses were either burned by the British in the War of 1812 or burned, at least in part, by accident before 1880.

Martin  moved from Surry Co. to
Brunswick Co. around 1763. During that time, he married  Hannah Ann Clark(e).  No marriage bond has been found for them. Nor do we know much about her family.  We do know that sometimes she appears in records as Hannah, sometimes as Ann.  In court records, both names are used.  She had a brother, Francis, who later moved to Kentucky. Nothing more has been learned about him because his is such a common name.  There are many Francis Clarks in early KY.

In Brunswick Co., Martin is mentioned several times in the Church of England's vestry minutes as having made repairs on the glebe (parsonage); thus it is probable that he was a member of the Church of England at that time.  From Brunswick, Martin and Hannah moved to Halifax Co., VA. about 1775 (Court records in Brunswick Co. confirm this). There the family lived on Miry Creek according to an early map.  By the time the family lived in Halifax Co., however, they may have become Baptists because the marriages of their children do not appear to have have been performed by Anglican ministers since there is no mention of the family in the detailed vestry records there. In most of the colonial period, Baptist ministers were forbidden to practice religion by The Church of England (the official church of VA.), and many were jailed. Even so, in the Colony of Virginia, Baptist ministers were preaching before the 1770s, and many secretly married couples but kept no records.

Martin's oldest daughter, Susannah, born in 1755, (source: military pension application) married Ransom(e) Colquitt Co. in Halifax Co. in 1785. (Both Ransome and Susannah received Revolutionary War pensions. Ransome in his application lists many Revolutionary War battles in which he fought; he lost the use of one arm from a musket shot and also one eye.)   He twice enlisted in the Virginia Continental Line.

Susannah and Ransom Colquitt had at least five children, and many of their descendants have been found.  Susannah died in Kanawha Co., VA. (later W. VA.) in the spring of 1845.  Her will is posted on the Kanawha County RootsWeb site.  Recently, descendants of daughter, Anna, who had married and moved to Texas, have been located.   Apparently Henrietta died soon after marriage; she and William may have had a daughter, Susannah R., who is named in one court document as being an orphan.  Nothing more is known about her.

Henrietta was a witness at the marriage of her sister, Susannah and Ransome Colquitt in Halifax Co. (Court records). The couple soon moved just over the border to Rockingham, N.C.  Later in 1815 in KY., records show also that Ransome was the bondsman in the marriage of his daughter, Cassandra Cabot Colquitt to James' son, Martin, who was her first cousin!  Letters to the family from Martin Baker Stone, a grandson of Martin, who moved to Santiago, Chile, S.A. state that indeed, cousin married cousin.

Henrietta Maria married William Hamlett in 1786 according to Halifax Court records. 
Son, James married Elizabeth Fuqua, daughter of William Fuqua. Another daughter, Elizabeth, died at age 18.  There likely was an oldest son, John, who remained in Brunswick Co. where he married a Harris. Susannah named a brother, John, in her will.

Bakers Move to Kentucky:        About 1788, Martin and Hannah moved with son,  James and his wife, Elizabeth, to Garrard Co., KY.  Before leaving VA., they sold their household belongings to Henrietta, and son-in-law, William Hamlett.  Since Halifax Co. is on the N.C. border, in all probability, they walked and/or rode horseback via The Wilderness Road and then through Cumberland Gap. In the 1780s, it was only a trail, not wide enough for a wagon. It was the only land route into KY. at that time. All of the river routes were too far to the north to be feasable for a family from Southern VA. to use. They most likely traveled with a sizable group because Indian attacks still were frequent.  KY., in fact, was known then as "The Bloody Land."

They may have traveled with a group of Baptists since the influx of settlers during this period in Garrard Co. were nearly all VA. Baptists moving west to seek religious freedom.  They resented having to pay taxes in VA. to support the state church, The Church of England (later the Episcopal Church). Could that be why Martin and his family moved? Indeed later generations were Baptists.  The grandson of this Martin, also named Martin, was active in the Baptist Church in Garrard Co.

Martin had received or purchased a KY. land grant of 1,200 acres in Anderson Co., but somehow lost it.  As yet we do not know what happened.  In Lincoln Co. (Later: Garrard Co.), the family  lived on Sugar Creek, a few miles from Lancaster, where Martin and James ran a gristmill.  Martin   died in 1820, leaving a will and an estate of $200.  Both Martin and Hannah are thought to be  buried in Garrard Co.,  but their grave sites are unknown.

By 1843, son, James, was in Anderson Co. , where  he deeded land there to son, Beverly, and his wife, Isabel Sneed.  He also owned land in Mercer Co.  He died in 1845 and is likely bured in Anderson or Mercer Counties, though neither a  burial site nor last will and testament has been found for him.   So far, the name of his wife has not been proved beyond a doubt. (There were about four Elizabeth Fuquas in Colonial VA.) Records state that a James Baker did marry an Elizabeth Fuqua in Charlotte Co., VA.  This Elizabeth inherited two slaves from her father, William and a few years later, James sold two slaves by the same name in Garrard Co., KY. But some researchers claim that it was not our James Baker who married Elizabeth Fuqua.

The late Joan Colbert Gioe published a booklet of Garrard Co. vital statistics in which she named husband and wife, "James and Elizabeth Fuqua Baker," nine times as the parents of nine newborns. But, sadly, she did not include the sources for her information, and so far they have not been located. Not all of those children have been traced; some likely died young.   There is also an indication that James may have had a second wife late in life.
Bakers Move West:     By the 1830s, members of this Baker family began moving once more. After the death of is first wife, Martin II married Eliza Rice, a sister of the wife of his brother, Thomas, and then they moved to MO.  Some of his children moved to TX. and to CA.  Today more than 2,000 descendants of Martin have been located in many states and even in Chile and Argentina, South America.

DNA Test Results:   Recently, two male descendants of  Martin Baker have had their DNA tested by Family Tree DNA, and the results prove that this Baker family is related to the Humphrey Baker line.  Humphrey came first to Maryland from Stourbridge, Worchester, England as an indentured servant and after six years, settled in Virginia where he was married to an Anna, last name unknown. Eventually, he too  moved to Kentucky. So far, his exact kinship to Martin has not been determined; there are many possibilities.       If you are interested in knowing more about the use of DNA testing  to determine family connections, see the following article: 



The map below shows the route that the early settlers had to take from Virginia through the Cumberland Gap (The dotted red line).    More than 70,000 settlers had trudged through the gap before Kentucky became a state in 1792.

 The Great Valley Road went south through Virginia, and later, at some still uncertain point, became known as the Wilderness Road.  The trail went south and then west into the northern edge of Tennessee and back up into Kentucky.  Garrard Co. is located west of Logan's Fort (The town, Stanford).  Logan's Fort no longer exists.

This is most likely the route that Martin and his family took. They would have traveled north and west from Halifax County to connect with the trail.  At Logan's Fort, they would have gone west to Garrard Co. There is some indication that James and his family went immediately to Garrard Co., KY., but that Martin and his wife remained in Tennessee for a year or more before continuing to Garrard Co. where they lived for the reminder of their lives.


Photo oif Cumberland Gap

The Notch in the Appalachian Chain Known as Cumberland Gap

These mountains are not high, but, as you can see, the sides are exceedingly steep.

Cumberland Gap and trail viewed from atop the mountion

View of the Gap and the trail from atop the mountain

You can see why this chain also is called the Smoky Mountains

Today Cumberland Gap is a national park with a visitors center and exhibits 
detailing the difficulties of the early trek.   The original trail has been restored
 so that  hikers may follow in the fo
otsteps of their ancestors. 
For autos,  a four lane highway now goes through a tunnel in the mountain.

Cumberland Gap National Park Web Page

Thus far, more than 2,850 descendants of Martin's have been located in many states---from KY. to CA., and even in Chile, and Argentina, South America. (Martin Baker Stone and his brother, James Tully Stone, both born in KY., moved to Chile before 1900 to build bridges for the government. James later moved to Argentina.) 

Please note that not all generations of the family are listed here; generations # 6, 7, 8, and 9  are not included in order to omit the living. (You may contact me if you wish me to send you those generations privately.)

Currently there are more than a dozen descendants of this Baker line researching the family.  Though we Baker descendants are always careful to seek documentation, there still can be no guarantee that all of the information contained herein is correct. Different records often show conflicting information, as well as variations in the spelling of names.  Nor have all data sources been included here in order to save space.

In genelogical research, no fact is ever an absolute!

                                                                    E. A. Kaspar

*An excellent book that describes the lives and subculture of the "Borderers" (the group to which this Baker line likely belonged) from Great Britain, as well as other group of early English settlers, is ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989, available in paperback or hard cover.

For further information regarding early American Migration routes, see William Dollarhide's book, MAP GUIDE TO AMERICAN MIGRATION ROUTES 1735-1815. Published by Heritage Quest in Bountiful, Utah, 1997, in paperback.

In genealogical research,  verification and reverification are a must!

If you have any additional information regarding this Baker line, or if you wish further information please contact:

   E. A. Kaspar    
 C. Birchell Coslow
Iris Baker Wilson


Genealogy---it's only an obsession, after all!

Click here to call up treeBaker Generations
# 1 through # 5

The Genealogist's Lament: I should have asked them BEFORE they died!


Other Baker Web Pages Listing  this
Humphrey-Martin-Hannah Baker Line

(I am not responsible for the validity nor reliability of documentation on these sites.)

If you have a web page for this Baker line, please send me your URL.

A new cousin a day keeps boredom away!

Sandi Partin's line via James, Beverly and Charles

 Warning:  there are no lifeguards in this gene pool!

The Surname Baker  

Baker is such a common name that there are probably hundreds of unrelated Baker lines in the U.S.   (Just in Colonial Virginia, there were at least 5  Martin Bakers and several others were in MD. and PA.!)   Continued research may someday connect some of the lines, but most were never related. After all, since bread has always been the staff of life, there were many bread bakers all over Europe whose occupations eventually became their surnames. The name, Baker, is from the Saxon word,  "becan,"  meaning  to dry with heat.

The 1990 U.S. Census listed 427,501 Bakers.  In the 1700s, 10,358 Bakers were in the Colonies/states, and in the 1600s in the Colonies there were 3,055 Bakers! (According to the web page Bakers: One Great Family)  
                     Is it any wonder that pursuing Baker ancestors is a daunting task!


Have you ever noticed in your research, how many thousands of our ancestors came over on the Mayflower?

Genealogy is like playing hide and seek.  They hide; I seek!

Baker Specific E-Mail Lists
for posting queries

Every family tree produces some lemons, some nuts and some bad apples!

Best Genealogical Sources on the Net

Genealogists,  like monkeys, are always in the trees!

RootsWeb Genealogy Project

Cyndi's List of Genealogical Sites---more than 255,000+  Links

Everton's Root Cellar

Family Tree Maker's GenForum

Eastman's Genealogy Newsletter

Genealogy Search Engine: I Found It, etc

GenWeb Project Home Page

IRC Genealogy Chat Room: open 24 hours a Day,  7 Days a Week

Library of Congress

Surname Web

Library of Virginia (Excellent source for VA. genealogy)

Whoever said, "Seek and ye shall find" was NOT a genealogist!

Excellent On-Line Genealogical Newsletters
 Ancestry Daily News

Eastman's Genealogy Column for Ancestry

Family Tree Magazine

Footnote (by subscription)

Everton's Genealogical Helper

Blog for Family Tree Maker

Keep in mind that undocumented genealogy is mythology!

This Web Page is dedicated to the memory of Edith Baker Kaspar,  Martin and Hannah's G4granddaughter,  who spent much of her life searching for his origins and his descendants.
Thank you, Cousins

I  wish to express my thanks to all of my Baker cousins around the U.S. who have contributed genealogical information for my file.  Many of them I have met only on the Net and hope to meet in person.  All of the following are descended from Martin and Hannah's son,  James.


<>Donald Baker                                         CA.
Dr. Kirby Baker                                      CA.
Joyce Berns                                           CA.
Birchell Coslow                                      WY.
Lavon Crutchfield                                  KY.
Jo Anne Ernst                                   Deceased
Scott Gardner                                        KY.
Sandi Baker Partin                                 KY.
Elaine Elliott                                          CA.
Janet Goodnite                                       IL.
John F. Gepford                                      OK.
Patsy Herrell                                          KY.
William R. Horine                                    FL.
Ernest Irwin                                           CA.
Melinda Swango Johnson                       FL.
Gary Lambert                                         IL.
Cele Baker Liebelt                                  WI.
Miriam Mason                                        KY.
Robin Moulton                                       CA.
Mary Baker McGee                                 IL.
Niki Paddock                                          AZ.
Carole Peterson                                      WI.
Amalie Preston (Baker dau. in law)          KY.
Mary Anne Baker Reynolds                     KY.
Steve & Susan McCracken Seale*            AL.
Jane Seitz                                               IL.
Drs. John & Andrea Skaggs                     KY.
Judy Baker Stiefel
Ruth Hubbard Strake                             IN.
June Stone                                        Deceased
Lynn Stone                                            CA.
Barbara Terhune                                                     AZ.
William Tocher                                 Deceased   
Kate Baker (Husband)                      Deceased
Judy Baker Stiefel                                  IN.

Barbara Bonham (Husband)                  S.C.
Dr. Clint & Martha Baker                       AL.
 (who gave me the autobiography
    of my Great Aunt, Julia Baker)
Scott Williams *                                      IL.
Iris Baker Wilson                                    OH.

I firmly believe that many of my ancestors must have been in the Witness Protection Program!

    For this Web page,  my thanks to

Western Illinois University

     Copyright 1998,    E.  A.  Kaspar,   all rights reserved

I used to have a life,  then I started doing genealogy!

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