Diagnostic and Therapeutic UGI endoscopy
Upper GI endoscopy (sometimes called a ‘gastroscopy’ or simply an ‘endoscopy’) is a test which allows the doctor to look directly at the lining of the oesophagus (the gullet), the stomach and around the first bend of the small intestine – the duodenum. In order to do the test, an endoscope is passed through your mouth into the stomach. The endoscope is a long flexible tube (thinner than your little finger) with a bright light at the end. Looking down the tube, the doctor gets a clear view of the lining of the stomach and can check whether or not any disease is present. Sometimes the doctor takes a biopsy- a sample of tissue for analysis in the laboratory. The tissue is removed painlessly through the endoscope, using tiny forceps.
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Colonoscopy
Colonoscopy is a test which allows the doctor to look directly at the lining of the large intestine (the colon). Diagnostic colonoscopy is recommended for alterations in bowel habits, occult or frank blood in the stool, unexplained anaemia and as a screening test for colon cancer. In order to do the test a colonoscope is carefully passed through the anus into the large intestine. The colonoscope is a long flexible tube, about the thickness of your index finger, with a bright light at its tip. The video camera on the colonoscope transmits images of the inside of the colon to a monitor allowing the physician to examine the lining of the colon checking for any disease or abnormalities.
The physician may take a biopsy – a sample of the lining of the bowel for closer examination under the microscope. A small piece of tissue is removed painlessly through the colonoscope, using tiny biopsy forceps.
It is also possible to remove adenomas (polyps) during colonoscopy. Polyps are abnormal projections of tissue, rather like a wart, which the doctor will want to remove and examine in more detail.
Diagnostic and Therapeutic ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio pancreaticography )
An ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography) procedure allows the doctor to take detailed X-rays of the bile duct and/or pancreas. You will lie on an X-ray table and the doctor who is to perform the test will explain briefly what will happen. Your throat will be numbed with a special spray. A fine soft tube will be placed into one nostril to give you a little oxygen to breathe during the test. You will be given an injection into your drip which will make you very sleepy. Once you are sleepy, an endoscope (a long, thin flexible tube with a bright light at one end) will be passed through your mouth, down into your stomach and the upper part of the small intestine (the duodenum). X-ray dye will be injected down the endoscope so that the pancreas and bile ducts may be seen on X-ray films. If everything is normal, the endoscope is then removed and the test is complete. The dye is passed out of your body harmlessly. If the X-rays show a gallstone, the doctor will enlarge the opening of the bile duct. This is done with an electrically heated wire (diathermy) which you will not feel. Any stones will be collected into a tiny basket or left to pass into the intestine. If a narrowing is found, bile can be drained by leaving a short plastic tube (endoprosthesis) in the bile duct. You will not be aware of the presence of the tube which will remain in place permanently. Occasionally it may be necessary to replace the tube some months later if it becomes blocked.
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Enteroscopy
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endosonography
Diagnostic Capsule Colonoscopy
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
Magnification endoscopy and Narrow band imaging
Oesophageal and rectal manometry