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THE PROCEEDINGS OF
H.M.S. "ROYALIST"
         
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CAPTAIN E.H.M. DAVIS, R.N.
MAY - AUGUST, 1892
IN THE GILBERT, ELLICE AND MARSHALL ISLANDS

PREFACE

In 1970 Mrs Romilly, then Stenographer to the Assistant Resident Commissioner, discovered some old files containing an early manuscript copy of the "The Proceedings of H.M.S. 'Royalist'". As a spare-time activity she began the task of transferring the materials to stencils. So the 'Royalist' project was born. The work later continued in the hands of Mrs. Lamb and Nei Katokarara Kiboboua.

Later in l972, Mr. Dick Turpin inherited the project. The stenciling was completed with the help of his wife, Peggy, and Gladys Bristow, and necessary corrections were made. By late 1973 the work was ready for the printer to take over.

When the Turpins returned from leave in 1974 they found the project in a shambles. Some of the already printed pages had been lost or damaged. A thorough search of the print shop turned up much of the misplaced material, but quite a bit had simply vanished. So the work of re-cutting the stencils for the missing pages had to begin. The new stencils went to the printer and the end appeared in sight at last. Then a new cloud appeared on the horizon: the print shop had run out of stocks of foolscap paper in white. It was a question of whether to go ahead and reprint on white A4 paper or accept foolscap, but in pink! The hard decision was made: it would be pink foolscap. But when the finished pages arrived from the printer they were not only pink but in the smaller format A4 as well. Just a few days before the finished work was due to go for binding, the unexpected occurred: paper almost white and almost foolscap turned up in the Colony. So, once again stencils had to be re-cut, and new printing organized. Thus the rather less than uniform appearance of the finished volume. Almost six years of stenciling and re-stenciling, printing and re-printing have gone into it. It is a minor monument to those who have persevered with the task and to the difficulties inherent is publishing such a work from Tarawa.

In 1974, The Tungavalu Society gratefully accepted Mr. Turpin's suggestion that the 'Royalist' should be published under the Society's imprint. It was a most generous offer, particularly considering the amount of work that had already been done and the frustrations that had been met. And it still wasn't over. The last batches of re-stenciling and printing and yet to be done, the big job of collating by hand some 200 copies still lying ahead. Mr. and Mrs. Turpin carried on until the job was completed, until early this year, fitting the work into their already heavy schedule.

The 'Royalist' is a major work. The papers collected here give a rare and vivid picture of the islands in the 1890's when there was little law and even less order. Captain Davis of H.M.S. 'Royalist' a ship of the Royal Navy's Australian Squadron was sent to the Gilberts to declare a British Protectorate. It was one of the last acts of what has been termed 'British Imperialism'. Davis did more than bring 'The Flag'. He settled disputes amongst traders of various nationalities then operating in the Gilberts and between traders and islanders. He ended a civil war on Tarawa. He met and talked with all manner of people. What he saw and heard he recorded, and his observations are detailed and shrewd. This publication should provide invaluable source of material for anyone engaged in a study of Gilbertese history. It is also to be hoped that it will stimulate more people in the Gilberts to take an interest in their own history.

The Tungavalu Society extends its grateful thanks to all those who had made this publication possible: to Mrs. Romilly, to Nei Katokarara, to Gladys Bristow, to the Government Printery, to the Tarawa Technical Institute (for help with the duplicating) and particularly to Mr. and Mrs. Turpin whose dedication to the project and intimate knowledge of the Gilbert Islands had made them the ideal people to bring the 'Royalist' project to fruition.

Greg Hayward
(Editor Banaan Tungavalu)
Tarawa, April, 1976

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INTRODUCTION

The sixteen islands of the Gilberts, declared a Protectorate by Captain Davis, R. N. of H.M.S. 'Royalist' between 27th May and 17th June 1892 were discovered intermittently from perhaps as early as l537 up to l826. The Ellice Islands were declared a Protectorate by Captain Gibson R. N. of H.M.S. 'Curacao' between 9th and 16th October of the same year; Banaba (or Ocean Island) was included within the Protectorate in 1900. In 1916 the Protectorate became the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony and in the same year Fanning and Washington were included in it together with the islands of the Tokelau or Union Group; Christmas Island was included in 1919. The Tokelaus were detached in 1925; the Phoenix were added in 1937 and the five islands of the Central and Southern Line Islands in l972. The Ellice Islands were detached to become a separate colony in 1976.

The "Proceedings of H.M.S. 'Royalist'", reproduced here, described one of the closing acts of the acquisitive phase of British Imperialism in the Pacific.

The story of European rivalry in the Pacific began even before it was first sighted by Balboa in 1513 and since then Pacific History has been dominated by the European powers ascendant in Europe at any particular time. Portuguese discoveries of the offshore Atlantic islands, the rounding of Southern Africa in 1487 and Columbus's voyage to the Bahamas on behalf of Spain in 1492 caused conflict between Portugal and Spain over the possessions of new lands which the Pope tried to settle by a Bull issued in 1493 awarding all of those lands being newly discovered east of a line one hundred leagues west of the Azores to Portugal and those lands to the west to Spain. By the treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, the dividing line was moved to a line running north and south three hundred and seventy leagues west the Cape Verde Islands. The amended line awarded Brazil to Portugal, but most of the Americas and the Pacific to Spain. Portugal claimed the East Indies but Spain took the Philippines in 1564. However, as the determination of accurate longitude was impossible at this period and remained an inexact science until Captain Cook's time and the introduction of the marine chronometer disputes continue as each country tended to fix longitudes favourable to its own claims.

During the sixteenth century the history of European voyaging and discovery in the Pacific remained predominantly Spanish with the Portuguese acquiring the East Indies at the Pacific's western edge until superseded by the Dutch at the end of the century. There were a growing number of voyages, the most of which were those of Magellan in 1520 to 1522 (the first voyage around the world); Mendana's discovery of the Solomon Islands in 1576; Drake's round the world voyage in 1577 to 1580 and Mendana's second voyage in which he discovered the Marquesas and the islands of Santa Cruz.

By the beginning of the 17th century, the Dutch had taken over much of the Portuguese East Indies and thereafter continued the Portuguese policy of voyaging and discovery. It is possible that undocumented Portuguese or other voyages to part of Australia had provided the basis for some early maps of about the middle of the 16th century but the documented history of the discovery of Australia was begun in 1605 - 1606 by the Dutch although this was followed immediately by the passage of the strait between New Guinea and Australia by the Portuguese Torres. Tasman discovered Tasmania, New Zealand, Fiji and other groups between 1642 - 1643. Piecemeal and incomplete discoveries continued until the improvement in European ships and navigation in the 18th century allowed the great discoveries and charting of the Pacific of that period.

The ending of the Seven Year's War in 1763 left Britain predominant in the colonial and maritime spheres, nevertheless the French were determined to take an equal share of any European expansion in the Pacific and throughout the second part of the 18th century British and French rivalry increased. Although this period is replete with famous names of voyagers - Byron, Wallace, Cook, Bougainville, Perouse, d'Entrecasteaux - and proclamations of sovereignty on behalf of the various European powers were made by ships' commanders from time to time, no actual settlements or acquisitions were made until the British settlements in Australia at Port Jackson Sydney in 1788. By the beginning of the 19th century, the main island groups of the Pacific had been discovered and chartered by Europeans. It remained to fill in the gaps and develop trade.

Disregarding the early European conquest on the edge of the Pacific - the American coast, the East Indies and the Philippines - acquisition only began with the British in Australia in 1788, followed in New Zealand in 1840; these in turn influenced Britain in later acquisitions as the colonialists in Australia and New Zealand were anxious to monopolize Pacific Island trade for themselves and pressed Britain to acquire islands and island groups to keep out the commerce of rival European powers. European traders and missionaries of many nationalities were establishing plantation, trade and religious interests throughout the Pacific which often led to conflict which led in turn to request for help to the European countries from their nationals. Crimes committed by or against Europeans led to actions by warships of their parent countries. Attempts were made to control the recruitment of Pacific Islanders or labour and to restrict the sale of guns. These factors among others built up pressure for the acquisition and control of the various island groups by the European powers and after the American Civil War by the United States of America. The French, disappointed at being forestalled by Britain in New Zealand in l840, counted by acquiring the Society Islands and the Marquesas in 1842 and New Caledonia in 1853. Germany became very active especially in Samoa, in the groups to the north of New Guinea and in the Marshall Islands. In 1874 Britain annexed Fiji; in 1884 Germany acquired New Britain, New Ireland and the Northeast Coast of New Guinea; in the same year Britain under pressure from the Queensland colonialists declared a protectorate over southeast New Guinea. In 1893 Britain declared a protectorate over part of the Solomon Islands and acquired more of them by agreement with Germany in 1900. After a war with Spain in 1898 the USA acquired Guam and the Philippines and after troubled in the Republic of Hawaii the USA annexed Hawaii also. In 1899 the remaining Spanish possessions in the Pacific - the Caroline, Palau and the Mariana Islands - were sold to Germany which also annexed Western Samoa the same year leaving the USA to take over the Eastern Samoan Islands.

After the annexation of Fiji in 1874 Britain was still faced by the problem of the control of British subjects in the other island groups of the Pacific. To accomplish this, the Western Pacific Order in Council was enacted in 1877. This applied to all islands in the Western Pacific not within the jurisdiction of any civilized power and created the officers of High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, Chief Judicial Commissioner and Deputy Commissioners. It established the High Commissioner's Court. The Governor of Fiji was appointed High Commissioner; the Chief Justice of Fiji was appointed the Chief Judicial Commissioner and various persons, in the early years mainly officers of the Royal Navy, were appointed Deputy Commissioners. This attempt to control British subjects was not very successful and left unsolved the problem of the control of non-British subjects for their punishment for crime against British subjects.

In 1886 the British and German Governments agreed to a division of the Western Pacific into two spheres of influence - the Marshall Islands and Nauru came within the German's sphere - the Gilberts, Ocean Island and the Ellice within the British. Germany immediately took over the Marshall Islands but Britain took no action in the Gilberts which had by this time become an area of intense rivalry between German, American and some Australian based trading interests.

In 1890 the British High Commissioner for the Western Pacific based in Fiji recommended the acquisition of the Gilberts by Britain, not only to forestall possible action by Germany which in 1891 itself urge Britain to declare a Protectorate to forestall the USA, but also to control the recruitment of labour, the sale of guns and liquor and to end the growing turbulence within the group. In 1892 the British Government, realizing by now that failure to declare a Protectorate would probably lead to acquisition by Germany, despite the 1886 agreement, or by America which was not a party to the agreement, ordered the Commander-in-Chief, H. M. Ships, Australia, to send a warship to the Gilberts to declare a Protectorate. Captain Davis, R. N. of H.M.S. 'Royalist' was sent to carry out this task.

In accordance with his instructions, Captain Davis talked with the old men of each island to obtain their agreement to the declaration of the protectorate and to explain what it would mean. After talks with the old men, he declared the Protectorate on all islands except on Aranuka and Kuria which were included with Abemama and on Makin which was included with Butaritari.

Captain Davis had been ordered to visit the Ellice Islands but not to declare a Protectorate there. He reported that the 'Kings' of each island had asked for a Protectorate to be declared and Captain Gibson R. N. of H.M.S. 'Curacao' was thereupon ordered to the Ellice Islands on each of which he declared a Protectorate between the 9th and the 16th October.

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CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE
OF DISCOVERIES OF THE GILBERT ISLANDS

Andrew Sharp and H.E. Maude have each researched the History of the Discovery of the Islands of the Gilbert Group; while their researchers have led each of them to the same conclusions about the discovery of five of the Islands, they did not agree about all of them and their separate conclusions are therefore set out below:-

1537     Sharp considers that the crew of Hernando de Grijalva's vessel 'San Juan' probably discovered Marakei  and Abaiang or       alternatively either Butaritari, Marakei, Abaiang or Tarawa.

Maude however considers that Grijalva discovered Nonouti only.

1606     According to Sharp, Pedro Fernandez de Quiros in the vessel 'San Pablo' discovered 'Makin' whereas  Maude believes he sighted Butaritari.

1765    Commodore John Byron R.N. of H.M.Ships 'Dolphin' and 'Tamar' discovered either Tabiteuea or Beru or Nikunau according to Sharp, whereas Maude considers that he certainly discovered Nikunau.

1788    Both Sharp and Maude agree that Captains Gilbert and Marshall of the British vessels 'Charlotte' and   'Scarborough' discovered Aranuka, Kuria, Tarawa, Abaiang and Butaritari. However Sharp considers they also discovered Abemama and Maiana although Maude believes that they saw neither of these two islands.  Sharp adds the reservation that Grijalva in 1537 may have been the first discoverer of either Abaiang or Tarawa or Butaritari, and Maude reserves the discovery of Butaritari to Quiros in 1606.

1799   Once again both Sharp and Maude agree that Captain Bishop of the British vessel 'Nautilus' discovered Nonouti, although Maude notes that it may have been first discovered by Grijalva in 1537; however  whereas Maude awards the discovery of Tabiteuea to Captain Bishop, Sharp reserves the possibility of its discovery to Commodore Byron in 176M5; Maude also considers that Bishop discovered Abemama    

1804  Captain James Cary of the American whaling vessel 'Rose' discovered Tamana according to both Sharp and Maude.

1809   Both Sharp and Maude award the discovery of Arorae to Captain Patterson of the British vessel 'Elizabeth';  Maude concludes concludes also that he discovered Maiana.

1824   While Sharp grants the rediscovery of Marakei, possibly first sighted by

            1.   Sharp:    'The Discovery of the Pacific Islands' by Andrew Sharp, Oxford University Press, 1960.

            2.   Maude: 'Spanish Discoveries in the Central Pacific'; 'Post-Spanish Discoveries in the Central

Pacific'; first published in the Journal of the Polynesian Society, and thereafter in the book 'Of Islands and Men' by H.E. Maude, Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1968.

Grijalva's ship in 1537, to Luis Duperrey, Commander of the French naval vessel 'Coquille', Maude considers him as the first discoverer

1826   Sharp and Maude agree that Captain Clerk of the British whaling vessel 'John Palmer' discovered

         Onotoa; Maude adds that Onotoa was sighted the same year by Captain Chase of the American vessel 'Japan'.

        Maude considers that Captain Clerk discovered Beru but while Sharp agrees that he sighted Beru and Nikunau, he considers one or other of them had been discovered by Byron in 1765.

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MAKIN:                1606 Quiros (Sharp)

BUTARITARI:     1537 Grijalva (Sharp) - doubtful

                               1606 Quiros (Maude)

                               1788 Gilbert and Marshall (Sharp and Maude)

MARAKEI:          1537 Grijalva (Sharp)

                               1824 Duperrey (Maude)

ABAIANG:          1537 Grijalva (Sharp)

                               1788 Gilbert and Marshall (Sharp and Maude)

TARAWA:           1537 Grijalva (Sharp) - doubtful

                               1788 Gilbert and Marshall (Sharp and Maude)

MAIANA:             1788 Gilbert and Marshall (Sharp)

                               1804 Patterson (Maude)

KURIA                  1788 Gilbert and Marshall (Sharp and Maude)

ARANUKA           1788 Gilbert and Marshall (Sharp and Maude)

ABEMAMA          1788 Gilbert and Marshall (Sharp)

                                1799 Bishop (Maude)

NONOUTI             1537 Grijalva (Maude)

                                1799 Bishop (Sharp and Maude)

TABITEUEA         1765 Byron (Sharp)

                                1799 Bishop (Maude)

ONOTOA              1826 Clark (Sharp and Maude)

                                 1826 Chase (Maude)

BERU                     1765 Byron (Sharp) - doubtful

                                 1826 Clark (Sharp and Maude)

NIKUNAU             1765 Byron (Maude); (Sharp) - doubtful

                                1826 Clark (Sharp)

TAMANA              1804 Cary (Sharp and Maude)

ARORAE               1809 Patterson (Sharp and Maude)

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C 0 N T E N T S  PART 1

1. A. Covering letter of l5th September, 1892, from Commander-in-Chief, H.M, Ships, Australia,  to the High Commissioner for the Western Pacific.

B. Letter of proceedings No, 32 of 16th August, 1892, Captain Davis, R,N., H,M.S, "Royalist"      to Commander-in-Chief

C. Enclosure 1: Letter of 23rd June, 1892, Captain Davis, R,N. to Captain Brandeis, German  Imperial Commissioner, Jaluit, Marshall Islands.

   Enclosures 2 & 3: Correspondence between Captain Davis, R.N., and the German

Imperial Commissioner; Jaluit, about a claim against a German vessel by a party of natives from Arorai.

   Enclosure 3B:Not available,

   Enclosures 4 & 5A: Correspondence between Captain Davis, R.N., and the German Imperial Commissioner, Jaluit, about Captain Davis's cruise in the Marshall  Islands.

   Enclosures 5B,C,D: Correspondence between Cnptain Davis, R.N., and the German Imperial Commissioner, Jaluit, about the return of a party of natives from Mille to Butaritari.

   Enclosures 6 & 7: Letter of 25th June and telegram of 27th June from Captain Davis,R.N.     to Commander-in-Chief reporting the declaration of a Protectorate over the Gilbert Group; bunkering; and the recruitiug of labour by the Nicaraguan steamer "Montserrat".

   Enclosures 8 & 9: Correspondence between Captain Davis R.N, and some expatriate residents   of Butaritari.

   Enclosure 10: Menorandum about the sale of copra to local traders: Butaritari and Maraki.

   Enclosure 11: List of arms received in the Gilbert Islands.

2. A. Covering letter of l5th Septenber, 1892, from Commander-in-Chief, H.M. Ships, Australia,      to the High Commissioner for the Western Pacific.

2. B. Letter of Proceedings No. 36 of 9th August, 1892,

Captain Davis, R.N., H.M.S. "Royalist" to Commander-in-Chief.

C.Schedule of Enclosures.

Enclosure 1: Proclamation.

Enclosure 2: Notice relating to the sale of liquor and arms.

Enclosure 3: Tabular report on the Gilbert Islands.

Enclosure 4: Remarks on Diseases of the Gilbert Islands.

   Enclosure 5: Tabular Report on the Ellice Islands.

   Enclosure 6: Remarks on Diseases of the Ellice Islands.

   Enclosure 7: Summary of expatriates: Gilbert Islands.

   Enclosure 8: Summary of expatriates Ellice Islands.

   Enclosure 9: Copra esports: 1891: Gilbert Islands.

   Enclosure 10: Petition fron Butaritari expatriates and sub-enclosures.

   Enclosure 11 Marshall Group: Statistics

3. Information gathered by H.M.S. "Royalists" on the Ellice Islands.

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PART 2

4. A. Covering letter of l5th September, 1892, from Commander-in-Chief,. H.M. Ships, Australia,                   to the High Commisssioner for the Western Pacific.

B. Letter No.37 of 8th September, 1892, Captain Davis, R.N., H,M,S, "Royalist" to    Commmander-in-Chief.

C. Appendices: Diseases, Climate, etc. of the Gilbert Islands.

Summary of expatriates in the Gilbert Islands

Copra exports: 1891: Gilbert Islands

Diseases, Climate, etc. of the Ellice Islands

Summary of expatriates in the Marshall Islands

Receipts and Expenditure: 1891: Marshall Islands

Taxation: Marshall Islands

Schedule of Enclosures to Islands Reports

D. Island Reports:

Butaritari:

Complaint by G. Tuchtfeldt
Case of Rick v Luttrell

Makin:

Maraki:

Receipts

Apiang:

Complaints against Tilton
Papers about Sukong

Tarawa:

  Treaty of Peace
Various complaints, details of fines, compensation, etc,
List of Rules for the King

Maiana:

Nonuti:    (Report and enclosures not available)

Apamama:
 
Proclamation
      Notice relating to the sale of liquor and arms

Aranuka:

Kuria:

Taputewea:

Papers about fines imposed on Old Man
  Surrender of Arms

Onotoa:

Nukunau

Peru:

Articles of Agreement to ship in the "Poe" of Raratonga

Tamana:

Arorai:

  Record of the return of a party of people from Arorai to Arorai after
being marooned at Tamana.
      Record of the return of a party of people from Jaluit to Maiana.
   Correspondence concerning the return of the Arorai party.
 
Jaluit:
 Mille:
Arhno:

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NOTE ON THE SPELLINGS OF THE NAMES OF
THE GILBERT ISLANDS

The spellings of the names of the Gilbert Islands given throughout this book are those Used by Captain Davis. They sometimes differ from the spellings in modern use. For convenience, Davis' spellings are given below with their modern equivalents.

Davis's Spellings                      Modern Spellings:

Butaritari                 Butaritari(often given as Makin on American charts).

Makin                      Makin (often given as Little Makin on American charts when Butaritari                 is named Makin. Makin Meang - North Makin - was the name used by                             Grimble).

Maraki                     Marakei

Apiang                     Abaiang (the "p" and "b" sounds are generally indistiguishable in

                            Gilbertese: "b" is more normally the letter now used for this                              sound).

Tarawa                     Tarawa

Maiana                     Maiana

Nonuti                      Nonouti (the modern "ou" representing the sounds intermediate                              between "o" and "u"; or, more accurately, the combination of both)

Apamama                    Abemama (See note on Apiang).

Aranuka                    Aranuka

Kuria                      Kuria

Taputewea                  Tabiteuea (See note on Apiang; the name is thought to be a                              corruption, of "tabu-te-uea" - "Kings are forbidden").

Onotoa                     Onotoa

Nukunau                    Nikunau (the "i" spelling has only fairly recently become the                              normal one. The "u" spelling was still used in official documents                              in the 1930's and is occasionally seen today).

Beru                        (See Note on Apiang).

Tamana                     Tamana

Arorai                     Arorae (the modern "ae" represents a rather flatter sound than is                              suggested by "ai").                                                              

Most of the islands of the Gilberts also had 'European' names bestowed by the early explorers; there are often several such names for each island. These were generally obsolete by the late nineteenth century, the indigenous ones having become established. But the overall name of the group - Gilbert Islands - has remained in use to the present times, though most Gilbertese people are aware of the traditional name, Tungaru.

The Ellice Islands, now separate from the Gilberts, have recently reverted to their traditional name: Tuvalu. And some of Davis' spelling of island names are now obsolete. "Oaitupu" is "Vaitupu"; "Nanomea" is "Nanumea"; "Nanomana" is "Nanumaga"; and "Narakita" is "Niulakita".

(N.B. Some modern sources - mainly American - used the term "kingsmill" group for the Gilbert Islands. This name is now obsolete and has no meaning to most Gilbertese people who think of their island as the Gilberts - Kiribati in Gilbertese - or, less frequently nowadays, Tungaru).

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PROCEEDINGS

H.M.S. Royalist
At Suva Fiji
16th August 1892
No. 32
My Lord,

Since my letter of Proceedings dated 11th May at Suva, Fiji, I have the honour to report that H.M.S. "Curacoa" arrived at Suva at 4.30 p.m. that day.

            2. I completed with coal from the hulk "MIKADO", taking in addition about 30  tons on deck in bags. This coal is of an inferior description, similar to that   received by this ship in November last, - no other coal being procurable, I had  no choice but to take it. I discharged two men to Hospital suffering from fever and ague, thinking it unwise to take them to the islands.

              3. On the 13th I weighed and proceeded under steam at 11 a.m.

      At 8.30 p.m. on the 14th I stopped the engines, and proceeded under sail only, with a light E.S.Ely. wind.

      On 16th at 9.a.m., sighted FOTUNA Island.

      On the 17th at 6.45 a.m. proceeded under steam and at noon on the 18th when off NURULAILAI Island, Ellice Group, communicated with natives in canoes.

      A current off about 6 - 10 miles a day setting to the N.Wd. was experienced to the Ellice Group on the 19th at 1 p.m. I stopped off OAITUPU Island. Mr. NITZ a German trader came on board - he had no news. Since noon, the preceding day, experienced a set to S.Wd. of 20 miles.

      At 2.15 p.m. proceeded. At 6 p.m. stopped engines and proceeded under sail. No appreciable current experienced on 20th. On 21st current setting to S.Wd. half mile an hour, and on 22nd due west one mile an hour, and on 23rd N 85 degree W 20 miles in 24 hours.

      On that day at 7.20 p.m. proceeded under steam, and on the morning of the 24th sighted TAPUTEWEA Island, Gilbert Group, and at 9 a.m. stopped and anchored at north end of the island in five fathoms, the current experience being W by N, 18 miles in 20 hours. Dressed ship in honour of the anniversary of Her Majesty's birthday, and at noon fired a royal salute. Having communicated with several traders on the island, at 8 p.m. I weighed and proceeded for APAMAMA, stopping off ENTRANCE Island at 1 p.m. on the 25th experiencing a set of 1 mile an hour to W.N.W.

      Having communicated with "Jack" the Pilot who is in charge of that island, I sent a letter by him to the King, intimating my intentions of hoisting the Flag on APAMAMA Island on the 27th idem.

    1. 4. I proceeded at 5 p.m. for MAIANA island. When I arrived and anchored in l0 fms. At l0 a.m. on the 26th experiencing the same current as on the previous day.

    The anchorage off N.W. end of MAIANA is a good one, the banks gradually shoaling.

5. MR. CORRIE, an English trader on the Island, who has often given his services

to H.M. Ship as interpreter and  who was recommended to me by the High Commissioner as being by far the best and most trustworthy interpreter in the Group had just left his station on business but seeing a vessel approach the Island, he returned. In reply to my request for his services, he said he would be most happy to come if I could make it a little later, as he had some business which required his presence just then - but being aware that I could get no other reliable man, I pointed out to him the importance of the mission I was engaged on. He managed to come and I left MAIANA the same night anchoring off ENTRANCE Island. I departed APAMAMA the following day at 9 a.m.

At noon that day, I proceeded in boats with a party of seamen and marines for the King's village which is six or seven miles across the lagoon from ENTRANCE Island and not visible from the ship. Having ascertained from Mr. Corrie, and other traders on Islands with which I had communicated, that they were unaware that any foreign power laid claim to the Gilbert Group, I, in compliance with your secret memo of April 22nd 1892, explained my mission to the King and his councils in the maneaba or meeting house in the presence of some 300 or 400 natives and having read the proclamation declaring a British Protectorate over the Gilbert Group from that date, I hoisted the Union Jack on the the King's flagstaff with the customary honours.

The vessel being scarcely visible from the village, I proposed to the King that the flag should be left in charge of the pilot on ENTRANCE Island, and hoisted on the approach of any vessel there on his flagstaff there - to which he agreed. I handed the Proclamation to the King, to be kept in his charge and in the missionary's care, I left a notice for the information of traders, concerning the prohibition of the sale of arms etc. and supplying of intoxicating liquors to natives ( copies of both Proclamation and Notice are attached to my letter No. 36 of 9th August, containing the special report of the establishment of the Protectorate over the Gilbert Group and my Island report.)

The best anchorage at APAMAMA I found to be in 8 fms. just clear of the tide rips with:- Center of Sand Island bearing N 67 degrees E.

North Point Entrance Island N 82 degrees E.

South Point Entrance Island S 67 degrees E.

On my return to the ship I hoisted the Union Jack on the staff at ENTRANCE Island. H.M.S. Royalist saluted it with 21 guns, I left the flag in charge of "Jack" the Pilot.

    1. That peculiar constitution of the Gilbert Group consisting of sixteen islandsor clusters of islands, with no less than 13 different governments, necessitated in my opinion a repetition in the other 12 islands of the ceremony performed at APAMAMA.

8. I proceeded at 7 p.m. for NONUTI Island and arrived there the following afternoon. I was unable to find a good passage over the reef, it being low water, so, to avoid delay, I proceeded for TAPUTEWEA, intending to take NONUTI on my return north. I weighed and proceeded at 2 p.m. arriving the same evening and brought up in 9 fms, off the north end of the Island at 7 p.m. The current about this part of the Group runs to the W.N.W. about one knot an hour.

The following morning, May 29th I shifted berth to the Southward, anchoring in 5 1/2 fms. with the following bearings. Point of Island N 26 degrees N Church at UTIROA N 83 degrees ESandbank S 60 degrees E

At 3 p.m. I landed a party of seamen and marines and after talking to the "old men" in the maneaba hoisted the flag, leaving it and a copy of the Proclamation, and Notice concerning arms and intoxicating liquors at this island - as I did at all other islands visited.

After the flag was hoisted, the "Old Men" proposed that they should give up their arms now that the Queen was going to p;rotect them, as they said the possession of them always led to fighting, which had but just finished at the South end of the Island. The suggested that I should take them, to which I agreed - and told them I should be glad to receive them on my return to the Island.

9. A trader on the Island KUM-ON (Chinese) a British subject, made a complaint that a native TEU-TOO had robbed him. I made enquiries into this matter, and decided to finish it up on my return. (This matter forms subject of "Royalist" letter No. 18 of 1892).

KUM-on also complained that the natives tabooed him fishing. Having ascertaining that he used dynamite on their fishing ground I ordered him to do so no more, but told the natives they were not to prevent his fishing there in the ordinary way.

10. I was informed by ALFRED HICKING trader, that on the 10th Feby. 1887 FRED THOMAS and JAMES GARSTANG, traders and British subjects went on board to FIJI SCHOONER "MIDGE" anchored in the lagoon. After leaving her at night, they were never heard of again, and are supposed to have been drowned. Those men left no effects of any value - but some months afterwards CHARLES KOMAKOLOI, a Honolulu native, who was occupying THOMAS old house found $83 buried in the building, supposing this money to have belonged to THOMAS he handed it to me on my arrival, I have transferred it to the High Commissioner at Fiji, to be placed to the credit of FRED THOMAS' estate.

11. I left TAPUTEWEA at 8.30 p.m. on 29th May, and arrived off ONOTOA Id. at 11 a.m. the next day - the current experienced during the passage of 11 1/2 hours being S 30 degrees W 12 miles. I anchored in 6 fms. off the NW end of the Island - a very good anchorage. At 3 p.m. I landed a guard and hoisted the Flag, after interviewing the people in the Maneaba. The party having returned on board, I left the same evening for TAMANA arriving off that Island at 8 a.m. next day - the current having been almost due West about. 3/4 of a mile an hour. I kept the ship under weigh there being no good anchorage off the Island, and landing met the "Old Men" in the Maneaba. They were very pleased to have the Flag hoisted there.

Finding that by the laws of this Island, both men and women were flogged, in

addition to being fined, for being found guilty of adultery and illicit connection, I asked the "Old Men" to have a meeting and see if they could not dispense with the flogging in these cases as far as women were concerned. They held their meeting, and told me that in future, no more women should be flogged in the Island. (Some ARORAI natives, who had been landed here by the German barque "JOHN WESLEY" in November 1891, being unable to reach their own Island asked me to give them a passage - I consented to this, and received thirty-five of them on board. (This case is reported in Island Report ARORAI).

At 4.20 p.m. I proceeded for ARORAI, arriving off that Island at 4.20 a.m. - having experienced a most unaccountable current of 1 knot an hour to the east. during the passage. I anchored off the SW side of the island with the stream anchor in 17 fms. - but dragging off - I kept the ship under weigh. At

      1. I landed and hoisted the flag. I landed the natives brought from TAMANA - they were most thankful for the passage.

  1. A complaint was made to me that a married woman had been taken away from the Island as labour by the Fiji schooner "EASTWARD - HO" in February last against her husband's wish. He being blind, was refused. (vide Royalist's letter No. 17 of 1892). I have communicated with the High Commissioner on this subject.

  2. One of the Samoan missionaries was very ill with fish poisoning, and our visit was most opportune, as it was unlikely he could have lived much longer without medical assistance.

  3. The natives here proposed to call the south village "Royalist" instead of "California", the name it is known by now. As most of the natives brought from TAMANA lived there and they were pleased with their treatments on board.

    Many native-built wild boats are used here - they are carvel-built, with the planks sewn together with twine - and caulked with pandanus leaves. They are rather crank but carry a great deal more than the canoe.

  4. At 3.30 p.m. I proceeded for NUKUNAU Island - and at 5 p.m. put the ship under sail. At 4 a.m. on 2nd June, I hove to off the island, and at day break proceeding - stopping and anchoring off the SW end in 12 fms. at 8 a.m. Current one knot an hour to the westward.

  5. At l0.30 I landed and hoisted the flag, after a meeting in the maneaba. Many natives had been to Tahiti from this island as labour and whilst there became Roman Catholics. No missionary of that persuasion is stationed on NUKUNAU - but the priest of the mission visit the island occasionally. There are 158 Roman Catholics out of a population of 1779.

  6. At 1.30 p.m. I proceeded for PERU Island and anchored off the SW end at 7 o'clock the same evening in 10 fms. - rather close to the shore, but a good anchorage with an offshore wind.

  7. The current between NUKUNAU and PERU was running to the SWd. At over 2 knots an hour. At 7 a.m. on 3rd June, I shifted berth to ESPIEGLE anchorage, where I anchored in 7 fms. This is a bad place for landing in ship's boats. In most of the islands after half tide, it is necessary to wade on shore over the reef - in some cases as much as a mile - but here the reef extends a great dista0nce with the deep water between it and the shore.

    I landed during the forenoon, and hoisted the flag at the village of TABOIAK. This village was far from clean in comparison to many visited. I was told that a schooner flying a Rarotonga Flag, had shipped three natives as crew at this island in February last - engaging them for three or four months. It was certain by some that these men were taken against their will. Mr. ECKERSTROM, a trader on the island, handed me a paper purporting to be an agreement to ship for four months at $15 a month in the "POE" of Rarotonga - the master engaging himself to return these men to their islands. This document has three native names attached as signatures - the master's name does not appear, neither the name of any witness to this agreement. (This matter is referred to in the Island Report under "Peru").

    There are two small fresh water lakes on this Island, with very good fish in them. The fish belong to the "Old Men", but the natives are allowed to fish in them once a year.

  8. I left PERU Island at 4.15 p.m., and dropping a target carried out practice with the 6" BL

  9. Guns. At 6 p.m. I proceeded for NONUTI Island, where I arrived at 10 a.m. on 4th June - the current between these Islands running to the NWd. About 1/2 knot an hour.

  10. I anchored off the SW end of the Island, near the beat passage, in 15 fms., rather close to the reef. At 10.15 I landed and hoisted the Flag at the maneaba at METTUNG. The natives here had a large flagstaff and a Red Ensign flying, which someone had given them.

  11. There is not the same law and order prevailing in this Island, as in some I visitged. I was asked by the "Old Men" to take the guns away. I said, if they wished me to receive their guns, I would.

    They had a consultation, and said they couldn't be answerable for those who lived at ROTUMAH at the North end, as they were a bad lot - but that at METTUNG and to the Southward they would give their guns up with pleasure, now that the Queen was going to protect them - and they promised to collect them for me by my return.

    Finding several cases required investigation, I remained on shore for the night - the distance to the ship being 24 miles by Ship passage.

  12. I found JAMES GLEESON, a British subject, trader, had been trafficking in spirits - and the following day, I tried him summarily by a High Commissioner's Court and convicting him fined him 10 pounds (Royalist letter No. 16 of 1892). This money I have handed to the High Commissioner.

  13. Having heard in the Group, rumours that the Fiji Labour Schooner "EASTWARD-HO" had been attacked by natives of NONUTI Id. I made enquiries into the matter. (This forms subject of Royalist letter No. 17 1892).

    The natives in ?? belonged mostly to ROTUMAH, the place before referred to as where I held the High Commissioner's Court. Whilst there, I assembled all the natives I could and told them that now the Flag was hoisted they would require no fire arms and I hoped on my return I should find them all collected, as they had promised to do so at METTUNG. They said they would give them all up.

  14. NONUTI is the Headquarters of the Roman Catholic Mission in this group. The Mission originated by natives going as labour to Tahiti, embracing the Roman Catholic faith. On their return to their Island, they petitioned the Bishop to send them a Missionary - and in 1888 Peres BONTEMPS, JOSEPH AND GAILLARD, with two Brothers of the "Order of the Sacred Heart" were landed in the Group by the French man of war "LA FAVORITE". I visited their Mission station and here BONTEMPS told me how very glad they were to see the British Flag hoisted - under it all Missions were treated alike as they should be, all tending to one end - viz - "to benefit the natives".

I found Mr. LOWTHER, a British subject, and a very old trader in the Group, had had a stroke of paralysis, which had left him dumb. He is now considerably over 80 years of age, and being almost a pauper, I was glad to be able to relieve his immediate wants. Before leaving the Group I arranged that he should be cared for by Mr. MAX BRECHTEFELDE, a German trader to whom he is indebted some $300. Mr. Brechtefelde kindly offered to look after Mr. LOWTHER whose recovery, I think, is improbable. (See Island Report - NONUTI).

  1. I left NONUTI at 5 p.m. on the 5th June and proceeded for ARANUKA, arriving off that Island the following morning. This Island is a dependency of APAMAMA, and although not necessary to hoist the Flag there I thought it advisable to land. A heavy surf was running, and no canoes coming off - I decided not to waste time, and proceeded for KURIA Island where I anchored in 10 fms., on the West side, between the two Islands. The current experienced from NONUTI was running about 1 knot an hour to the NNW. I landed nd made a few enquiries from the inhabitants, who are a particularly fine race. Everything here - as at ARANUKA - belongs to the King of APAMAMA. KURIA, although a small Island is very productive in copra. A few turtle may be procured here.

  2. At 3 p.m. I left KURIA Island, and observing a sail to the Southward, closed with her. She proved to be the British Barque "LOONGANA' of Sydney belonging to ONCHONG and Co. who own several trading stations in the Group. I was glad to meet her, as I was enabled to gather a great deal of information from her master, Mr. BOWERS, concerning the case of robbery reported at TAPUTEWEA, which, as before stated, constitutes a subject of Royalist letter No. 18 of 1892.

  3. At 7.30 p.m. I proceeded on my course for TARAWA Island. I arrived and anchored outside the sunken reef in 12 fms. at 8.30 a.m. on 7th June, intending to proceed into the lagoon when the sun was in the right direction. The current on passage was the same as that experienced the previous day.

  4. A Civil War had been going on in this Island for nearly a year. At 9.30 a.m. I sent Lieutenant BEAUMONT with Mr. CORRIE, Interpreter, to the Head Quarters of the Southern Chiefs, to say I wished to see them and the King, (who belongs to that Party) on board the Royalist. Having arranged that they should go on board when the ship arrived in the lagoon Lieutenant BEAUMONT proceeded to the North end, to interview the Chiefs of the other side. At 11.30 a.m. I weighed and proceeded into the lagoon. I entered by a channel about a mile North of the one marked on the plan, which "MIRANDA" used in 1886 - with sand islet bearing S 80 degrees E. I got nothing less than 16 fms. in the passage. When inside the lagoon, a reef with 6 fms. lies abreast of the passage - leave this on Port hand - all the reefs can be seen with good light. I anchored about 3 cables from the edge of the shore reef in 9 fms. - Sand Island being distant about 3 miles with the following bearings:

    SW pt. BITITU Id. S 42 degrees W
    Sand Islet S 25 degrees W
    Extreme of Land to North N 34 degrees W
  5. At 3.30 p.m. the King and 7 chiefs of the Southern Party with 20 followers came on board I

in European built boats. At 7 p.m. 7 chiefs of the Northern party came on board - TENTIRINAICH being the Head. I held a meeting on the Quarter Deck, under the Electric light, which they saw the first time. I read the Treaty of Peace signed on board the "Miranda" in 1886 and asked why they had not kept to it. There was only one chief of the Northern Party. They had no answer to make. I enquired what led to the present war. TENTIKINAICH stated that he disputed the ownership of a piece of land with another Chief TENTARGE (High words ensued between them - others joining in, it led to war between the North and South. I asked, was a trivial dispute between two individuals to cause a war between 3000 inhabitants?

The Island was in a state of poverty - no copra, no money and no food - all owing to a dispute between two men. They said the late King (who was shot about two months ago by TENTETONANIBIA) was asked to decide the question, and he refused to do so. I asked who was the rightful King now - was he present? The Southern Chiefs of course said - "yes, TENMATON was the King" - the Northern Chiefs of course said "There is no one else". I said that answer did not satisfy me. If TENMATON were not the right man, who was? Pressed - they could give no answer, and eventually I asked each Chief, individually, if he recognized TENMATON as King. They all answered "yes". I then told them that the Queen had taken all the Gilbert Islands under her protection, and that on the following day I should hoist her Flag on their Island. I had come there to help them, and, as they were unable to decide about the land, I should do so for them. The land in question would be forfeited to the King - the war was at an end - and I wished then to sign a Treaty of Peace. The Northern Chiefs at first demurred at my decision about the land, but eventually agreed to it. I suggested that now Her Majesty had taken them all under her protection, they would require no arms, and that, as at TAPUTEWEA, they should get rid of them all. This they agreed to readily, and asked me to take them - which I promised to do. I then drew up a Treaty of Peace, which was signed by the King and the 14 Chiefs. This document is included in the Island report under TARAWA.

They all appeared glad of an excuse to end the war, for the Island is in a most impoverished state - food becoming daily scarcer. The trees are bare - the nuts having been eaten - there is no copra - the Taro is finished, and none planted - the money has all been spent on arms and ammunition - and canoes dare not go out fishing. So on the whole, they must have been glad we arrived. After the Treaty was signed, they all sat down to a hearty meal, probably the first they had had for many months. I arranged to hoist the Flag at TERATEI, the principal village, the following day, and I told the King, he was in future to live there. I did not wish him to remain any longer in the South where he had been living near an American Trader KUSTEL, whose influence was having a very bad effect on him. I found the King flying an American Ensign in his boat, which I replaced by an English one.

  1. A complaint was made to me by a native against KUSTEL, who had threatened to shoot him (This is reported in "Royalist" letter No. 24 of 1892).

    KUSTEL has been selling arms and gin to the natives for a long time past. He was absent from the Island at the time of my visit, but I left a letter for him, with the missionary - in which I especially called his attention to the British law concerning the supplying of arms, and intoxicating Liquors to natives.

  2. Most of the traders called on me, and made several complaints, which although they were not British subjects, I told them I would enquire into, and endeavour to settle - now that the Island had been placed under British Protection.

  3. The following day, I proceeded at noon for TERETEI - meeting the King and the Southern Chiefs on the way - they evidently not caring to land until I arrived. I was met in the Maneaba by about 500 natives. Having explained my Mission and hoisted the Flag, I told the people that the war was over, and that in future there were to be no North and South Parties - there was to be one party only - and I hoped that now that peace was established hey would try to improve the Island by planting more trees and growing more taro. The King said he had ordered all the guns to be collected, but the notice was too short. He handed me 34, and said he would try and get the remainder in, by the time I returned to the Island.

  4. The King asked me to speak to TENTONANIBIA, the man who killed the late King. There was some difficulty in finding him, but before I embarked, I saw him. I told him I did not think he had any reason to be proud of his exploit, having shot the King in his sleep - but I would look on it as an act of war, and I asked the King not to punish him in any way for what he had done. I advised TENTONANIBIA to go to work, and earn his living, and warned him, that, if he persisted in giving trouble to the King - I should have to punish him myself. He promised to behave himself in future.

  5. Whilst on shore I enquired into a complaint made by Peter GRANT, an American Subject, of annoyances received by him, at the hands of the natives. This case was settled - the King agreeing to pay him $25 as compensation.

    A charge was brought against GRANT, by a native, of his having burnt his house down. Although I had reason to believe the charge was true, the native was unable to substantiate it, having no witness. I therefore dismissed the case.

    I also received a complaint from GRANT that a fine inflicted on the King of MARAKI by Commander Rooke of H.M.S. "Miranda", in 1886 on his behalf, had not yet been paid to him. I told him I would enquire into it.

    Mr. MYER, a German subject, complained that a native had taken his boat - also that another native had stolen goods from the house of a Marshall Island native, who was trading for him. (These cases are attached to Island report under "TARAWA").

  6. As I was about to return to the ship TEROY, a native of TAPUTEWEA, who is the Missionary in charge of TARAWA, arrived in his boat from MARAKI. He informed me that a large steamer was recruiting labour at that Island - he did not know her Flag; she had come from BUTARITARI, and was leaving shortly for APIANG.

  7. I returned to the ship about 7.30 p.m. and later the King celled on no. He then returned to the South Camp.

    I intended leaving for APIANG early next morning to warn the King about the Labour Steamer, but having my doubts as to the King of TARAWA's sincerity, I landed at the South Camp at 6.30 a.m. and told the King, who appeared rather astonished at my early call, that I feared he was not acting in good faith towards me - that I did not think he had given up all the guns in his camp; - also, that he should have remained at TERATE, and not have returned to the South end of the Island. He acknowledged having kept back a few gunds, as he feared the Northern Party, and that, in a short time he wojuld go and live at TERATEI. I told him to abide by the Treaty he had signed, that he had nothing to fear from the Northern Party, as if any of them broke their word and commenced fighting again, I should punish them - and I advised him to go next day and take up his abode at TERATEI, held a meeting in the maneaba directly he arrived, and fears laws for the guidance of his ;people. He handed me eight Wincheser and Snider rifles, and ensured me these were all he had in his camp - and he promised to go to TERATEI next day.

    The King is a weak man, and lately has taken to drinking. Just previous to our arrival a chief of his party, disgusted at his behaviour, had deserted to the Northern party, taking some 125 men with him - leaving the King with but a handful of men. So our arrival p;robably averted his downfall.

  8. I returned on board and proceeded out of the lagoon at 10 o'clock stopping off the South end APIANG Island at 3 p.m. I landed, and sent a message to the King that I was coming to his Island the following day to hoist the Flag - warning him at same time of the Labour Steamer about to visit APIANG. At 4 p.m. I proceeded for MARAKI Island, arriving and anchoring off the centre of the Island, on the West side, in 8 fms. at 8.30 p.m. that day. The best anchorage I afterwards ascertained was in 16 fms. off centre of village at NW END OF Island.

  9. I found lying here the Nicaraguan Steamer "Montserrat" of CORINTO, recruiting labour for GUATAMALA. Having ascertained the object of her visit to the Group and having no instructions to prevent natives leaving of their own free will - I took much precautions as I deemed fit for the protection of such natives of the GILBERT Islands as might decide to emigrate in the vessel. I at once informed the Master that the Gilbert Islands had been placed under Brit8sh Protection, and requested him before leaving the Group, to let me have certain particulars concerning the natives he had recruited. (This correspondence forms subject of "Royalist" Letter No. 22 of 1892).

Hearing that PETER GARRICK a British subject and trader on APIANG Island, was employed on board, in same capacity, recruiting labour, I wrote to him warning him that any infringement of Clause 9 of the Pacific Islanders Protection Acts of 1872 and 1875 would render him liable to be tried for felony, for each offence committed.

The same night, the Master of the "Montserrat", and the labour agent - Mr. FERGUSON - came on board. I understood at first that the vessel was under Costa Rican colours, but Mr. FERGUSON informed me that she was under the Nicaraguan flag. He asked me to inspect the vessel and stated that he counted the fullest enquiry, as every precaution possible had been taken to ensure the comfort of the 500 or 600 natives he hoped to recruit.

Hearing that about 40 natives had shipped as labour, the same night I sent word to the King to come and see me early in the morning, before he had any communication with the "Montserrat". When he came on board he told me that about 40 of his people had signed to go away in the vessel - that they were all going of their own free will, and though he did not like their going he could not prevent them. He also said that Mr. FERGUSON had come to him in the first instance before speaking to the natives. I told him I had come to hoist the British Flag on MARAKAI and that the Queen could not protect any of the natives who emigrated in foreign vessels, or who left the Pacific. He assured me they all wanted to go. I then went on board the "Montserrat", taking the King with me, also Mr. CORRIE my Interpreter. On my arrival on board, I told Mr. FERGUSON that he must not assume that because I came on board the 'Montserrat" I in any way approved his recruiting labour in the Group. On the contrary, I disapproved of it entirely - but having nor orders to prevent it, I should not disallow it. But Her Majesty having taken the Gilbert Islands under her protection, it was my duty to look after the interests of her subjects and I wish to hear from the natives then on board, that they fully understood the step they were taking and that they were all going of their own free will. They all assured me, through the King and Mr. CORRIE, that they wished to go - and was satisfied with all arrangements made for them. The ship's papers were mostly in a foreign language, but Mr. FERGUSON gave me an idea of the translation and I have reasons to believe they were correct. They were granted by WILLIAM L. MERRY, the Nicaraguan Consul General at San Francisco, on the 23rd December 1891 - and permission to recruit labour for certain planters in Guatamala (EUGENE de SABLA, being one) was obtained from the Secretary of State of Guatamala on 1st May 1891. For every native labourer landed in Guatamala, the planter places $30 in the hands of the Guatamala Government, to ensure his return to his island, at the expiration of his engagement. Mr. FERGUSON IN informed me that the labourers are engaged for three or five years. If for three years, the pay for a month without any deduction, is $6 for males and $5 for females. If for five years, males $7 females $6. Children between the age of 12 and 15 years are not recruited without the consent of their parents. Children under 12 are free to accompany their parents.

The vessel carries a medical officer, Doctor McGettigan, M.O. of San Jose California. The accommodation seems very good, and the provisions and clothing, all that could be desired. The vessel was fitted out at considerable cost, and in a very liberal manner. She carries several additional boats and two life rafts, also a steam cutter. She took in at NANAIMO, British Columbia 1400 tons of coal.

The mere fact of the vessel being a steamer reduces to a minimum much of the discomfort to be found in sailing vessels employed in the labour trade.

On the whole, I am bound to admit that, having made a close scrutiny of the arrangements on board the "Montserrat", I have every reason to believe the natives will be comfortable and well cared for, until landed in Guatamala. Of their treatment after that, of course, I can say nothing. At my request, Mr. FERGUSON gave me a bond, for 6 pounds per head, to return each native at the expiration of each term of engagement, to his proper island. He promised to supply me with a triplicate copy of the "labour contract" of each native recruited, and also agreed to other suggestions, made by me on behalf of the natives. Amongst others, remembering the loss of the "TAHITI" brig last year, on her passage to Mexico, I insisted on the same amount being paid if the native died by "shipwreck on passage or other cause not attributable to the native himself". I subsequently ascertained, that after my interviewing the native on board, five belonging MARAKI landed, having decided not to go in the vessel.

37. At 10 a.m. I weighed and proceeded to the north end of the island, where at 10.45 I landed and hoisted the Flag at the King's house. I asked him why the fines imposed by the Captain of the "Miranda" had not been paid - he was one of the chiefs who had signed to pay these fines by December 1886. He said he had forgotten all about them. I told him they must be paid, and, as he had kept the rightful owners so long waiting for their money, he would have to pay interest on the original fines - the total of which was $450 - he would now have to pay $625. He promised to pay this on my return in a few days. When the King heard that the other islands had given up their arms, he said he would like me to take all they had at MARAKI as they were the cause of much trouble. I agreed to receive them.

Mr. McCARTHY, an American Subject, and a trader on this Island, said he wished to give me some information concerning the death of JEMS BYRNE (or BYRON) a British Trader, who died on this Island in August 1888, under very suspicious circumstances. Being anxious to get to APIANG whilst the "Montserrat" was there, and she having already started for that Island, I told Mr. McCARTHY I would take his evidence on my next visit.

38. I then embarked and proceeded for APIANG, when I arrived and anchored off the BINGHAM channel in 8 fms. at 5 p;.m. the same day. From MARAKI to APIANG I experienced a current of 1 1/2 knots an hour, setting to the NWd. The anchorage off TERIO Island I do not recommend. The ground is very foul, and shoals very suddenly. The best anchorage is off the South boat passage, in 10 fms. - with the following bearings:-

Entrance of land to Southd. S 34 degrees E
Centre of TERIO Island N 50 degrees W
Boat Passage Point S 82 degrees E

I found but 4 or 5 feet in the South boat passage - the passage between it and the BINGHAM channel is best for boats. There are very heavy tide rips in BINGHAM channel.

  1. The "Montserrat" was lying at anchor here. Having but 80 tons of coal remaining, and knowing that the "Montserrat" would be glad to get some of hers off her 'tween decks, I arranged to purchase 100 tons at 2 pounds per ton and she came alongside the same evening.

  2. I landed at 5.30 p.m. and hoisted the Flag at KOAINAOR, the King's village. KAIA, the King, is an intelligent man. He was very pleased at the Queen taking the Island under her protection, and offered to give up all his arms, as they would not now be required. I agreed to receive them. The people at this village appear very clean, well dressed and happy.

    I told the King about the "Montserrat" and he said he did not think any of his people would go in her. The King made a complaint to me that SUKONG a Chinaman and a British Subject, had, about a year ago fired at and wounded a native, for having given cocoanuts to his wife.

    I remained on shore for the night, and the following morning, June 11th, seeing that it was necessary to try this case with assessors, I sent to the ship for Lieutenants Lascombe and Beaumont, having previously notified See-Kong of the charge against him. At noon I held a High Commissioner's Court in the Maneaba at KOINAOR, for SU-KONG's trial. At 6 p.m. I adjourned the court, until the 14th idem, for the production of an important witness then at TARAWA Id.

  3. I returned to the ship at 10 p.m., and having received 100 tons of coal from the "Montserrat" I proceeded at midnight for BUTARITARI (or TARITARI as it is erroneously named on the chart) where I arrived the following day at 11.30 a.m. anchoring outside the lagoon, to the southward of the entrance in 7 fms. The current between APIANG and BUTARITARI was setting to the Northd. Nearly at knot an hour.

  4. I landed during the afternoon and the majority of the Traders I met were highly pleased when they learnt the object of my visit. Prior to my arrival in the Group, I had thought APAMAMA from its central position and TEMBINIKO'S power would be the Island most suited on which a Resident might reside, should one be appointed over these Islands.

    But on my arrival here I saw at once that BUTARITARI must in future be "the" important place in the Group. The lagoon is easy of access - the anchorage good. A substantial coral pier is in course of construction, and the head stations of the principal trading Firms in the Group are established here. The Island itself is very productive and enjoys more direct

    Communication with the outside world than any other in the Group.

    I proceeded to the King's House, and found him seated with several white men around him. I briefly started my mission, informing him that I had hoisted the British Flag over the Group, on May 27th having ascertained on board the "Montserrat", that he had been on a visit to SAN FRANCISCO, returning to BUTARITARI by that vessel - I asked him if he had enjoyed his trip's he said he had. I then asked him if it were true that whilst at SAN FRANCISCO, he had applied for American protection. He said "Yes" - and to my further enquiries hesitated and answered that he had received no reply to his application, but "thought" someone was coming to see about it. I then told the King that whomever he expected, would be rather late, as the British Flag had been hoisted a fortnight previously, over the whole Group.

    Some of the white men interrupting I told them my immediate business was with the King of the Island, at which they intimated that they would withdraw. I told them, on the contrary I preferred they would stop, as all I had to say to the King, I wished to say in public. I than asked the King to assemble all his principal men in the Maneaba, and as many of the natives as could be got together and I would there explain my mission fully to them. I also invited all the white men to be present, and said any complaints they wished to make I would enquire into.

  5. Several traders were then introduced to me - some, as representing firms, amongst the latter was a Mr. RICK, agent for Messrs. CRAWFORD and Co. of SAN FRANCISCO - whom I was subsequently informed (on my next visit to the Island), was introduced to me on that occasion as a "Commercial Agent of the United States". It did not strike me at this time, that he held any official position as he himself, in conversation I had with him never referred to it - and it was only as I was embarking to return to the ship - that my attention was drawn by some trader present, that there was a consular official of the United States resident in the place. I said it was impossible, or he would have certainly made himself known to me, on such an important occasion as that of a Protectorate being established by a Foreign Power over an Island in which he held an official position.

  6. The King having informed me that they were all assembled in the Maneabe - I informed all present that a British Protectorate had been established over the Group by Her Majesty on 27th May. No objection was raised by the King or others present - of whom Mr. RICK was one.

  7. I was astonished to find that Traders on this Island were charged as much as $100 per annum for their license to trade. On asking the King what he did in return for this money, he replied "Nothing". Having previously received several complaints from Traders, that they got but little or no satisfaction from the King in return for the large license they ;paid - I informed him that, as in other Islands where a license was paid to the King, I should insist on two things being done viz:- that he should afford protection to the Traders, adjusting all differences between them and the natives, including payment of just debts, and that he should trade only with the residents traders on the Island, provided their prices were reasonable. If he were unable to carry out these duties in return for such a heavy license - in the interests of the Traders I must try and find someone in the Island who could.

  8. WAN SAN (Chinese) a British Subject, stated that he had complained to the King that a robbery had been committed on his property, and he had received no satisfaction. I spoke to the King about it. He admitted nothing had been done in the matter, and agreed to pay WAN SAN's claim of $65 at my suggestion.

  9. Having hoisted the Flag on the King's Staff, H.M.S. Royalist saluted it with 21 guns.

  10. Whilst on shore, I heard it rumoured that the murderer of the Chinaman A.H. SAN at this Island in 1883, was known. ARTHUR EURY a British Trader was tried for this murder on board H.M.S. Dart in July 1884 and acquitted after a three days trial. The accused, NANTARABE, was now living at TARAWA Island, and since his departure, NANTARABANE, a native of Butaritari, had spoken of the mujrder, saying he had witnessed it. I arranged with the King, to take this witness also NANUNURI, the accused's brother, on board, and have the case enquired into at TARAWA. NANTARANE was subsequently tried, found guilty, and executed at TARAWA on 16th June. (This case is reported in ROYALIST Letter No. 25 of 1892).

  11. Finding the Island was in debt to the Traders, the large sum of $40,000 I told the King this must be paid without delay and I warned the traders against incurring further debts. I also spoke to the King on the subject of fines, which I recommended should be made more commensurate to the offences committed.

  12. Hearing that a girls had been most unmercifully flogged, quite lately because she had got drunk - I spoke to the King on the subject, and he promised me that in future, no woman should be flogged on the Island.

  13. The King appears to be somewhat weak, but he has an able Chief Advisor in his son, styled the "Crown Prince", which title rather astonished me, considering the majority of the whites on the Island are Americans. It did not require much perception to see that the King was in the hands of an American ring of would-be monopolists - to the exclusion of all other traders on the Island. I gave his advice on many matters, urging reforms, which he promised me he would at once carry out. I pointed out to him that he was the sole authority on the Island, and he must not be guided by one white man more than another - they were all traders, and only traders. I should visit the Island again, when I hoped to see a change for the better in his government. Her Majesty had hoisted her Flag, and as her representative, I would give him every assistance I could - and, as in the future H.M. Ships would more frequently visit the Island than heretofore, he could always rely on assistance from the Captains of those ships.

    Before leaving, I spoke to the "Crown Prince" and told him that I hoped he would assist his father to the best of his ability in ruling the people justly, and insist on his fulfilling his promise of carrying out the reforms I had suggested to him. This he promised to do.

  14.  
    I then returned to the ship, and at 8.30 p.m. proceeded for MARAKI. I arrived off that Island next morning, the 13th June, and stopping off the NW end, I landed. The King paid me the fines imposed by Commander ROOKE of H.M.S. "Miranda" in 1886 - with interest, consisting of:-
     
    $300 for PETER GRANT (now on TARAWA).
    $300 for FOOK CHUNE (on account of ON-CHONG & Co.).
    $ 75 for JAMES BYRNE (or BYRON) deceased.
    He also handed me 144 guns and rifles of various descriptions.

    Mr. McCARTHY also handed to me 12 old rifles, which had been left by natives, with his predecessor in pawn for trade supplied. He preferred sustaining the loss to letting the owners redeem them.

  15. Embarking, I then proceeded for TARAWA, anchoring off the sunken reef in 10 fms. - with north point of island N 25 degrees E 5 1/2 miles. I proceeded into the lagoon in boats, and landed at TERATEI. I spoke to the King about the witness I required in SU-KONG's case (letter No. 23 of 1892) and strange to say, the boy was sitting close to me in the maneaba. I took him and his father on board and proceeded at 9 o'clock that night for APIANG where I arrived and anchored at 11 p.m.

  16. Before leaving TARAWA, I told the King he was to secure NANTARABE and keep him until my return, as I wanted him on a charge of having murdered AH-SAM in BUTARITARI about 9 years ago. This he promised to do.

  17. The following morning, 14th June, I landed early with the assessors, and the witness TEIKANANAK and resumed the trial of SU-KONG in the maneaba at KOINAOR the boy's evidence was conclusive. SU-KONG was found guilty, and sentenced to one year's imprisonment and to pay a fine of 50 pounds and in addition 2 pounds ten shillings cost ( Interpreter ). (This case is reported in "Royalist" letter No. 23 of 1892). I received the prisoner on board and made arrangements for his business to be looked after in his absence ( papers referring to SU-KONG's affairs are enclosed in Island report under "APIANG"). I have also sent a copy of them to the High Commissioner, for custody pending SO-KONG'S release from jail.

  18. The King later complained before me that THOMAS TILTON, a negro, trader on Apiang and claiming to be a citizen of the United States - had assaulted a native TENTARGE securing him with chains within his fence. TEKUA a native of APIANG also complained that about 4 years ago, he obtained trade to the value of $30 from TILTON. Being unable to pay cash for it - he agreed to let TILTON have the nuts off his trees for three years, in payment for the trade received. When the three years expired TEKUA claimed his land but TILTON refused to give it up. I enquired into both cases, which are reported in Island Report of APIANG.

  19. TILTON is not at all a desirable subject to remain in the Group. I warned him as to his future conduct, telling him I knew his past history that was far from creditable. His dealings with the natives for land were not honest and if he did not show any improvement I shall recommend his removal from the Group. This man is a notorious hypocrite he can produce tears at a moments notice, and with his grizzly white head his arms shattered with dynamite and his whining tone, usually commands sympathy from those who do not know him well. His naturalization papers from the United States Government he had conveniently "mislaid".

  20. The King handed me a number of arms, of which I left 10 remington rifles in his possession, for the use of the police.

  21. At 4.45 a.m. on the 15th June I weighed and proceeded for TARAWA Island - anchoring outside the sunken reef in 10 fms. At 7.15 a.m. I landed and found the King had secured NANTARABE. I told him I charged NANTARABE with murdering AH-SAM (Chinese) a British subject, at BUTARITARI in 1883 - and that, as the murder occurred before the British Protectorate was established - he and his councillors were to try the case and I would prosecute on behalf of Her Majesty. Lieutenant LUSCOMBE was present at the trial that was held in the maneaba at TERATEI. At the close of the prosecution that day, the King having heard the evidence of he witnesses I had brought from BUTARITARI - said it was satisfied as to the guilt of the prisoner but he ( prisoner ) beg that the evidence of three of his relatives now living on APIANG might be taken.

  22. For that purpose I proceeded the same evening at 7 o'clock for APIANG taking with me TENMACKE, a chief and secretary to the King as a witness to the evidence I intended taking. I arrived off APIANG at ll.30 p.m. and anchored.

    At daylight the following morning I landed and obtained the evidence I required and started from APIANG again at 11 a.m., anchoring off TARAWA at 2 p.m. when I proceeded on shore and continued the trial.

  23. The prisoner was found guilty and sentenced to death by the King and his councillors. He than confessed to the murder - and was subsequently shot in my presence. (This trial is reported in Royalist's letter No. 20 of 1892).

  24. The King complained that TENTABABARI, an influential chief of APIANG, and who had been very active during the late war in TARAWA, was still on the Island. I told him to send his policemen for him, and then to send him, in one of his own boats, to the King of APIANG, with a message from me that he was not to be allowed to leave his Island again. He also said that many men still retained their arm, in spite of the fine he had levied of $50 for every native found with a gun in his possessions. I advised him to send his policemen to them, and if unable to obtain them, to inform me, on my return to the Island. The King having expressed a wish that his son might come on board for a few days, I thought it a good thing to let him see how things were managed in other islands, and I embarked him and another native for the cruise round the Marshall Group.

  25. At 10 p.m. that night, I weighed under sail for MAIANA Island, proceeding under steam at 4 a.m. on the 17th June at 7 a.m. I arrived off the north end of the island, and anchored in 9 fms.

  26. At 9 o'clock I landed with a guard, entering the lagoon by a passage about 7 miles to the southward of the north point of the island, which I understand, had never less than 6 feet in it. The boat passage marked in the plan No. 732 is only suitable for boats of a light draught. At noon I hoisted the Flag at the King's village which is situated about the centre of the Island. The King asked me to take the arms he had collected on the Island, as he did not want them. I received them from him, leaving 14 in his care, for the use of the Police. The Maneaba here though small is the cleanest and neatest in the Group. The following day the King, and a number of natives visited the ship, and were well pleased with all they were shown.

  27. Here I discharged Mr. CORRIE, Interpreter, to the shore - and the King kindly consenting that TEKIATOA, his chief of Police, a most able man and a very good interpreter, might accompany me as Interpreter, until I returned again to the Island - I entered him in that capacity.

  28. I left MAIANA at noon, and at 4.30 p.m. observing the steamer "MONTSERRAT' at anchor in TARAWA lagoon, I stopped off that Island, anchoring with the stream in 10 fms. Having communicated with the 'MONTSERRAT" I weighed and proceeded at 9 p.m. for BUTARITARI, intending merely to land the witnesses in AH-SAM's murder case there - and proceed to the MARSHALL Group, but the 20th being the anniversary of Her Majesty's Accession, I decided to remain over that day at the Island to impress more strongly on the King and the natives, the fact of the establishment a British Protectorate over the Island, and to remove any possible ideas of American annexation that night still exist in the minds of any of the natives, with reference to the King's late visit to SAN FRANCISCO.

  29. I arrived off the Island at 10.30 a.m. on 19 June and anchored off the South end, at 2 p.m. I weighed and proceeded into the lagoon - anchoring at 3.45 in 9 fms. about a mile off the King's house, on the following bearings.

    Extreme of Land to Eastward N 54 degrees E
    Observation Islet N 73 degrees W
    N.W. Islet N 37 degrees W
    Passage Point S 67 1/2 degrees W
    End of Pier S 22 1/2 degrees E

    The position of this Island is fairly correctly marked in the Chart of the GILBERT Group, but in the plan No. 732 the compass has been wrongly placed the North Point being about 30 degrees too much to Westward - and the scale is also wrong, making the Island appear about half its proper size. In entering the Lagoon, I kept close to the large break on the Port hand, and got nothing less than 9 fms. either in the passage or in the lagoon, the course steered being about NE carefully avoiding a very small shoal on Starboard hand, about a mile and a half from the entrance with only two fathoms on it - Round that shoal, and steer straight for the King's Flagstaff - about s.s.e. 1/2 E.

  30. Having particularly warned the men as to their behaviour on shore, I have special leave to both watches that afternoon till 8p.m. There is a hotel here - WIGHTMAN Bros. Being the owners. No liquor is allowed to be sold to the natives.

  31. On landing, I saw the King, and ascertained that he had already been acting on my advice, and that some steps were being taken to reduce the debts of the Island. I explained to him that the following day was the anniversary of Her Majesty's Accession, and invited him to come on board, and bring as many of his people as he wished to see the ship - an invitation he availed himself of, by coming on board the next morning with about 200 natives. The boats were manned and armed and the ship's Company exercised at General Quarters. At noon a Royal Salute was fired. The King and his party appeared much pleased, and landed about 2 o'clock. I supplied the King with a second Union Jack in order that he might keep one flying daily, and gave him some Red Ensigns for the boats. In the evening the search lights were worked.

  32. At 9 a.m. on the 21st I weighed and proceeded for the Marshall Group.

  33. Prior to sailing Mr. RICK, agent for CRAWFORD and Co., sent me a parcel of letters, and a note asking me to mail them at Sydney. I wrote to him that I would gladly do so - saying at the same time I noticed on some of the Envelopes was printed, "United States Consulate at BUTARITARI, GILBERT Islands," and as I had not been officially informed that that there was any official of the United States Consulate at BUTARITARI, I should be glad on my return, to be informed who the Gentleman was - for the information of my Government.

  34. At 6 p.m. I stopped off MAKIN Island and landing saw the Chief in Charge KARICE. This Island is a dependency of BUTARITARI - KARICE was aware of the establishment of the Protectorate. From Mr. HUGILL, a British Trader on the Island, I heard a report that HANS JORGENSON, a Dane, now trading on NONUTI Island had committed a rape on a small half-caste child, the daughter of the late Charles JONES, a British Subject and formerly a trader at MAKIN - some months ago. The girl was now on MKIN Island. I decided to enquire into the matter on my return from the MARSHALL Group.

  35. At 7.15 I proceeded from JALUIT where I arrived and anchored at 2.30 p.m. on 23 June having experienced variable Easterly winds on passage and a Northerly current of about half a knot an hour.

  36. I found there was but 50 tons of very inferior coal in the Port; for which the JALUIT GESELLSCHAFT asked 3 pounds per ton under the circumstances I was glad to take it at that price. Had it not been for the 100 tons I procured from the "MONTSERRAT', it is doubtful whether I could have completed my work in the GILBERT and ELLICE Groups. A German barque, the "SPECULANT', struck ON the reef just outside the town, on the weather side, a week previous to my arrival and eventually became a total wreck. This vessel had some 300 or 400 tons of coal on board. All hands were saved.

  37. I visited Captain BRANDEIS, the Imperial Commissioner - and notified him of the establishment of a British Protectorate over the GILBERT Islands. He returned my visit the following day, and was saluted on leaving with nine guns - he having informed me his rank was that of Consul General.

  38.  
    I wrote to the Commissioner concerning some ARORAI natives, who had been left at TAMANA Island, GILBERT Group by the German barque "JOHN WESLEY". I attached a copy of my letter - also his reply - with a translation of the same. On receipt of his answer, I communicated with the agents of that vessel, the JALUIT - GESELLSCHAFT (this matter is
    especially reported under 'ARORAI" in Island Report).
  39. When I informed the Imperial Commissioner of my intention to visit some of the islands of the Group, he did not appear very anxious that I should do so - and seemed of the opinion that my visit would in some way unsettled the minds of the natives of the islands I might visit whom he assured me were very contented under German rule. I told him my instructions were to visit them, and before sailing I wrote informing him I was leaving on a certain date to visit some of the Islands of the Group offering to do anything could I be of service to him - at the same time assuring him that my visit had no political import and that I should not allow the natives to think it had.

    He informed me that some natives of BUTARITARI had been taken to Milli Island by MOSES a chief of that Island who had also left some Milli natives at BUTARITARI. He had ordered MOSES to return them but his schooner having sustained a damage on a reef I offered to take back the BUTARITARI people - for which he was thankful.

  40. I gave general leave to each watch for 24 hours. The boilers were filled with rainwater procured from the shore in order to save coal. I purchased a bullock for the ship's company.

    By the "FLINK" a German schooner then about to leave for Sydney, I sent mails also a short letter of proceedings, and a telegram for "BRITANNIA" Sydney, concerning the steamer "MONTSERRAT" copy of which I enclosed.

  41. At 10 a.m. on the 27th, I proceeded out of Jaluit intending to visit a few of the principal islands of the Group. My limited supply of coal necessitating a curtailment of my original programme viz:- to visit all islands on which British subjects were residents. Prior to sailing, I embarked Mr. ANDREW WILSON, a British trader of BUTARITARI as an Interpreter. I may here mention that no native Interpreter could be procured for less than $3 per diem, and I need hardly say that it was for consideration of the pay allowed him by Article 243 of the Australian station order book that Mr. WILSON agreed to accompany me. I would respectfully suggest that the remuneration of interpreters on some parts of the station be left to the discretion of the Captains of H.M. Ships.

  42. I arrived at PORTRHIN MILLI Islands at 5 p.m. on 28th and anchored in 15 fms. having experienced a northerly set of about 3/4 of a knot an hour on the passage and easterly winds with rain and unsettled weather.

  43. The following morning I proceeded in steam cutter and galley to MILLI across the lagoon. The wind increasing from ENE a heavy sea got up, and landing at MILLI was dangerous. I arranged that the BUTARITARI natives should embark, as soon as the weather permitted a canoe to be launched. Had there been the slightest shelter for the boats, I would have remained till the weather moderated. There being none I decided to return t the ship which occupied nearly 4 hours.

    The following morning, I embarked ten natives for BUTARITARI and at 8 a.m. proceeded out of the lagoon. The light being bad I anchored a boat on the small reef on which the German cruiser "BUSSARO" had grounded about a month previous to our visit.

  44. I arrived off the South and of ARHNO at 5 p.m. the same day, and anchored on the edge of the reef in 20 fms. with the south point of ARHNO Island distant about 7 miles.

    I landed and met two of the Traders. They informed me that CHARLES DOUGLAS, a British subject and trader on that island, had died a few weeks previously from the effects of a fall sustained on board the steamer "ARCHER" some three months ago. They had no further news.

  45. At 6 a.m. the next day I proceeded for MAJERU Island. At 8 o'clock stopped engines, and made sail, to an ESEly breeze. Passing through FORDYCE Channel I stood along the North Coast of MAJERU. The wind increasing, with heavy rain squalls accompanied by thick unsettled weather, it was impossible to make the entrance to the lagoon, - and seeing no chance of the weather clearing I decided not to wait.

  46. I had now but 124 tons of coal left, and no prospect of obtaining a further supply, so I gave up the idea of visiting any more of the MARSHALL GROUP, from which after all, being under the German flag, I could obtain but liberal information of any interest. At 3 p.m. I shaped course for JALUIT arriving there at 10 a.m. on 3rd July.

  47. From the Imperial Commissioner, I obtained information concerning the vessel which had taken the three natives of Peru from that Island in February last (referred to in a para 16 of this letter). It appears that a schooner purported to be the "POE" of RAROTONGA, which name appeared to painted over another, had put into PONAPE, CAROLINE Islands, it being the intention of DEGRAVES the Master, to sell the vessel there.

    The cook of the vessel gave certain information to the authority, who sees the vessel, and it was thought she would be sent to Manila. It is supposed the schooner belongs to SAMOA and was chartered by McARTHUR and Co. of the place to collect copra and pearl shell at various islands. DEGRAVES embarked as a passenger at SAMOA. Calling at some islands, his brother joined the vessel also as a passenger. The following night the elder DEGRAVES shot the master and supercargo - the younger brother throwing them overboard before life was extinct. The following morning the crew died of poisoning. The cook was supposed by the DEGRAVES to be half witted - his life was spared. The schooner then called at PERU Island, GILBERT GROUP, shipped the three natives, and after calling at APAMAMA proceeded to PONAPE, where the DEGRAVES intending selling the vessel, and then clearing out.

    The cook, however was not quite the fool he pretended to be, and when he saw his chance gave the DEGRAVES in charge. The vessel had $4000 on board and about 25 tons of copra.

    The DEGRAVES who appeared to be of French extraction, are not altogether unknown in the Pacific. In 1889 the elder DEGRAVES then under another name arrived at JALUIT in a cutter, the "MINERVA" with a cargo of copra. He sold the vessel there to Doctor INGALLS, also the cargo which it appears he had stolen from the King of APAMAMA. Whilst this man was at JALUIT he visited the Imperial Commissioner, and the official seal was missed just after he left the office. This seal was eventually found on board the "POE" at PONAPE. This information was brought to JALUIT by a German schooner and when she left PONAPE, the PERU natives were supposed to be still on board the "POE".

  48. The "JOHN WESLEY" having arrived from HONG KONG, I made further enquiries concerning the ARORAI natives, left by her at TAMANA Island (vote Para. 76 of this letter). I made satisfactory arrangements with the Jaluit Ceselleschaft on their bahalf also for some MAIANA natives left by a vessel of the same company at BUTARITARI - to when the company returned half their passage money.

  49. Mr. READ a British Subject the agent of Messrs. Crawford and Co. of SAN FRANCISCO - informed me that his Firm intended keeping a supply of either American or New South Wales coal at JALUIT, and he assured me that the price would not exceed 50/- per ton. This firm also keeps a good supply of rain water for which they charge 6/- per ton.

  50. Before leaving, the Imperial Commissioner told me the "ROYALIST'S" visit had afforded them all at JALUIT much pleasure. He expects to leave JALUIT in November next, hhis period of service expiring them. A Government Pilot is always at the disposal of Foreign man-of-war here no charge being made for his services. Correspondence in connection with my visit to the MARSHALL GROUP is attached. The particulars concerning the Islands appear in the Island report.

  51. At 6 p.m. I weighed and proceeded for the Gilbert Group, arriving and anchoring in the lagoon at BUTARITARI at 2 p.m. on 6th July. I here found the American Mission vessel "MORNING STAR" just arrived from America and was disappointed at not finding the white missionary in charge of American Mission in the Gilbert Group on board he remaining in the states on leave of absence. Whilst visiting the various Islands in the Group I observed in many instances, matters connected with the American Missions establishments there which required thorough investigation, and I had hoped to confer with him on the subject. I have referred to this subject in my Island report.

  52. On my arrival Mr. Rick called on me. On his card was printed "U.S. Commercial Agent". He said he intended calling sooner, but he had been unable to get a boat and that he thought I knew he held that position. I told him I understood he was merely the Agent of CRAWFORD and Co. and as such of course, I was very glad to see him - but his position as United States Commercial Agent I was unable to recognize, until he was accredited to her Britannic Majesty. Correspondence concerning Mr. RICK forms subject of "ROYALIST" letter No. 31 of 1892.

  53. Finding the American Schooner "FLEUR" de LYS" lying here of which ALBERT KUSTEL is master and owner. I called alongside her on my way ashore, and requested KUSTEL to meet me at the King's house in the morning concerning the charge brought against him by a native of TARAWA (see para 29 of this letter, also "ROYALIST'S" letter No. 24 of 1892 concerning full particulars of this cause.)

  54. On landing I saw the King, and informed him I had brought back ten natives from MILLE and gave him particular instructions concerning one man, who had contracted veneral disease whilst in the MARSHALL Group, this disease being almost unknown in the GILBERT Islands. I impressed on him that this man should be carefully watched, and if necessary isolated to prevent such a direful calamity as the spreading of this disease in the Islands of the GILBERT Group. I also asked some of the Traders to see he carried out my instructions in this matter, as the King seemed unable to realize the seriousness of my remark. From the leading Traders I ascertained that the debts on the Island were being reduced, and plenty of copra was being made.

  55. J.F. LUTTRELL and ADOLF RICK both American Subjects approached me with a view to my settling a dispute between them, as to the ownership of a certain coral wall. At first I was unwilling to mix myself up in disputes between Foreigners but thinking it desirable in the interest of this Island, now under Her Majesty's protection to settle the matter. I complied with their request. The particulars of this case are fully explained in my Island report under "BUTARITARI".

  56. WAN SAN (Chinese) as British informed me that the King had paid his claim of $65 referred to in para: 46 of this letter.

  57. Having received complaints concerning the conduct of ALFRED HANSON, A Swedish Subject, charging him with having committed offences of a serious nature, since the establishment of the Protectorate over the Group, I considered it necessary to deal with these charges without delay, and ordered him to appear at the King's House the following morning.

  58. The next day I landed and at the King's house saw KUSTEL, with reference with the charge against him which has before stated, it reported in letter number 24 of 1892. I then heard the charges against HANSON and finding him guilty I fined him $200, to be paid within two months to the King $50 to be paid at compensation to the complainants, the balance to remain in the King's keepings, until he receives orders as to its disposal from a British authority (this case is fully reported in "ROYALIST'S" letter no. 27 of 1892.)

  59. Returning on board, I investigated the dispute between J.F. LUTTELL and ADOLF RICK, which occupies some hours, and later took the evidence of NEITERA, the half-caste daughter of the late CHARLES JONES (referred to in para: 72 of this Letter) who had that evening arrived from MAKIN Island, whence I had sent for her.

  60. The following morning I landed and proceeded to the King's house, and spoke to him on several matters in connection with the Government of his Island. On the subject of fines I directed him to keep a book, entering full particulars of each fine inflicted, how paid, and the disposition of the money - the larger portion of which I informed him, should be expended on

public works. Having heard the fines had been imposed by others then the King himself - I directed that this should not be done in the future. I told him this in the presence of MAKKA the Missionary - as I had reason to believe this man was connected with the irregularity.

The fine book I informed the King was to be shown to the Captain of the next British man of war visiting BUTARITARI. Complaints having been made to me that certain people were trading on the island, not having paid the license imposed on other traders by the King - I spoke to him on the subject and said he must treat them all alike. Also, that until the natives had paid their debts "at present" owing to traders he was not to collect his native tax from them, which I understood he was doing in order to pay his own debts which amounted to over $1000.

With reference to his SAN FRANCISCO trip (the expenses for which MR RICK - agent for a CRAWFORD and Co. of SAN FRANCISCO informed me "His Majesty was disposed to decline entirely to pay") I considered (having reference to para: 51 of this Letter) that the King needed protection, and with my own interpreter elicited the following - that Captain WHITE of the schooner "TARAWA" belonging to CRAWFORD and Co.) asked him to undertake the trip, assuring him he would be put to no expense whatever. Had he to pay his own expenses he would not have gone, as he could not afford it, but Captain WHITE had pressed him to go. TENTEPEA, a half-caste, told me he was present and collaborated all the King had said with reference to Captain WHITE.

Before leaving for SAN FRANCISCO he had seen no one from other islands in the Group concerning American protection, and until his arrival in SAN FRANCISCO, had entertained no thought of applying for it. His sole object in visiting SAN FRANCISCO was to purchase a schooner the negotiation for which however failed through want of funds. After his arrival at SAN FANCISCO, he was induced to apply for American protection, which he did, but as yet he had received no reply. I told the King that if, after what he had told me, Messrs. CRAWFORD and Co. applied for repayment of his own and his attendant expenses for this SAN FANCISCO trip - he was to decline to pay them, until the claim had been investigated by some British authority.

I again warned him against taking the advice of any one firm in particular - and knowing the influence Mrs. RICK had gained over him, I recommended him to abstain from being guided by her. He was anxious that a resident should be appointed and was willing to contribute towards his support. In conclusion, I told the King that I hoped on the next occasion of a British man of war visiting BUTARITARI a vast improvement in the affairs of the Island would be found to have taken place, assuring him that if he faithfully performed his duties has King, he would always received the support and assistance of Her Majesty's Government.

99. On leaving the shore a petition was handed to me by some of the traders, urging the appointment of a resident of the Group. (Copy of this petition with my reply is attached.)

100. Having discharged Mr. WILSON Interpreter to the shore, I proceeded at noon on the 8th July for MARAKI Island where I arrived and anchored at 6 p.m. the following day. I landed and obtained evidence from Messrs. McCARTHY, HOLDERSEN AND SANDBERGEN - traders and others concerning the death of JAMES BYRNE, (or BYRON), British subject, which occurred in August 1888 under very suspicious circumstances. The staff surgeon of the ship was of opinion that such a lapse of time having occurred since BYRNE's death, it would be useless to disinter the body in the hopes of finding traces of poison in the remains. (This case is reported in "ROYALIST'S" letter No. 29 of 1892. The King handed me a few more guns he had collected, and I authorize Mr. SANDBERGEN a Dutch subject, and a trader, to break up for old musket he had in his possession, which had been pawned with him for trade. He had no wish to have them be redeemed, and asked me to take them but having no time to wait till he got them from his house, and as they were useless, I told him to destroy them.

  1. Complaints were made by the Traders, that the King was in the habit of trading with outside traders visiting the Island, to their disadvantage at the same time charging them for a license. I spoke to the King about this and said if he continued to do this the traders would not pay their license. He said he would not charge them any more and then he would be free to trade when he liked. This being the case, I suggested that the Island being in debt to the Traders about $2100 ( these debts having been incurred before the Protectorate was established, and he having made himself responsible for them ) no copra should be sold to outside traders until the debts were settled. The King agreed to this and I left a memo to this effect with the traders, for the information of any vessels calling at the Island (A copy of this memo is enclosed). The King said he would book his fines as I requested also that he was agreeable to contribute towards he support of a Resident should one be appointed to the Group.

    102. The following morning I weighed at 6 a.m. and proceeded for APIANG Id. anchoring off the South boat pass at noon. I proceeded in boats, into the lagoon, and landing saw the King. He handed me 12 more guns which he had collected. I asked him if TENTABABARI, the chief, had returned from TARAWA, as I had ordered him.

    He said "No", and implored me not to send him back, as he was a bad man; he had no land, and created trouble in the Island.

  2. Finding that PETER GARRICK, a British Subject, Trader, had given up his station on this

    Island and accepted an engagement to go to Mexico in the steamer "MONTSERRAT", without replying to my name concerning a debt of $275 claimed by SU KONG, at present a prisoner in my charge, I authorized the King to withhold that amount from GARRICK'S behalf. The money to be held by the King until he received orders as to its disposal from myself, or some other competent British Authority. (See Island Reports APIANG).

  3. A similar complaint was also made at this Island, of the King trading with outside traders, whilst charging resident Traders $50 per annum for their license - also that he did not make natives pay their just debts. He promised that this should not occur again. The King was willing that a Resident should be appointed, and promised to contribute towards his support. I spoke about all fines being entered in a book and he agreed to do this, and to show it to the next British man-of-war calling at APIANG.

  1. Returning on board I proceeded at 6 p.m. for TARAWA Island, anchoring off the Sunken Reef in 10 fms. at midnight. The following morning I landed at 7 a.m. taking with me the king's son who was much improved by his trip. The King had not yet taken up his residence at TERATEI as I had ordered him. He was at the South end of the Island so I sent for him.

Learning from TENTIKNAICH, that TENTABABARI and TENTONANIBIA, had refused to give up their rifles when ordered by the King and that the former had not returned to APIANG, I sent for TEMBERU, the other important Chief at that end of the Island, and told him and TENTIKINAICH that I required both men to be brought to us by 5 p.m. Hearing that a large number of men had refused to obey the King's order and give up their guns and that the King was powerless to make them - I saw that if the guns were not taken in all probability war would break out again on the ship's departure.

I therefore determined to enforce the King's order. I sent word to the ship to land a Lieutenant and 20 men at the North end of the Island to camp there, and 20 men at the North end of the Island to camp there, and to prevent any natives leaving with arms in canoes for APIANG, which is but a few miles distant from that end of the Island intending the following morning to walk the Island down and search for guns.

        106       During the afternoon, I obtained evidence from PETER GRANT and his wife concerning the death of  BYRNE, a Trader, on MARAKI Island in 1888.

                   At 5 p.m. the Chiefs brought the two men I had sent them for, also their guns. I placed them in irons in  the Maneaba in charge of the King's Police. I remained the night at the mission station, leaving my  boat's crew on sentry at the Maneaba in case the prisoners gave any trouble.

  1. At 8 o'clock the next morning a party of small-arm men and Marines landed from the ship, also the King who had gone on board overnight to see me. The King fully agreed with my determination to collect the arms and enforce the fine on anyone found with arms in his possession. With reference to TENTABABARI and TENTONANIBIA, he said he could do nothing and begged me not to leave them on the Island as he felt sure that on my departure, fresh trouble would arise should they remain on the island. I asked these two men what hey had to say. TENTABABARI said he was sick and could not bring his gun but this I ascertained to be untrue. TENTONANIBIA said he was afraid so kept his rifle.

    I told them as they seemed determined to give trouble, I should remove them from the Group and for that purpose sent them on board. I then started with the King, his Chiefs and 20 Police, also the party from the ship. We searched the Island to the north end some nine miles, the result being 10 guns the owners in each case being unable to pay the fine of $50 were awarded 3 months labour, on a coral pier to be constructed at TERATEI.

    During the day, the mission school children at TERATEI visited the ship with a number of teachers in the King's boat. That night, both parties from the ship with the King and his chiefs, returned on board.

  2. Landing the following morning at 7 o'clock at TERATEI, I started the natives punished the previous day, on the pier to be constructed, leaving native Policemen in charge of them. The previous afternoon, I had cause to doubt the sincerity of TEMBERU, the most important of the Northern Chiefs, who, I felt certain, was cognizant of the fact, that many arms were being concealed by natives. I ordered him to meet me the next morning at the Maneaba, with all the arms he could collect. This he did, bringing 21 guns with their owners. These men being unable to pay the fine imposed by the King. I set to work with the others. By night, we had collected 20 guns the party returning to the ship at 7 p.m. which during the day had entered the lagoon.

  3. On the morning of the 14th I landed three parties to complete the search of the Island, and by nightfall we had collected 36 more guns - in all cases the owners being unable to pay the fine, were awarded three months labour on the pier or roads. In all 101 natives were punished.

  4. During the day on passing KUSTEL'S station, I obtained sworn evidence from his wife, a very intelligent half-caste woman, concerning the charges against her husband. (Reported in "ROYALIST'S" Letter No. 24 of 1892). I also obtained evidence from various witnesses, in connection with charges I had to prefer against ENO, a native of RARATONGA a British Subject, Trader on the Island, for contravention of the arms and Spirituous Liquors acts.

  5. It was 9 p.m. before all the parties had returned to the ship.

  6. The following morning I held a High Commissioner's Court for the trial of ENO on four charges preferred by me against him. Finding him guilty I sentenced him to twelve months' imprisonment, retaining him on board for passage to Fiji. (This case is fully reported in Royalist letter No. 26 of 1892).

  7. Owing to the break-down of the steam cutter, on the previous day, a certain portion of the Southern part of the Island remained unsearched, when the parties embarked. Unwilling to remain another day at this Island, I ordered the King to collect the remaining arms, and hand them to the first British Man-of-War calling at the Island. I placed in his charge for the use of the Police, 12 Snider Rifles, with 100 rounds of ammunition.

  8. TEROY the head missionary who lives at TAPIANG and about 30 of his scholars visited the ship this day.

  9. Before leaving the King said he would be very glad to assist in supporting a white Resident in the Group. I gave him a list of rules and fines, which I ordered him to carry out. (Copy attached to Island Report "TARAWA"), keeping an account of all fines inflicted and the disposal of any money received. I considered these steps absolutely necessary, the King being a weak man and he state of the Island very unsettled.

    One MAIANA man, and one APIANG man being still on TARAWA I ordered the King to send them back to their own Islands by the first opportunity.

    I pointed out to the King that I had given TARAWA far more attention than any other Island in the Group, in order to firmly establish his authority on the Island and that on the next visit of a British Man-of-War, I trusted that the state of the Island under his rule, would show that my endeavours had not been in vain. He promised to do his best and to carry out my instructions.

  10. At 11 a.m. I proceeded out of the lagoon for MAIANA Island where I arrived and anchored at 5 p.m. Hearing from Mr. CORRIE, that as yet the debts on the Island, owing to the traders, had not been reduced since my last visit, a month ago, I sent a messagve to the King to see my wishes carried out. As the Traders on this Island pay no license to the King I did not feel justified in taking more stringent steps in this matter as I was of opinion that no license being paid, the King should not be held responsible for debts incurred by natives.

  11. I found that Mr. MURDOCH a British Subject and Trader here had accepted an engagement in MEXICO for one year and had left in the Steamer "MONTSERRAT' with 71 natives who had recruited from this Island.

  12. I handed to Mr. CORRIE $17.50 for distribution amongst the natives referred to in para: 86 of this letter being the half of their passage money refunded by the Jaluit Gesellschaft.

  13. I landed TERIATOWA the Chief of Police of this Island who had been my interpreter for the past month. This man is far more intelligent than the generality of the Gilbert Islanders and possesses the merit - a rare one - of being able to interpret exactly what one wishes to say. He is most useful and willing and I strongly recommend that any Resident appointed to the Group should obtain, permanently if possible, this man's services for although only a Policeman in MAIANA he is the King's advisor and right hand man.

  14. I received a message from the King, that they all wished a Resident in the Group, and were willing to contribute towards his support.

  15. At 9.15 that evening I proceeded for APAMAMA arriving and anchoring off ENTRANCE Island at 10.30 a.m. the next day 16th July.

  16. JACK the Pilot came on board which surprised me as on my former visit he was seriously ill and unlikely to recover. He attributed his recovery to Staff Surgeon TWIGG, who had prescribed for him some six weeks previously.

  17. The Pilot accompanied me in the boats into the lagoon, to visit the King, when I understood was at a village further north than his own.

  18. I found the American Schooner "EQUATOR" working up the lagoon and boarded her. She was bound to BUTARITARI. Pere BONTEMPS was on board, and from him I obtained sworn evidence concerning the charge of rape against JORGENSON (Royalist Letter No. 30of 1892.) The master of EQUATOR - CHARLES TIERNEY - in conversation, referred to the United States Consular Authority at BUTARITARI. I informed him that since the establishment of the British Protectorate there was no such official and on his enquiry informed him that no one was authorized to levy fees or harbour dues on his vessel unless it were the King himself.

  19. On arrival at the village, I ascertained that the King had that morning returned to his proper village. I then proceeded to find NERURIA, the native wife of the late JAMES BYENE, trader of MARAKI, to obtain evidence from her concerning his suspicious death - referred to in para: 100 of this letter. After some time I found the woman and obtained her evidence (Royalist's Letter No. 29 of 1892).

  20. It then being late I returned to the ship and unable to see the King I sent some boats ensigns to him and a passage by JACK, the Pilot saying I was sorry I had missed seeing him - that all the other Islands in the Group I had visited, had asked that a white Resident should be appointed, and were willing to contribute towards his support, and I hoped APAMAMA would do the same.

  21. I landed the Pilot, and at 8 p.m. proceeded for NONUTI where I arrived and anchored off the South end of the Island in 8 fms at 1.30 p.m. the following day.

  22. The steamer "MONTSERRAT" was lying here. Having but 60 tons of coal remaining which was not sufficient to efficiently perform the work I still had to do in the GILBERT and ELLICE Groups, I arranged with the "MONTSERRAT" to spare me 83 tons paying on this occasion 60/- per ton, as they might possibly be obliged to purchase coal at HONOLULU - paying $15 for it there. With the 100 tons purchased from this vessel on 11th June the average price was 54/-.

  23. Having secured the services as Interpreter of Mr. MURDOCH, then on board the "MONTSERRAT" on his way to MEXICO, the same night I proceeded to ROTUMAH at the north end of the Island, and remaining on shore for the night, the following morning made further enquiries concerning the attack on the schooner "EASTWARD HO" (PARA: 20 of this letter). Having satisfied myself that TUKAIKA the boy whom all the trouble was about, was fully 16 years of age, I decided to take him to Fiji to serve his term of engagement. The 10 natives concerned in the attack on the vessel, I fined $50 each. (This case forms subject of Royalist's letter No. 17 of 1892).

  24. Having received from the Chiefs of ROTUMAH a few arms they had collected in their own immediate district, I authorised TAI-TAU to collect all arms from METTUNG to the North end of the Island, and arranged with Mr. MAX BRECHTEFELDE, trader to receive them and to hand them over to the first British Man-of-War calling at NONUTI.

  25. I then proceeded to the village of METTUNG where the Flag was hoisted. On the way, Pere JOSEPH, of the Roman Catholic Mission, met me in his boat and informed me the "Royalist's" Steam cutter had broken down at the South end of the Lagoon. He most kindly offered to tow her in his boat out over the reef to the ship an offer I gladly accepted so I knew our own boats were employed coaling ship.

    At METTUNG, the "Old Man" handed me the guns they had collected. Hearing there were still some remaining to the Southward - the Old Men promised to collect them, and place them in the Missionary's charge until a British Man-of-War arrived.

    The "Old Men" informed me they were willing to contribute towards he support of a Resident in the Group. I recommended them to enter all fines in a book, and to plant all vacant spaces with coconut trees.

  26. I then returned on board the ship and took further evidence with regard to the charge of rape preferred against JORGENSON, a Dane trading on this Island (para: 72 and 97 of this letter). One of the principal witnesses in this case being about to leave the Group in the steamer "MONTSERRAT" for reasons stated in "Royalist's" Letter No. 30 of 1892, (which deals fully with this case). I decided to try JORGENSON and on the 19th held a court of enquiry at which I summoned as witnesses to the proceedings Lieutenant SPENCER BEAUMONT of this ship; and Mr. MURDOCH, a British Subject, Trader on MAIANA Island who also acted as Interpreter.

    The court decided that although the actual charge was not brought home to the accused for want of a witness to the act - yet there was sufficient evidence to justify his removal from the Group, which I ordered. Having no right to fly American Colours I took his flag from him, informing him I should hand it to the first American consular authority I met. JORGENSON arranged to leave in the "MONTSERRAT".

  27. I then took evidence in connection with a complaint made by S. W. HENTY British Subject Trader on the Island of some cases of robbery from his house by natives. As he only made his complaint when I was on the point of sailing, I was unable to complete the case and informed him that probably on the next visit of a Man-of-War, it would be enquired into (Papers concerning this case appear in the Island Report "NONUTI").

  28. JAMES J. GLEESON, British Subject, and trader on this Island leaves by "MONTSERRAT" having accepted an engagement in GUATAMALA - as interpreter to the natives recruiting from NONUTI.

    Up to this date the "MONTSERRAT' had recruited 268 adults, accompanied by upwards of 100 children, from the Islands of the Group visited by her.

  29. At 2.30 a.m. on 21st July, I weighed and proceeded for TAPUTEWEA, where I arrived at 9 o'clock. On landing I found that not only was all trading with white men tabooed by the "Old Men" until the price for copra were raised, but they had also issued orders that any native working for a Trader, in his house or boat, should be fined 5,000 nuts. The latter was in my opinion quite outside the reasonable limit of a taboo, and directed especially against the white men and against the white men only; - and in distinct opposition to my instructions, given when the Flag was hoisted, viz.:- that native law should not apply to white men. After interviewing the "Old Men", I inflicted on them a fine of $500, to be paid in cash within three months to the Missionary at UTIROA, to be handed to the Captain of the first Man-of-War visiting the Island. (This is fully reported in my Island Report).

    I found the "Old Men" had had some trouble in collecting the guns, from the natives, which they wished me to receive. They handed me a few they had collected, and I then told them to send an order to the chiefs of the various districts to collect all the arms in their own districts, and place them in the Maneaba.

  30. Hearing there was some trouble between the Protestants and Roman Catholics on the Island, and that the letter were holding a meeting at TEMANUR at the North end, about 7 or 8 miles from UTIROA, I proceeded there on foot, taking some of the "Old Men" of Utiroa with me, collecting the arms at the various Maneabas on the way. I reached TEMANUK at dusk, having collected 13 guns I spoke to the natives assembled at the Maneaba, with reference to their trouble. They accused the Protestants of ill feeling towards them naming KAPUA, TICUTICA and JOSEPH, as ringleaders. Seeing it was too late that night to arrive at any settlement of the dispute, I told the head men to meet me at the Maneaba at UTIROA the following morning, when I would enquire into the dispute. I told them also that the taboo was raised, and every man free to trade where he liked. They seemed very pleased at this for in all the villages I passed through the houses were piled full of nuts and the poorer natives, tho' quite willing to sell them, dare not do so on account of the "Old Men's" orders.

  31. Before leaving, I arranged with the chief that I would land a party next morning to walk to the extreme north end of the Island, and he was to send some police with them to collect the arms.

  32. The following morning I landed at UTIROA, and in the Maneaba enquired into the Religious dispute. "Royalist's" Letter No. 28 of 1892, enters fully into this matter. My decision was that KAPUA, native of HONOLULU, a trader on the Island and formerly a missionary should leave the Island within one month. TICUTIOA and JOSEPH, natives, were warned as to their future conduct.

  33. I wrote to Pere BONTEMPS, telling him the steps I had taken in the matter.

  34. The "Old Men" said they would be glad to contribute towards the support of a white Resident in the Group and that they would enter all the fines in the book as I desired. I distinctly impressed on them that they only made laws on the Island, and levied fines no one else could do so.

  35. From HENTY'S late wife I collected further evidence concerning HENTY'S complaints of threats by natives, (para 134 of this letter). I also got from her evidence concerning the charge against JORGENSON, (para 133 of this letter) which materially strengthened the evidence against him.

    141. Whilst on shore I ascertained that about 20 natives of ONOTOA endeavouring to reach PERU, had been driven to this island by stress of weather. They asked me to help them and as ONOTO was my next port of call, I was glad to be able to give them a passage. I hoisted in their boats one white boat and one canoe, and received them on board, 19 all told.

  36. Embarking I found the party from the North end had returned bringing with them 31 arms of various descriptions which with 14 that I had that day collected, made a total of 58. Finding it would take at least 4 days to collect the arms to the Southward, and not having that time to spare, I ordered the arms to be kept in the Maneaba till a British Man-of-War arrived, when they were to be sent to UTIROA.

A native - TARAWA - was reported to me as having two guns in his possession and refusing to deliver them up. I ordered him to bring them on board. He sent the guns but refused to come himself. For refusing to obey my orders I fined him $10 to be handed to the missionary for he captain of the first British Man-of-War visiting the Group. For refusing to obey the "Old Men's" order, I fined him 5000 nuts to be paid to the "Old Men". Both fines to be paid by the 23rd October.

142. The next morning I enquired into the case of theft by a native from KUM-ON (Chinese), a British Subject (referred to at para: 9 of the letter). I settled the case to the satisfaction of all parties present (Letter No. 18 of 1892).

143. Before leaving, I discharged Mr. MURDOCH, Interpreter, to the shore, where he intended waiting the arrival of the steamer "MONTSERRAT'. Mr. MURDOCH was extremely useful to me. He took charge of letters for various Islands at which I should not stop, at which the "MONTSERRAT" intended calling. In them I asked the missionary to ascertain the "Old Men's" views as to supporting a white Resident in the Group and other matters. I also arranged with Mr. MURDOCH that on his arrival at GUATAMALA, he should write me full particulars of the "MONTSERRAT'S' voyage, and later on from the plantation, he should inform me of the work, health, treatment etc. of the Gilbert Island natives.

  1. With reference to the fine of $500 impressed by me on this Island to any one unacquiainted with the Gilbert Islands and their inhabitants it may seem a harsh measure but from my knowledge of these people, I am convinced it was necessary to act as I did, to prevent a repetition of the offence as soon as the ship; had left the Group. A mere warning would have had no deterrent or lasting effect on these people. On he contrary, it would have been construed as a sign of weakness on my part. If on the next visit of a Man-of-War the fine has been paid to the missionary my orders with reference to the fines being entered in a book, complied with; and the arms collected, as promised by the "Old Men"; and the Island in a satisfactory state - I would suggest that half the fine be remitted, and placed in the hands of the "Old Men" to be expended in Police maintenance or Public works in connection with the Island.

  2. At 10.45 a.m. I weighed and proceeded for ONOTOA Island, where I arrived at 9.45 the following morning, anchoring in 5 fms. I landed and saw the "Old Men" who told me they wished to have a white Resident in the Group and would contribute towards his support. I spoke to them with reference to the levying of fines, also about entering all fines in a book, which he promised to do. It being Sunday I did not see the missionary who was some distance away. The eccentricities of Trade in these Islands cannot be better exemplified than by that existing at present in this Island. The Traders purchase their copra from the natives at 1 1/2 cents per ton, and sell it to vessels calling at 1 1/4. The difference of course has to be made up in the prices charged by the Traders for Tobacco Calico.

  3. Returning on board I proceeded for TAMANA where I arrived at 9 p.m. I lay off the Island during the night there being no good anchorage. I landed the following morning, and not the "Old Men". They were willing to contribute towards the support of a white Resident in the Group; and promised to enter all fines in a book. The Taboo, which existed on my first visit was off and the Traders seemed on better terms with the natives. I handed the Missionary Revd. HENRY $10 for distribution amongst these natives who housed and fed the ARORAI natives, whilst they remained on TAMANA, (referred to in paras: 76 and 86).

  4. I heard whilst at this Island, that a woman had been flogged at ARORAI since my visit there on June 1st for adultery. When at that Island I was told the flogging of women had been abolished for the last three years.

  5. I left TAMANA at 10.30 a.m. for the ELLICE Islands. At daylight on the 27th I sighted NANOMEA, the northmost Island of that Group. On the passage I experienced light and variable winds, from E.N.E. TO E.S.E. with A S.Wly current of about 1/2 knot an hour. At 9 a.m. I stopped off the S.W. end of the Island, and landed in a canoe on the fringing reef whence I had to wade on shore.

    Everything was quiet on the Island. The King is inclined to put prices up for Traders, of when there is only one resident on the Island. I spoke to the King on this subject. Before leaving he said the inhabitants would like to be placed under British Protection, the same as the GILBERT Islands. A large number of natives visited the ship, including a number of young girls. The natives here are very clean, light coloured, and good looking resembling Samoans.

  6. At noon I proceeded for NANOMANA stopping off that Island at 6 p.m. I landed and saw the King. Landing here is dangerous even in canoes. In coming off, one canoe was swamped. They asked me to hoist the British Flag. I told them I could not - but I would ask for it when I arrived at FIJI. Numbers of natives came on board selling everything they possessed for tobacco. There was none on the Island. No Trader resides here and no vessel had called for seven months.

  7. At 7.10 I proceeded to NIUTAO, I sighted the Island at daylight, and at 8.20 stopped off the S.W. end. I experienced no current between NAOMANA and NIUTAO. The landing here is but fair in canoes. It is eleven years since a Man-of-War visited this Island. The King said he wished the British Flag hoisted. I told him I would try to obtain this request. 24 natives of OAITUPU asked for a passage to their Island also 2 for NUKUFETAU. I granted them passage for which they were very grateful.

  8. With the King's permission I landed here TENTONANIBIA of TARAWA Island (vide paras: 31 and 108 of this letter). A MAIANA man in the employ of Mr. BUCKLAND a British Trader, living on the Island, agreed to take him in and I left a tin of biscuits and some tobacco with him. I told TENTONIBIA that he was to remain on this Island, and earn his living, and I hoped he would give no trouble; that any Man-of-War calling would enquire into his conduct. He assured me he would give no trouble.

  9. At 2 p.m. I proceeded for NUI where I arrived the following morning, landing at 8 a.m. in a canoe on the reef. There is a long reef here to wade over. The King who appears to be rather a weak man, asked for British Protection which I promised to apply for.

    A native TUKAIKE, formerly a missionary at ONOTOA (Gilbert Group) and dismissed by the Society returned here about ten months ago. Since that time he has managed to get into the Kaupuli and has interfered with the Government of the island, causing trade to be tabooed, in fact he wants to take charge of the island. I found he was in debt to the trader $50, which he had refused to pay him. I ascertained he had plenty of money and insisted on his paying his debt. I advised the King to turn him out of the Kaipuli where he had no right to be, and told the King he should be guided by him no more. The King ascended to this dismissed him, and took off the taboo. I told the man himself, if he again interfered in any way with the Government of the island, he would probably be removed. MARTIN KLEIS, a Dane, who appears to be a man of good character, told me he had been trading for 9 years on NUI, and until TUKAIKE returned 10 months ago he had known no trouble on the islands. On looking over the report of H.M.S. "MIRANDA'S" visit to these islands in 1886, Commander ROOKE, under ONOTOA, remarks "TUKAIKE, a teacher and native of NUI, seems to rule the island". Eight natives of OAITUPU asked me for a passage to their island, which I gave them.

  10. I left NUI at 2 p.m. and arrived off OAITUPU Island at 9 o'clock next morning. The current between these islands was but 5 miles to westward in 18 hours. Mr. NITZ a German trader came on board, and I landed in his canoe. Landing here is a trifle better than at the northern islands of the Group. The King was anxious to have the British flag hoisted over his island, but he did not want a white man to come with it. He was glad to get the natives back from NIUTAO and NUI. He complained to me that ZACHIA, a native and formerly a missionary on TAMANA, had since his return given him much trouble. He had told him (the King) that he was no good, and that he wanted to be King, etc. He had that morning gone to NUKUFETAU. I promised to see him there and to speak to him for which the King thanked me.

  11. I left OAITUPU at noon, and arrived off NUKUFETAU at 6 p.m. I did not enter the lagoon, but stopped off, and landed at the western most island, where there is a gap in the reef and landing in canoes fairly good. A pilot came off. He had just come over from OAITUPU, and ZACHIA came in his boat. I landed and saw the King. He said he would like the British flag hoisted. He thought I had come for that purpose. I sent for ZACHIA, and warned him that if he again interfered with the King of OAITUPU he would probably be punished:- he had nothing to do with the government of the island and I would ask the next Man-of-War visiting OAITUPU, to enquire as to his conduct after my departure.

  12. A Mr. RESTIEAUX a British subject is living on the Island, he is doing no business. He formerly traded on Funafuti for Messrs. WEBER and Co. and I was informed (not by him) when the firm ceased trading in the group, they left RESTIEAUX with absolutely nothing. He made no complaints to me - he asked for a few newspapers and a little tobacco as there had been none on the island for many months. Mr. RESTIEAUX who is now 60 years of age appears a well informed man. He has a family of six children by a native wife and I understand is in the poorest circumstances. I was glad to be able to send him a few necessaries of life. At his age, coconut did not seem a very nourishing diet.

155a. Having landed the two natives from NIUTAO I proceeded at 8.30 p.m. for Funafuti and arrived off the northern entrance to the lagoon the following morning at 8.30, having experienced a N.Wly. set of seven miles on passage from NUKUFETAU. I entered the lagoon about high water by the Northern entrance, between Observation Island, and the next Island to the westward, not midway but nearer the West Island. The least water obtained was 27 ft. After entering the lagoon, a fairly straight course to the church clears all dangers. A shoal about 1 1/2 miles from the entrance had 4 1/2 fms. on it. I anchored in 10 fms. off the village, with the church bearing S. 54 degrees E. Distance about 1 mile. I noticed there were several islands on the West Reef.

155b. Should it ever be necessary to store coal in the Ellice Group this place appears to me the most suitable. The water is always smooth in the lagoon and the beach fairly accessible at all times of tide. With one or two punts, coaling could be carried out with ease. I caused a rough plan of the anchorage off the village to be made which will be forwarded when completed.

156. I landed. It being Sunday everyone was at church. After service I saw the King and the missionary. I decided to remain here two days to clean the boilers and on the following day I carried out gun practice from the boats and landed small armed men and marines, and field gun crews for exercise. After which the natives, who were very glad to see the ship here gave a dance in their native costume. Nearly all of the inhabitants of the island visited the ship.

157. I landed here with the King's permission TENTABABARI the APIANG chief, whom I had removed from TARAWA Island (para: 108 of this letter). The King said he would look after him, and he could teach his people how to grow "taro" as is done in the Gilbert Group. The man promised to do so, and to work and give no more troubles. I warned him against trying to leave the island, as British Men-of-War visiting the island would enquire after him. I left a notice with JOHN BRINE a British Trader on the Island warning ships visiting FUNAFUTI against taking TENTABABARI from the islands.

  1. I granted a passage to NUKULAILAI to CHARLES BERNARD a native of JAMAICA with his wife and three children also to four natives of NUKULAILAI, who had been waiting some months for an opportunity to return there.

  2. At 2.30 p.m. on 2nd August, I proceeded out of the lagoon. On leaving the anchorage, a SW course to the 4th island from the main island takes you clear of the shoals. The best passage out is between the 4th and 5th islands. (not between the 3rd and 4th as marked on Plan 766).

    It was about low water when I went out and the least we got was about 21 feet. There was a heavy swell on at the time. The North Channel is my opinion decidedly the safest, there being less chance of finding a swell there. It is reported that no ship passage exists between FUNAFUTI and the cluster of islands to the S.W.

    160. I arrived at NUKULAILAI Island at 8.30 the following morning and anchored off FUNGAWA in ten fathoms with the following bearings.

    N extreme end of Land N.21 degrees E
    N point FUNGAWA Island N.37 1/2 degrees E
    S extreme of Land S.51 degrees E

    The position of the south point of NUKULAILAI Island on Plan 766 is given as latitude 9 degrees 18 South. Longitude 179 degrees 50E. By observations taken by officers of the ship its position is ascertained to be:- Latitude 9 degrees 24 South. Longitude 179 degrees 52 E.

  3. I landed, and found affairs in this island were in a bad state again owing to an ex missionary. These men without doubt are the cause of most of the trouble in the Ellice Group. In this case, the man LUTELLO was a native of Tonga and formerly a missionary in the PELE Islands. After enquiring into the matter, I decided that he must leave the island and he elected to return to TONGA. I received him on board, also 4 children for passage for FIJI, on their way to TONGA. (This subject is fully reported in my Island Report under "NUKULAILAI").

Before leaving I found it necessary that the old King LAPANNA (deposed by LUTELLO) should be reinstated. This was done with the unanimous consent of the inhabitants. MALAKI (LAPANNA'S nephew) King on my arrival, became one of the Kaipuli. The King was anxious that the British Flag should be hoisted on his Island and I promised to try and effect this for him.

162. I weighed at 4 p.m. making sail and stopping the engines when clear of the land. The following forenoon NURAKITA Island was sighted, and at 1.30 p.m. I got under steam. There was a heavy swell on and too much sea to land in ship's boat and no canoe came off. Some natives appeared on the beach, and hoisted an American ensign. I noticed several native houses, and two large buildings on the islands. After waiting some time and as it did not appear that anyone wished to communicate, I proceeded for FIJI, where I arrived at 9.45 a.m. on the 9th instant.

  1. From NUKULAILAI to the FIJI Group I experienced Easterly, and E.S.Ely winds, with a heavy swell from the southward and a S.Wly current of about l/2 knot per hour.

  2. Here I handed over to the proper authorities the native prisoners and passengers and delivered to the High Commissioner for custody, pending the receipt of insructions from the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, as to their disposal - such as the arms received from the islands of the Gilbert Group as were serviceable the remainder were thrown overboard. (vide list attached).

  3. The health of the ship's company has been exceptionally good. There is no malarial fever in the Gilbert and Ellice Groups. Whilst among these islands the weather was most equable. To my island report I attach some notes from staff surgeon TWIGG of this ship of the diseases and etc. which came under his notice in the two Groups abovementioned.

  4. I obtained 184 tons of coal from the agent of the Union Steam Ship Company of New Zealand, for which I paid 37/6 per ton - a reduction of 2/6 per ton being made, on account of my having reported as to the inferior quality of some coal supplied by the same company to the ship in November last.

  5. Having waited on His Excellency the High Commissioner, and given him such information concerning the islands visited by me as he desired, I proposed leaving for Sydney this afternoon.

  6. To this letter of Proceedings I attach Schedule of Enclosures.

I have the honour to be
My Lord
Your obedient Servant
(Sd) Ed. H. M. Davis
Captain.

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"Orlando" at Sydney
15th Septr. 1892
 
Sir,

I have the honour to forward for the information of Your Excellency the documents noted at the foot hereof.

  1. I shall be glad if Your Excellency will return them to me as soon as possible after perusal.

 

                                               I have the honour to be,
                                                  Sir,
                                               Your obedient Servant,
                                                (Signed) Ed. H. M. Davis
                                                    Captain.
C.R. Scott
Rear Admiral
Commander-in-Chief
His Excellency,
Sir John B. Thurston K.C.M.G.
High Commissioner,
Suva,
Fiji

H.M.S. "Royalist" 16 August 1892 No. 35

Letter of Proceedings. 11 Enclosures.

Note: PROCEEDINGS - AT THE END OF THE FOLLOWING………….H.M.S. Royalist at Suva, Fiji

At Jaluit
23rd June 1892

Sir,

Whilst at Tamana Island, Gilbert Group on 3lst May last, I met a part of Arorai natives, who had been landed there in November 1891 by the German barque 'John Wesley', Schneider Master.

They complained that in November 1891 they embarked in the 'John Wesley' at Nukunau for passage to Arorai. They were twenty-six in number - adults and children and they agreed to pay $5 per head - but did not know the children would be charged for. On leaving this, and not having sufficient money, they paid $65, and promised to pay the remainder on arrival at Arorai. The Master agreed to this. This arrangement was made before the vessel left Nukunau.

The next day the vessel arrived at Tamana, and the Master informed them that, the wind being bad, he could not take them to Arorai - and they must either land at Tamana or go on to Taputewea or Nonuti, These latter islands being further from their home than Tamana they had no alternative but to land.

Here, they have been for six months. They received no food on board the ship and no passage money was returned to them. I took these natives to Arorai, and promised to apply for compensation for them if their account proved correct.

If their account be true, and I have no reason to doubt it, I beg that you will cause reparation to be made to these poor islanders by the Master of the vessel for breach of contract which in the case of a white man, he would have to pay heavily for also that remuneration be made to the natives of Tamana who housed and fed these people for six months.

I am returning to these islands shortly and shall be glad to hear from you concerning the matter, as I cannot help thinking they have been badly treated.

I have the honour to be
Sir
Your obedient servant
(Signed) Ed H. M. Davis
Captain.
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(Translation)
Imperial Commissioner
For the protectorate of the
Marshall Island Jaluit
24 June 1892

Sir,

In reply to your letter of 23rd of this month concerning all alleged breach of contract on the part of the Master Schnieder of the German barque 'John Wesley'. I have the honour to inform you that the Imperial Commissioner had not the power to proceed against any person for an action, which does not constitute a breach of the regulation for police measures issued by the Imperial Commissioner for this protectorate.

A claim for damages on the part of the Gilbert Islands natives against the Master Schneider, on account of his alleged breach of contract, can only be made through civil procedure.

An action in this case, against the Master Schneider, would have to be brought before the Imperial Court of this place by yourself, in the interest of the Gilbert Islands natives, or, by a person residing here holding your power of attorney.

I have the honour to be
Sir
Your most obedient servant
(Signed) Brandeis
Imperial Commissioner
To
The Commander,
H.I.Br.M.S. Royalist
Captain Davis

Sir,

I have the honour to inform that I propose leaving this port on the 26th instant for a cruise amongst the Marshall Islands returning here previous to my proceeding south.

I shall be glad if I can be of any service to you whilst visiting the group.

In order to remove any unsapprehension as to my visit to the Marshall Group, I may mention it has no political aspect whatever, and you may rest assured that in my intercourse with the natives, they shall not be led to think that it has.

I have the honour to be
Sir
Your obedient servant
(Signed) Ed. H.M. Davis
Captain
Captain Brandeis
Imperial Commissioner
Jaluit
Jaluit

June 24th 1892

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this date and to return you my thanks for your politeness.

I have the honour to be

Sir

Your obedient Servant
 
(Signed) Brendeis
Imperial Commissioner
Captain Davis
Commander of
H.I.Br.M.S. Royialist
At Jaluit.

Sir,

I have to reiterate you my thanks for the kind offer you have made to me verbally, to take back to their
island a number of Butaritari people, staying now on Milli, whom the Milli chief Kaiko, alias Moses had
brought from Butaritari to Milli on a pleasure trip some months ago.
 
I enclose a letter to chief Kaiko in which I order him to bring all these Butaritari people on board of your vessel, immediately on receipt of my letter, an English translation of which letter I beg leave to enclose.
I have the honour to be

Sir

Your obedient servant
 
(Signed) Brandeis
Imperial Commissioner
Captain Davis
Commander of H.I.BR.M.S.
Royalist
At Jaluit

Jaluit June 25th 1892

Greetings

The Captain of the man of war of the Queen of England, 'Royalist' intends to take back to their island the Butaritari people whom you have brought over from Butaritari to Milli some months ago.

Therefore, I order you herewith to bring all those Butaritari people on board of the man of war without loss of time on receipt of this letter.

The Imperial Commissioner
(Signed) Brandeis
The Chief Kaiko
Milli
  1.  
    No. 244
H.M.S. Royalist
At Jaluit

25th June 1892

Sir,

I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this day's date with enclosure.

I shall be glad to receive the Butaritari natives on board, on arrival at Milli, for conveyance to their island.

I have the honour to be

Sir
Your obedient servant
(Signed) Ed. H.M. Davis
Captain
Captain Brandeis
Imperial Commissioner
Jaluit.

No. 20 My Lord,

I have the honour to report that I arrived here on the 23rd instant.

    1. In compliance with orders, I hoisted the British flag at Abemama Island, on 27th May, and assumed a protectorate over the Gilbert Group. Having visited the other islands in the group, I proceeded for this port.
    2. There are but 50 tons of coal of an inferior quality procurable here - the German barque 'Speculant' with some 400 tons on board having being wrecked on this island on the 15th instant.
    3. I was fortunate enough to obtain 100 tons of coal, whilst in the Gilbert Group, from the Nicaraguan steamer 'Montserrat', engaged in the collecting labour for Guatamala.
    4. Want of coal, will I fear necessitate a very short visit to the Marshall Group, having many islands yet to visit.
    5. As in all probability, I shall meet the flag, before the schooner I am sending this by, can arrive at Sydney, I reserve particulars of my cruise.
    6. The health of the ship's company is good.

I have the honour to be

My Lord

Your obedient servant

(Sd) Ed. H.M. Davis

Captain

The Commander-in-Chief,
H.M. Ships,
Australia.

Copy of telegram sent by Captain E.H.M. Davis

H.M.S. Royalist from Jaluit, Marshall Group to Britannia Sydney New South Wales per schooner German) 'Tlink', which left on 1st July.

27th June 1892

Steamer 'Montserrat' of Corinto, under Nicaraguan colours recruiting labour, Gilbert Islands for Guatamala. She obtained fifty to date. Natives had been warned she will probably remain in Gilbert Group till middle August, then possibly Carolines. Requires five hundred and forty. Agents are Eugene de Sabla and company California Street, San Francisco, from whose agent on board I have obtained bond thirty dollars per head guaranteeing return stop. No coal procurable at Gilberts or Marshalls stop. Probably return Fiji end July, visiting Gilbert again on returning stop. Flag hoisted Gilbert EXODY stop Schooner styled 'POE' of Rotuman detained at Caroline. Brothers de Graves charged piracy and murder will probably sent Manila stop Proceeding today Marshalls.

(Signed) E.H.M.D.

Captain
Butaritari
7th July 1892
Captain Davis,
H.M.S. Royalist

My dear sir,

We the undersigned respectfully petitioned you now that the Gilbert Islands are under the protection of the British Government to further promote the welfare of this and other islands by using your influence with the proper authorities to have appointed here a resident to take charge of the necessary alterations for the better government for these Islands.

We have all reasons to believe that after your departure the King may prove himself quite unfit to act in accordance with your instructions and to correct and to carry out the many changes that are necessary.

We therefore beg you if possible to leave with us one with some authority to whom we may refer. If that cannot be done we take the liberty of asking you to kindly further our wishes by doing what you can to have matters kept in better order. We might venture to suggest that as we pay so high a tax to the King for which we receive little or no benefit it would not be inconsistent with such a state of things to pay at least half of the tax to anyone resident here representing H.M.S. Government.

Hoping that we have not presume too much in asking those favours,

We have the honour

To remain
Dear Sir,
Yours very respectfully,
(signed) A. Wilson
(Sd,) G.Tucktfeldt
(Sd.) A. J. Kustel
(Sd.) C. Wan San
(Sd.) Ben X his mark
(Sd.) Wm. McMillen
(Sd.) Ch. Baer
(Sd.) O. Thomsen
(Sd.) J. F. Luttrell
(Sd.) E.H.M. Davis
Captain
H.M.S. Royalist
At sea.
8th July, 1892

Gentlemen,

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of 7th July 1892. I shall have much pleasure in forwarding your petition to the proper authorities. I regret I am unable to accede to your request viz:- to leave behind me anyone from my ship in authority, to whom you might refer.

Before leaving Butaritari, I impressed on the King as strongly as possible my wishes on the subject of reforms, and the carrying out of the same. At the same time, telling him that in my absence, he was the only authority on the island now that the protectorate had been established and that he was to protect the interest of all traders on the island, alike.

I note your suggestion as to the payment of half your present license towards the support of a resident, appointed by Her Majesty's Government.

I have the honour to be

Gentleman,

Your obedient servant
(Signed) Ed. H.M. Davis
Captain
To
A.Wilson Esq.,
And Gentleman,
Butaritari

9th  July 1892

I have this day given instructions - the King being agreeable - that, until all debts at present
owing to traders on the island by himself and the native of Maraki be paid no copra shall be sold to
vessels or traders other than those on the island. This notice to be shown to all vessels visiting
Maraki, the resident traders to report to me any infringement of this order.
 
(Sd.) Ed. H.M. Davis
Captain - H.M.S. Royalist

Suggestions made to the King of Butaritari by me before leaving the island on 8th July 1892.

  1. All just debts to date to be paid to traders before King claims license from natives.
  2. All debts incurred after date to be at traders risk.
  3. All traders to be charged the same license.
  4. King in consideration of license - (l) not to trade with traders except those resident on the island. (2) to settle all native disputes with traders
  5. No fines to be levied except by the King.
  6. Fines to be greatly reduced, and made more commensurate with offence committed.
  7. All fines to be entered in the book with full particulars from 12th July 1892.
  8. Fines not to be considered King's property, the greater portion to be expended on public works, particulars being noted in a book.
  9. Nuts trees to be planted on spare lands.

10.* No card playing permitted * omitted to be mentioned to the King by me before sailing.

For 1st offence $5 or 1 month's on public works )

For 2nd offence $10 or 2 month's on public works ) and so on

$15 or 3 " " " " )

On receipt please have the above interpreted to the King and inform him that any departure from these rules, which he promised me to carry out, will be reported by you to me.

Captain E.M.S. Royalist

(Signed) Ed: H. M. Davis.

'Orlando' at Sydney

15th September 1892

Sir,

I have the honour to forward for the information of your Excellency the documents noted at the foot hereof.

  1. I shall be glad if your Excellency will return them to me as soon as possible after perusal. I

I have the honour to be

Sir

Your Excellency's most  obedient servant

(Signed) C.T.Scott 

Rear Admiral, Commander in Chief.

His Excellency
Sir John B.Thurston
K.C.M.G.
High Commissioner
For the Western Pacific
Suva, Fiji.

H.M.S. "Royalist" 9th August 1892 No. 36

Letter reporting having placed the Gilbert Islands under British Protection

with particulars in regard to the islands. (11 enclosures and 2 sub enclosures).

Duplicate

Gilbert Islands - Establishment of a British Protectorate over the Group

(Commander-in-Chief)
( 6 Sep-92 ) H.M.S. Royalist
( Australia ) at Fiji.
9th August 1892

No.36 My Lord

In compliance with your 'Secret' memo of 22nd April 1892 ordering me to proceed to

the Gilbert Islands and to place them under British Protection, I have the honour to report that I left Sydney on 27th April arriving at Fiji on the morning of 11th May. Having completed with coal and taken a cargo on deck, I proceeded on 13th May for the Gilbert Group.

    1. Previous to sailing from Fiji, I endeavoured to obtain a competent interpreter for the group but was unable to do so. The High Commissioner recommended Mr. CORRIE, a British subject trader on MAIANA Island as the most competent and trustworthy interpreter if his services could be procured.

    2. I arrived at TAPUTEWEA one of the islands of the Gilbert Group on 24th May and making enquiries of the traders there ascertained that no foreign power laid claim to that island or any other in the Group as far as they knew. Being Her Majesty's Birthday the ship was dressed and a Royal salute fired at noon.

    3. The same day I proceeded to APAMAMA Island and stopped off ENTRANCE Island the following day. I landed, and from 'JACK' the pilot who is one of the King's advisers ascertained that no foreign power laid any claim to APAMAMA. By him I send word to the King that I would return about 27th May as it was to proposed to hoist the British flag at APAMAMA.

    4. I then proceeded to MAIANA Island arriving on the 26th May having obtained the services of Mr. CORRIE as interpreter I sailed the same night to APAMAMA and anchored off ENTRANCE Island at 9 a.m. on the 27th.

      27th May

    5. Mr. CORRIE informed me that no foreign power laid claim to the Group as far as he knew, but that several of the traders on the various islands had some time ago applied to the Imperial Commissioner at Jaluit, Marshall Group to obtain for them German Protection as the British Government appeared to have forgotten them - no British man of war having visited the Group since 1886 - whereas German man of war were constantly cruising in the Group and affording protection to traders irrespective of their nationality. The white men preferred British protection but there being no regular communication with Fiji, they looked for Jaluit for German help. His own deeds, for instance, for purchase of land in the Gilbert Group MR. CORRIE had registered in the Imperial Commissioner's officer at Jaluit.

      27th May

    6. At noon on the 27th May, I proceeded to the King's village at APAMAMA across the lagoon some seven miles from where the ship anchored taking with me a guard composed of Bluejackets and marines. On landing I was received by the King and his council, and in the maneaba all public meeting house - I in their presence - and that of about half the inhabitants on the island (having previously satisfied myself that no foreign power laid any claim to the Group) explained to them the nature of the step I was about to take. I pointed out, in accordance to the instructions from the colonial office the advantages to be gained by their accepting British Protection. Also that no taxes would be levied on them without their consent - or their laws and the customs (relating to natives only) be interfered with.

      I informed them that if they wished a white man to reside in the Group for their better protection and to whom they could refer question, they themselves were unable to decide - the Queen would send one, but they would be expected to contribute towards his support, which considering the number of islands in the group, and the large population would not be very heavy for them, and their contribution could be paid in either cash or native produce. This subject they were to talk over amongst themselves.

      With reference to labour I explained that any natives accepting engagements in Her Majesty's possession would be looked after by her, but that if they emigrated to Mexico or countries out of the Pacific or when in ships other than British, the Queen would be unable to afford them protection.

    7. They all expressed their willingness to have the British flag hoisted and thoroughly understood all I had said to them. The question of the residents they would consider.

      Enclosures Nos. 1 and 2

    8. After reading the Proclamation, I hoisted the Union Jack on the King's flagstaff with the usual honours. I then handed the proclamation to the King - a copy of which I beg to enclose. I also enclosed copy of a notice left with the missionary concerning the sale of arms, etc. and intoxicating liquors for the information of traders.

    9. The King's village being out of sight from the anchorage, I suggested to the King that the flag should be left in charge of 'Jack' the pilot at ENTRANCE Island who could hoist it on the approach of any vessel. He agreed to this and on my return to the ship I hoisted the flag there. The 'Royalist' saluting it with 21 guns.

    10. The perculiar constitution of this group of sixteen islands, having 13 separate governments each with its own King or Council of "old men" rendered it expedient in my opinion, to avoid any chance of ill-feeling which might arise against any individual island, that the same ceremony should be gone through in each island having its own government. I therefore visited the islands of the Group, on the dates named and having as at APAMAMA thoroughly explained my mission performed the same ceremony - leaving a flag and copy of Proclamation and arms and spirituous liqour notice at each island.

    11. It appeared to me the unanimous wish of the inhabitants of every island I visited in this Group that the British flag should be hoisted. Their knowledge of, and reverence for "KAPITORIA" (Queen Victoria) was to me most surprising considering how remote these islanders are from the outer world. I encourage them to visit the ship, and the greatest object to them on board was a photograph of Her Majesty.

      Enclosure No.3.

    12. To this letter I attach a form containing such particulars of each island of the group as I was able to collect.

      Types of Natives

    13. The natives of the Gilbert Islands are, on the whole a peaceable and law abiding people. They somewhat resemble the Malay type and are not at all unlike Coreans. They have straight hair in many cases aquiline features, and in one or two of the northern islands faces almost Egyptian may be seen, some of them quite handsome. The children are as a rule, clean, bright and happy and very fond of bathing.

      Clothing

    14. Articles of European clothing are occasionally worn. The reedi or grass petticoat being the general dress, many of the young girls still wearing the ti.ti. a very short grass petticoat from four to eight inches in depth. In some of the islands mats are used as the only dress by the men.

      Food

    15. The staple food was coconut and taro of a course description. Pandanus and fish of which a large variety is to be found in the lagoons; a few being being poisonous - these however seldom take the bait. The fruit of the pandanus is also dried and pressed, the result being a substance resembling dried dates. Molasses is obtained from the coconut tree, also toddy a sweet liquor obtained from the stem of the flower. This if allowed to ferment becomes very intoxicating. On most of the islands, a heavy fine is inflicted on "sour toddy" drinkers.

      Morals

    16. The standard of morality of these islanders is decidedly high. Polygamy and infanticide are almost extinct although in some of the island of the group a certain amount of immorality exists, on the whole they compare most favourably with other islands in the Pacific. Married women are jealously guarded. Eight months before my visit to ONOTOA, a man was hanged, or rather allowed to hang himself for killing a man who, in church, had put his tongue out at his "the murderer's" wife.

      Girls marry at from ten to seventeen years of age. In some cases, children are betrothed at, and even before birth. As a rule, the families are not large. In some islands, they are restricted to three.

      Treatment of Women

      Women in the Gilbert Group are well treated by the men. In one or two islands for adultery and illicit connection, they were subjected to flogging. At my intercession, this had been discontinued.

      Adoption

    17. It is common custom to adopt one another's children. This is often done at, or before the birth of a child such an offer being considered an honour, it is seldom refused and not infrequently, a child is received by its foster mother a few hours after its birth. Adopted children are considered of more important in a family than the others.

      At ONOTOA I found it was the custom when a child died for the foster father to sleep nightly for s certain period, in the grave.

      Ornaments

    18. The ornaments are few - necklets made of small shells, porpoise, sharks, and occasionally human teeth are worn. The necklet most in use by both men and women consists of girls hair plaited very finely. The young men of fashion used, to keep their mats in position, a girdle of girls hair plaited into a rope some times an inch or more in circumference. Plaiting this hair from short lengths of about eight to twelve inches long and mat making formed the chief part of the industry of the women. Hats, baskets, and fans are also made but not of a very fine description.

      Houses

    19. The houses are spacious, consisting of one apartment only, a thick gabled roof is raised about four feet from the ground, supported on slabs of coral, the size being about four feet from the ground, supported on slabs of coral, the sides being open mosquito bars are an absolute necessity and are found in nearly every house.

      Arms and Armour

    20. On some of the islands the natives are more turbulent than on others and these may be found a few of the old native weapons sharks teeth's spears and swords, also complete suits of armour made of rope from the coconut fibre. Occasionally, fighting belts are worn over these made from the skin of the stinging ray.

      A number of arms of every description from the old tower musket to the latest repeating rifles have been supplied at various times by the traders. Of these, some 600 were voluntarily handed to me by the Kings and "old men" on the assumption of the Protectorate and it was with the greatest pleasure I received them and in cases where the natives failed to obey the King's mandate to give them up I was glad to enforce his orders. I think it unlikely that any more of these wars such as that which was in progress at TARAWA on my arrival there, and which are disastrous to the islands will again take place. I think it also unlikely that any traders British or foreign will after my visit risk selling arms to the natives.

      Gambling

    21. Card playing having been introduced into these islands to the detriment of the natives, I took such steps (after I became aware of this fact) in the islands I subsequently visited to check this growing evil.

      Canoes

    22. The Gilbert Islanders are expert boatmen. Their outrigger canoes are built of planks, cut from the coconut tree sewn together with twine made of coconut fibre. The seams being corked with pandanus leaves. In some of the islands whale boats are being built - imported lumber being used instead of the heavy coconut planks. They are fastened together in the same way as the canoes. The canoes have large matting sails and lie very close to the wind.

      Tattooing

    23. Tattooing, for both men and women of which each island had its separate pattern is dying out.

      Exports

    24. The export of copra might be greatly increased, if spare land were cultivated and trees were uniformly planted.

      Droughts

    25. The islands, of coral formation, and having no soil whatever on them, are subjected to occasional drought. Hurricanes are unknown, the water supply is bad, the average height of the island being about eight feet above high water mark and the width varying from fifty to five hundred yards, the water is necessarily brackish.

      Climate

      The climate is very dry and equable. The chief diseases being of a cutaneos description are, no doubt caused by want of vegetables and brackish water. Venereal disease is almost unknown in this group.

      I append remarks from the staff surgeon of the ship concerning diseases which came under his observation in the Group.

    26. As mentioned in the attached form, in several of the islands' traders pay a tax to the King for a license to trade. This custom I did not feel justified in interfering with as I was not aware to what extent protection would be afforded in the future.

    27. On many of the islands, debts have been incurred by the natives to the traders, which, to some extent, have been guaranteed by the King. I recommended that these should be immediately paid off and no further credit given. I also warned the traders that in future debt contracted must be at their own risk. This applied more particularly to BUTARITARI.

    28. It is the custom in these islands with a view to increase the value of copra for the ruling power to place a tabu on traders until they pay a higher price for the copra. This bears hardly on the poorer classes, who having but few nuts cannot afford to delay their sales. (a tabu often lasting some months during which time all trade is at a standstill). Knowing the trouble arising from natives selling surreptitiously to the traders I recommend free trade to both sides, which in every case was agreed to after a little persuasion.

    29. On the 9th June at Maraki Island I found the steamer "Monsterrat" under Nicaraguan colours recruiting labour for Guatamala. In spite of my warnings, the allurements of this vessel caused many natives to recruit and on 21st July (when I last saw her) 268 adults accompanied by upwards of 100 children had already shipped. The vessel hoped to obtain six hundred adults whom I think she will have no difficulty in obtaining. They are accompanied by several white traders who have accepted positions as overseers on the plantation to which these natives are going. I took such precautions as suggested themselves to me, to ensure the safe return of these islanders on completion of their engagements. This case I have specially reported in Royalist's Letter No. 22 of 1892.

    30. As stated, in the attached form the Northern Island of the Gilbert Group are under the Boston Board of Missions having their Headquarters at Kusaie in the Caroline Group. The southern islands are under the London Mission with their Headquarters at Samoa. Within the last four years a Roman Catholic Mission has been established in the Group with Nonuti as its head station.

      Whilst giving the Missionaries all the credit due to them for the pioneering work in connection with these islands, I am of the opinion that the whole question of mission work now requires thorough investigation. My time was so fully occupied by the large number of cases which I found demanded by immediate attention, and occupied most of my time that I was unable to gain anything like the amount of information on various subjects in the islands, that I could have wished, but the main points that came under my notice concerning missions and which I repeat require immediate investigation and revision are these:-

      On most of the islands complaints were made that the Missionaries traded. This they denied. (At Butaritari two deeds for the sale of land by a missionary came under my notice, one for one thousand the other seventy-five dollars).

      The pay and cost of maintenance of native missionaries, and the subscription are a very heavy drain on the natives.

      The charge for books I consider too high. All dancing and singing (except hymns) have been forbidden. At nearly every island I was asked if the Queen would let them dance and sing. I said that when a white man came to reside in the Group he would probably see about it, but I was sure the "Ti" dance would not be permitted. (This is danced by young girls in the scantiest of clothing and generally ended in quarrels among the men).

      The fines levied at the Missionaries instigation, for trivial breaches of church discipline should be abolished.

    31. There are many smaller points which require looking into in individual islands. The cause I believe of most of these irregularities is the want of proper supervision by white missionaries.

    32. I have asked many of the Roman Catholic converts why they prefer the Roman Catholic religion. They invariably answer "Oh! that Roman Catholic Missionary man he no trade, he no fine, he give "um book no makee pay - oh! he belong good man". This mission has, as far as I could ascertain about 2180 converts, yet it has no less than five European residents in the Group to administer their wants, whereas the English and American mission have but one each, who I believe visit the islands not oftner than once a year.

      If matters are not placed on a better footing in the English and American missions it would not surprise me if in a few years the whole population become Roman Catholic.

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      ELLICE GROUP

       

    33. On my return to Fiji hearing that a Protectorate was about to be established over the ELLICE Islands to this letter I attach some particulars concerning the islands of that Group visited by me, which may prove of interest to the colonial office.

      Enclosure No. 5.

    34. The general remarks in this letter concerning the Gilbert Group apply more or less to these islands.

      Types of Natives

      The natives here somewhat resemble Samoans.

      Diseases

      Enclosure No. 6.

      I also attached remarks by the staff surgeon on such diseases as came under his notice in the Ellice Group.

      Missions

    35. As regards mission here I will give an instance of what I think a hardship. At one island in the Group with about 250 inhabitants and whose exports of copra brings them in 150 pounds annually the natives have to pay the following.

      Subscription to native Missionary - $100 = 20 pounds

      Food for do. And family

      About 20 young nuts )

      10 old nuts ) 20 cents per diem - $ 73 = 14 pounds

      Taro etc. )

      20 mats (These can be sold to missionary ship at $1 each - $ 20 = 4 pounds

      Subscription for white missionary

      (has been $100 at times) - $ 70 = 14 pounds ---------------------------- Total 52 pounds ----------------------------

      Leaving out the children, the adults have to pay about 8/- per annum for the privilege of being a Protestant.

      Bibles are charged for at $2 or 8/-

      Smaller Bibles $l.50 or 6/-

      Hymn Books $0.50 or 2/-

      Each person must have a Bible and Hymn Book. All these books are too extravagantly got up for poor people.

      Hurricane In 1891

    36. The Ellice Group in February 1891 was almost devastated by a severe hurricane, during the lifetime of the oldest inhabitant this is the only one that has occurred.

      Enclosures 7 and 8 9 and l0 ll (a to d)

    37. I append list of residence in Gilbert and Ellice Groups - statement of copra exported from Gilberts in 1891 and a petition presented by residents at Butaritari with my reply enclosing suggestions to the King of Butaritari for the better Government of that island. I also attach list of residents in, and statistics of, the Marshall Group which may prove interesting.

    38. I regret that this report is not as complete as I could wish it to be. The number of cases which demanded my attention left me but little time to prosecute inquiries, which, had time allowed I should have done.

    39. I trust that at no distant period a resident may be appointed to these Groups to promote the welfare of the inhabitants. His establishment with very little taxation might be self-supporting. Up to the present, ten islands of the Gilbert Group

      representing over 20,000 inhabitants have signified their willingness to contribute towards his maintenance. Answers from other islands of this group representing some 5,000 inhabitants I have had no opportunity of receiving as yet.

    40. A schedule of enclosures is attached.

I have the honour to be

My Lord,

Your obedient servant

(Signed) Ed. H.M. Davis Captain.

SCHEDULE OF ENCLOSURES TO ''ROYALIST'S" LETTER NO. 36 OF 1892

  Copy of Proclamation.

  1. Copy of Notice relating to sale of arms and intoxicating liquors.
  2. Tabular report on Gilbert Islands.
  3. Remarks on diseases etc. noticed on Gilbert Islands by staff surgeon Twigg.
  4. Tabular Report on Ellice Islands.
  5. Remarks on diseases, etc. noticed on Ellice Islands by staff surgeon Twigg.
  6. Residents and nationality of whites in Gilbert Group.
  7. " " " " " " Ellice "
  8. Copra exported from Gilbert Islands in 1891.
  9. Petition from residents at Butaritari to Captain Davis - enclosing his reply and list of suggestions for King's guidance.
  10. List of residents in and statistics of the Marshall Group.

(Signed) Ed. H.M. Davis Captain.

P R O C L A M A T I O N

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In the name of Her Majesty Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India
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By Edward Henry Meggs Davis
Esquire Captain in Her Majesty's
Fleet and Deputy Commissioner
for the Western Pacific -
Commander Her Majesty's Ship
"Royalist".
 
WHEREAS I have it in my command from Her Majesty
Queen Victoria through Her Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies
to declare that Her Majesty has this day assumed a Protectorate over the Group
of Islands known as the Gilbert Islands situated between 4 degrees north and
three degrees south latitude and l70 degrees east and 177 degrees longitude
and that the following islands and all small islands or islets depending upon
them are included in such protectorate viz. -
 
ARORAI, TAMANA, ONOTOA, PERU, NUKUNAU
TAPUTEWEA, NONUTI, ARANUKA, KURIA, APAMAMA,
MAIANA, TARAWA, APIANG, MARAKI, BUTARITARI, MAKIN

NOW THEREFORE I Edward Henry Meggs Davis Captain in Her Majesty's fleet and Deputy Commissioner for the Western Pacific commanding Her Majesty's Ship "Royalist" do hereby proclaim and declare to all men that from and after the date of these presents the above mentioned islands have been placed under British Protection.

Given under my hand at APAMAMA this 27th day of May,
One thousand eight hundred and ninety two
(Signed) Ed. H.M. Davis
WITNESS:
(Signed) F. St. L. Luscombe Lieut.
(Signed) R. D. Corrie Trader.
(COPY)

Her Majesty Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India having this day - . - assumed a Protectorate over the Gilbert Islands I would remind all residents in the Group other than natives that it is contrary to Law to supply firearms, ammunition, explosive substances or intoxicated liquors to any natives of the Pacific Islands.

This is hereby made known for general information.
Given under my hand at APAMAMA
This 27th day of May one thousand eight
hundred and ninety two.
(Signed) Ed. H.M. Davis
Captain H.M.S. "Royalist"
And Deputy Commissioner.

G I L B E R T   I S L A N D S

Traders and natives emigrating in steamer 'Montserrat' are not deducted from the number shown herein.

MAIANA Visited 26th May

17th, 18th June 15th July

  1. Name of King or chief his religion - King ITAKA MOANEBA (ISAAC) Protestant 20 police.

  2. Name and religion of missionary. Does he trade? Rev. W. N. LONO. American mission. Prot. No.

  3. Names of whites and traders. Nationality and for whom trading.

    ROBERT. D. CORRIE British. Own account.
    GEO. Mc. MURDOCK " Jaluit Gesellschaft
    MICHAEL SHEA American Crawford & Co.
    M.B. MAHOE Hawaiian Own account
  4. Number of native population. Religion. 1,760 between 400 and 500 protestants.

  5. Increase or decrease. Cause. Decreasing. Sickness and infanticide.

  6. Marriage Laws. Betrothal at or after birth. Polygamy abolished one year.

  7. Labour. None.

  8. Production. Copra, taro, breadfruit

  9. Exports Annually. Average 180 tons copra,1 ton sharks' fins

  10. Weapons and ammunition. About 18 guns in Kings' possession.

  11. Last visited by Man-of-War. "Sperber" (German) Dec 1891.

    "Wolf" "Alexandrine" "Eber" (German) about yearly since

    H.M.S. "Miranda's" visit in 1886.

  12. Communication with other Islands etc.

  13. Steamer "Archer", two American vessels and "Loongana" (British)

    Every three or four months.

  14. Landing. Good at half-tide. Much wading at low at entrance N of Island.

    Boat passage into lagoon 7 miles south of north point of Island. Least water 6 feet.

  15. Anchorage. Good in from 7 to 15 fms. Sand and choral off north end of Island.

  16.  
    15. Laws and Customs. No arms or liquor traffic. $30 fine for drunkenness. Murder, adultery, etc. punished by forfeiture of land.
  17. Remarks. Natives peaceable, clean, and free from disease. Fish plentyful both in and out of the lagoon, none poisonous. Well water brackish. A few curlew and sand-snipe. Very little work os Sundays. After Hoisting the Flag at the Maniaba which is by far the cleanest and neatest in the group the King asked me to take all the guns away from the Island; Which I did leaving 14 guns in his charge for the use of the police. The King and a large number of natives visited the ship. Mr. CORRIE Trader on this Island was employed as interpreter on board this ship whilst a Protectorate was being established in the group. During the latter part of my cruise I had for interpreter TEKIATON the chief of Police at this Island, who is an excellent native interpreter.

On my return to this Island 15th July finding the native debts to Traders had not been reduced as he promised they should be I sent a message to the King about it advising him to see it done. I handed to Mr. CORRIE $17.50 from the Jaluit Gesellschaft being the half passage money of some natives who had paid for a passage in a vessel belonging to that company and had not taken it.

From Mr. CORRIE I learnt that the King was desirous a white Resident should be appointed to the Group whose support he was willing to contribute to.

I ascertained that Mr. MURDOCK a Trader and some seventy natives had left in the steamer "MONTSERRAT" having accepted engagements on coffee plantations in GUATEMALA.

(COPY)

Her Majesty Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India having this day - . - assumed a Protectorate over the Gilbert Islands I would remind all residents in the Group other than natives that it is contrary to Law to supply firearms, ammunition, explosive substances or intoxicated liquors to any natives of the Pacific Islands.

This is hereby made known for general information.
Given under my hand at APAMAMA
This 27th day of May one thousand eight
hundred and ninety two.
(Signed) Ed. H.M. Davis
Captain H.M.S. "Royalist"
And Deputy Commissioner.
  1. APAMAMA = Visited 25 & 27 May 16 July

    1. Name of the King or Chief. His Religion. King Paul (aged 10) assisted by eight councillors. Religion not known.

    1. Name and Religion of Missionary. Does he trade? Moses. Native of Butaritari. American mission Protestant. No.

    2. Names of whites and traders. Nationality and for whom trading.

      John Johnson, American Own account (doubtful if trading).

      ? Johnny, American (Formerly TEM BINOKO'S COOK).

      Fred Ohlsen German (Waiting for German ship)

    3. Number of native population. Religion. 700 about 150 protestants.

    4. Increase or decrease. Cause. Decreasing. Infanticide.

    5. Marriage Laws. Betrothal.

    6. Labour. None.

    7. Production. Copra, pandanus, taro, breadfruit.

    8. Exports annually. About 150 tons copra.

    9. Weapons and ammunitions. About 100 guns in King's possession.

    10. Last visited by man of war. "Alexandrine" (German) unknown. H.M.S. "Miranda" 1886.

    11. Communication with other islands, etc. American and German vessel. The King does all the trading.

    12. Landing. Good at Entrance Island and in the lagoon at high water, otherwise long waiting.

    13. Anchorage. Good at Entrance Island just south of tide rips.

    14. Laws and customs. Not known.

    15. Remarks: Natives of fine physigue, clean and healthy looking nearly all well clothed.

Tem Binoko, the "Old King" died at the end of l891 and was succeeded by his brother Simon who after ruling for four and half months died of drink. He was succeeded by Paul, who, on my arrival had only been King ten days. They evidently do not wish for traders to reside on the island. The King has a number of European built boat. His house is clean and partially furnished with European furniture. He has some forty wives left him by his predecessors. Everything on the island belongs to the King. The village is very clean and has good coral paths. Maneaba large and very neat and suspended to the roof of the building was the massive platform on which Tem Binoko - who weighed 20 stones - was carried. It is the custom on this island that the King shall always be carried.

On my second visit on 16th July, I did not see the King but sent a message to him telling him the other islands in the Group were willing to support a resident and hope he would do the same.

Whilst here, I found the native wife of the late JAMES BURNE of MARIKI Island and from her obtained evidence concerning BURNE'S suspicious death. JACK the pilot at Entrance Island can at any time find this woman (NEKURIA) should she be required. British Protectorate established 27th May 1892 over the Gilbert Islands. Flag hoisted at Apamama. Copy of Proclamation and notice re supply of intoxicated liquors, arms, etc. to natives enclosed.

 

*****P R O C L A M A T I O N *****

In the name of Her Majesty Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India
 
By Edward Henry Meggs Davis
Esquire Captain in Her Majesty's
Fleet and Deputy Commissioner
for the Western Pacific -
Commander Her Majesty's Ship
"Royalist".
 
WHEREAS I have it in my command from Her Majesty
Queen Victoria through Her Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies
to declare that Her Majesty has this day assumed a Protectorate over the Group
of Islands known as the Gilbert Islands situated between 4 degrees north and
three degrees south latitude and l70 degrees east and 177 degrees longitude
and that the following islands and all small islands or islets depending upon
them are included in such protectorate viz. -
 
ARORAI, TAMANA, ONOTOA, PERU, NUKUNAU
TAPUTEWEA, NONUTI, ARANUKA, KURIA, APAMAMA,
MAIANA, TARAWA, APIANG, MARAKI, BUTARITARI, MAKIN

NOW THEREFORE I Edward Henry Meggs Davis Captain in Her Majesty's fleet and Deputy Commissioner for the Western Pacific commanding Her Majesty's Ship "Royalist" do hereby proclaim and declare to all men that from and after the date of these presents the above mentioned islands have been placed under British Protection.

Given under my hand at APAMAMA this 27th day of May,
One thousand eight hundred and ninety two
(Signed) Ed. H.M. Davis
WITNESS:
(Signed) F. St. L. Luscombe Lieut.
(Signed) R. D. Corrie Trader.

(COPY)

Her Majesty Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India having this day assumed a Protectorate over the Gilbert Islands I would remind all residents in the Group other than natives that it is contrary to Law to supply firearms, ammunition, explosive substances or intoxicated liquors to any natives of the Pacific Islands.

This is hereby made known for general information.
Given under my hand at APAMAMA
This 27th day of May one thousand eight
hundred and ninety two.
(Signed) Ed. H.M. Davis
Captain H.M.S. "Royalist"
And Deputy Commissioner.

ARANUKA  - Visited 6th June 1892

    1. Name of King or Chief. His religion. No King. Dependency of Apamama.

    2. Name and religion of Missionary. Does he trade? None.

    3. Names of whites and traders nationality. For whom trading? None.

    4. Number of native population. Religion. About 100. A few protestants.

    5. Increase or decrease. Cause.

    6. Marriage Laws. Betrothal.

    7. Labour. None.

    8. Production. Copra, pandanus, taro.

    9. Exports annually. 40 tons of copra.

    10. Weapons and ammunition. None.

    11. Last visited by man of war. H.M.S. "Dart" 1884.

    12. Communication with other islands.

    13. Landing. Appeared bad.

    14. Anchorage. None.

    15. Laws and Customs. Same as Apamama.

    16. Remarks. Too much sea on to land here. No canoe came off. Everything here belongs to the King of Apamama.

DISEASES, CLIMATE, ETC. OF THE GILBERT ISLANDS

The Gilbert Islands are remarkably free from endemic disease. The climate at the season of our visit was extremely dry and equable. A great want is a pure water supply. The wells are mere holes in the sandy soil and are manifestly dirty in many cases. On the island of Nonoati where I spent a whole day on shore, the wells were brackish and the water from them had a disagreeable odour. White traders have in more than once instance complained to me that they were affected with swelling of the lower limbs and prostration which they put down to the bad water.

White residents suffer much from Dyspepsia owing to a monotony of food and a want of due proportion of fresh vegetables.

Vegetable foods grown in the island are:

    1. Popoi an inferior kind of taro which has a large bulbous root; it only grows in swampy soil consequently its cultivation is limited as the natives have to sink pits of considerable depth to gain the requisite moisture for its growth.

    2. The fruit of the pandanus or screw pine is used, it is eaten more as a fruit from which the juice is sucked.

    3. The jack fruit grows in some of the islands. The coconut of course is the main stay of the people in every sense. The milk from it takes the place of drinking water though it is much more relish by new comers than by residents. The young soft "meat" is eaten at all times with relish and is most nourishing from the amount of oil it contains. Toddy is got from the flower stem of the coconut tree, before the stem has burst completely into blossom. It is bound around tightly with cord the end of the stem is now cut off and from it the toddy flows into a vessel tied underneath to catch it. A good tree will give a quart of toddy each day. Toddy forms a pleasant sweet tasting drink when fresh. In about three days from the time it is collected it ferments and becomes alcoholic and consequently highly intoxicating.

Notwithstanding the above conditions Europeans lived to old age frequently in these islands. In Nonoati one old gentleman who had been recently stricken with paralysis was reputed to be over eighty and another on the same island was hale though over seventy. There are no malarial fevers here as the narrow strips of land have no swamps nor is there any decaying vegetation. There is no venereal disease as far as I could ascertain. I saw one case of elephantiasis in the person of a white trader. In some islands ringworm is moderately prevalent. This disease is susceptible of speedy cure. Epidemic catarrh seems to come periodically; this the traders say is due to change of wind i.e. when it becomes somewhat colder. The natives sleep on a shingle floor of their houses on a mat. The houses have no side walls merely a sloping roof to within about three feet off the ground all round so that at night they are exposed in a marked degree to every change of temperature.

The natives are a healthy looking, well nourished race. On all the islands there is a good supply of the younger generation coming on.

(Signed) Geo. D. Twigg
Staff Surgn, R.N.

DISEASES, CLIMATE, ETC. OF THE ELLICE ISLANDS

A native disease known as Tennemanu or Rot affects a considerable number of people. Seen principally on the legs or upper extremities. One man examined by me had suffered from it for ten years. Commences as a crop of large pustules or small boils pale looking and tense, these ulcerate and discharged a thin semi-purulent fluid. After a time when crop after crop of pustules has come and gone, the sub-cutaneous tissue becomes indurated and thickened causing swelling of the limb the skin of which feels firm and discovered with white superficial cicatrices due to the healing of the pustules above alluded to. As a tendency towards recovering. Te Kautani - this disease the natives say last about one year and affects only children. As a very characteristic appearance, masses of piled up warty looking eruptions affecting all parts of the body. There is no inflammation ulceration or swelling of the surrounding skin. After a time, these masses separate and leave a red weeping surface. Causes a good deal of irritation and makes children fretful. A Mr. M. Kleis, trader in these islands says that he has cured many cases of both the above formed disease by small doses of Calomel. He says that in four days the eruption can be quite removed from a child by this remedy.

Elephantisis of the legs and scrotun is not uncommon in the group. In some cases of this disease the native operate by cutting a diamond shaped out of the scrotun. Afterwards, bringing the cut edges together. A shark's tooth set in a wooden handle is used as a knife. The climate of the Ellice Islands is much less agreeable than that of the Gilberts. There is a much larger rainfall and the air is damp, and sky often overcast. The natives are not well provided with clothes or small necessaries as trading vessels seldom visit these islands. They being small and having little copra for export. The water supply is universally bad in the Ellice Islands being brackish and otherwise impure. The traders drunk only rainwater; the natives as yet however had not the means or do not take the trouble to collect rainwater.
 
(Signed) Geo. D. Twigg
Staff Surgn. R.N.

Butaritari 7th July 1892

Captain Davis,
H.M.S. Royalist

My dear sir,

We the undersigned respectfully petitioned you now that the Gilbert Islands are under the protection of the British Government to further promote the welfare of this and other islands by using your influence with the proper authorities to have appointed here a resident to take charge of the necessary alterations for the better government for these Islands.

We have all reasons to believe that after your departure the King may prove himself quite unfit to act in accordance with your instructions and to correct and to carry out the many changes that are necessary.

We therefore beg you if possible to leave with us one with some authority to whom we may refer. If that cannot be done we take the liberty of asking you to kindly further our wishes by doing what you can to have matters kept in better order. We might venture to suggest that as we pay so high a tax to the King for which we receive little or no benefit it would not be inconsistent with such a state of things to pay at least half of the tax to anyone resident here representing H.M.S. Government.

Hoping that we have not presume too much in asking those favours,
 
We have the honour
To remain
Dear Sir,
Yours very respectfully,
 
(signed) A. Wilson
(Sd,) G.Tucktfeldt
(Sd.) A. J. Kustel
(Sd.) C. Wan San
(Sd.) Ben X his mark
(Sd.) Wm. McMillen
(Sd.) Ch. Baer
(Sd.) O. Thomsen
(Sd.) J. F. Luttrell

sub-enclosure No. 1 to Enclosure 10

(Sd.) E.H.M. Davis
Captain
H.M.S. Royalist
At sea.
8th July, 1892

Gentlemen,

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of 7th July 1892. I shall have much pleasure in forwarding your petition to the proper authorities. I regret I am unable to accede to your request viz:- to leave behind me anyone from my ship in authority, to whom you might refer.

Before leaving Butaritari, I impressed on the King as strongly as possible my wishes on the subject of reforms, and the carrying out of the same. At the same time, telling him that in my absence, he was the only authority on the island now that the protectorate had been established and that he was to protect the interest of all traders on the island, alike.

I note your suggestion as to the payment of half your present license towards the support of a resident, appointed by Her Majesty's Government.

I have the honour to be
Gentleman,
Your obedient servant
(Signed) Ed. H.M. Davis
Captain
 
To
A.Wilson Esq.,
And Gentleman,
Butaritari

sub-enclosure No 2. To Enclosure No. 10.

Suggestions made to the King of Butaritari by me before leaving the island on 8th July 1892.

  1. All just debts to date to be paid to traders before King claims license from natives.
  2. All debts incurred after date to be at traders risk.
  3. All traders to be charged the same license.
  4. King in consideration of license - (l) not to trade with traders except those resident on the island. (2) to settle all native disputes with traders
  5. No fines to be levied except by the King.
  6. Fines to be greatly reduced, and made more commensurate with offence committed.
  7. All fines to be entered in the book with full particulars from 12th July 1892.
  8. Fines not to be considered King's property, the greater portion to be expended on public works, particulars being noted in a book.
  9. Nuts trees to be planted on spare lands.

10.* No card playing permitted * omitted to be mentioned to the King by me before sailing.

For 1st offence $5 or 1 month's on public works )
For 2nd offence $10 or 2 month's on public works ) and so on
$15 or 3 " " " " )

On receipt please have the above interpreted to the King and inform him that any departure from these rules, which he promised me to carry out, will be reported by you to me.

Captain E.M.S. Royalist
(Signed) Ed: H. M. Davis.

Marshall Group

Taxation.
Licenses Marks per annum
Jaluit Gesellschaft 1st class 9.000
A. Crawford & Co. 2nd class 6.000
Henderson & MacFarlane 2nd class 6.000
Trading Vessels each trip 1000 marks
Estimated 4 trips yearly 4.000
Public House (Limited to one) 800
Each trading station 100
at Nauro 200
Poll Tax
Each Foreigner over 16 years of age 20
Natives copra* 354.000 lbs
(The Chiefs receive 73 of this native tax in return for
collecting the copra)
Total number of natives in Marshall Group including Nauro Island is about l5000
*This copra has usually been sold to Jaluit Gesellschaft at l cent per lb. In future it will be old by
public auction.

Marshall Group

Receipts and Expenditures 1891
Estimated Real
Receipts 42.200 marks Receipts 43.327 marks
+Expenditure 20.500 marks Expenditure 15.055 marks
Balance ) 21.700 marks Balance 28.272 marks
Creditor ) ---------------- Creditor ----------------
This balance, if insufficient to pay Commissioner and Secretary's salaries, is, I understand made up by the Jaluit Gessellschaft.
+ Does not include salaries of Commissioner or Secretary.

Marshall Group

Export of Copra during 1891
By what Firm exported Quantity in lbs.
Jaluit Gessellschaft ) 2.261.349
Jaluit )
Crawford & Co ) 876.885
San Francisco )
Henderson & McFarlane) 574.167
Sydney )
18 May 1892

Nukulailai - visited 3 August 1892

  1. Name of Chief & his religion - Malaki King Protestant - 3 Kaupuli - Lapanna King Protestant - elected on 3 Ausut 1892 by wish of people, in my presence, with Malaki, Maika & Hosea as Kaupuli.

  2. Name & religion of Missionary - does he trade?

    Isiah, Samoan, London Mission, Protestant - No.

  3. Name of whites - nationality. For whom trading. None.

  4. Number of native population - religion - 95 Protestant.

  5. Increase or decrease - cause decreasing not known.

  6. Marriage laws. Girls at l6 men not until 20 years of age.

  7. Labour. None.

  8. Production - Copra, Taro, Popoi, a few banana, a little sugar cane Fowls.

  9. Exports annually. About 10 tons copra.

  10. Weapons & ammunition None.

  11. Last visited by man of war. H.M.S. Miranda 1886.

  12. Communication with other islands etc.

    Schooner from Fiji about every four months.

  13. Landing. Fair in canoes.

  14. Anchorage. Good in (sic) Fungawa in 10 fms. Reported good all along the SW COAST.

  15. Laws and customs. Money fines or make sinnet in lieu.

  16. Remarks:

People poor but appear healthy, only one case of elephantiasis, and a few of

Ringworm. Some hardwood trees reported on Motuloa Island called "Kanava" used for canoe building has the appearance of Pume, natives say some trees are 18 feet in circumference.

Lutello, a native of Tonga, formerly a missionary in Pelew Islands, has been causing a great deal of trouble here - much quarrelling has onsued. When New York Island was given up by Weber & Co., the lease having expired, Lutelle wanted the people to make the town there and live there, and lately has annoyed the Missionary to go. He wished to wait for the Missionary ship to decide. Lutello refused and took the roof off the Church and Missionary's house, and removed all windows and doors, he deposed the King and made Malaki King. For the welfare of the island I directed that Lutello should quit the islands - either voluntarily, or I should try him as a British subject for his behaviour - he elected the former, and I granted him, his 2 sons and 2 small daughters, a passage to Fiji, on their way to Tonga. Two of his sons, married to women of Nukulailai, remain on the island. I ascertained that Lutello had previously to deposing Petaia deposed Lapanna, when the people had elected king; also that Manatu a native of Niutao, Panappa of Nukulailai, and Petaia of Samoan descent were among the troublesome ones on the island. I caused all the inhabitants to assemble and told them I regretted to see the present state of affairs on their island, and I should try and remedy it. Lutello would at once leave the Island, so in future he could influence no one. I told Manatu he had better return to Niutao by the first opportunity, and warned him and Panappa and Petaia as to their future behaviour. Neither of these three would be allowed to serve as Kaupuli. I then called on them all to elect a king of their own choice which they did, unanimously electing Lepanna; Malaki who is Lepanna's nephew, Maika and Hosea, were elected Kaupuli (Kapule). I said when the missionary ship "John Williams" arrived, the white Missionary would confer with the King and Kaupuli as to whether the church should be moved or not; in the meantime I asked them to put a temporary roof on the church, and repair the floor of the building, so that it could be used for service. This they willingly promised to do. They appeared very satisfied at the steps I took in the matter, particularly at the removal of Lutelle, who, they asserted, had caused all the trouble in the island.

I left a note with the Missionary, for the "Missionary in charge of the Ellice Group", telling him what I had done in the matter. The King and all the injhabitants asked to have Queen Victoria's Flag hoisted on the Island.

31 July

Funafuti - visited - 2nd August 1892

Name of Chief or King. His religion Eria King. Protestant - 10 Kaupuli and Police.

Name and religion of Missionary and does he trade?

Waina. Samoan London Mission. P:rotestant. No.

Ioani. Native teacher.

  1. Name of whites. Nationality. For whom trading.

    John Brine. English. Henderson and Macfarlane.

  2. Number of native Population. Religion 23l Protestants.

  3. Increase or Decrease. Cause. Increasing.

  4. Marriage Laws. Girls marry about 15 or 16.

  5. Labour. None.

  6. Production. Copra, Taro, Puraka, Bananas, sugar cane, bread fruit, fowls and ducks.

Exports annually. About 25 to 30 tons of copra yearly.

  1. Weapons and ammunition. One or two guns.

  2. Last visited by man of war. H.M.S. "Miranda" 1886.

  3. Communication with other Islands. Henderson and Macfarlane's about four or three monthly.

  4. Landing. Very good in lagoon.

  5. Anchorage. Very good in lagoon. Off church in eight fathoms.

  6. Laws and customs. Money fines, adultery, stealing, illicit connection $10, or make value in Sinnet. Fines for adultery enforced years after the occurrence, even after the death of one party.

  7. Remarks. Natives poor, but seem very happy and contented. Remained here two days; after small arm men and marines had drilled on shore, native gave dances and songs and made presents, and were very thankful for tobacco, etc., the steamer being over two months overdue, the tobacco had run out. Landed Tentababari here, the King arranging to have him looked after. Some natives of Nukulailai, asking for passage to their island, I embarked them, also Charles Bernard a native of Kingston, Jamaica, with his wife and children for the same place. Large numbers of natives of both sexes visited the ship. They will not soon forget the "Royalist" visit. The King said, they all wanted British protection.

Nukufetau - visited 30th June 1892

  1. Name of chief or King. His religion. Uta, King, Protestant, One judge, ten Kaupuli and police.

  2. Name and religion of missionary. Does he trade. Lolando Samoan London Mission Protestant No.

  3. Name of whites. Nationality For whom trading.

  4. ALFRED RESTIEAUX English Doing nothing.

    EMILE FENISOT German

  5. Number of native population. Religion 270 Protestant.

  6. Increase or decrease. Cause. Normal.

  7. Marriage Laws. Girls marry at l6 or 17.

  8. Labour None.

  9. Productions. Copra, taro, babai, pandanus, a little sugar cane, a few bananas, a few fowls.

  10. Export annually. About twenty tons copra.

  11. Weapons and ammunition. None.

  12. Last visited by man of war. H.M.S. "Miranda" 1886.

  13. Communication with other islands. Steamer "Archer" every three or four months. Occasionally a Samoan schooner.

  14. Landing. Good in canoes.

  15. Anchorage. Reported good anchorage outside lagoon opposite village. Also inside lagoon, off the village.

  16. Laws and customs. Money fines, adultery stealing, $5 or 300 nuts.

  17. Remarks. Natives appear poor and half starved. The King in appearance was no better than anyone else on the island. The village is large and not well kept. The Missionary appears tired of his work, and, I was told very very prone to take offence, and neglected his work, leaving it to anyone to perform. This may be exaggerated but I think a change might benefit the island. I here met Zachia, referred to under "Oaitupu" and told him that he had nothing whatever to do in governing Oaitupu. In future he was not to interfere with the King or Kaipuli, if he persisted he probably would be punished, and I told him that the next man of war visiting Oaitupu would enquire as to his behaviour during my absence. The King asked me to hoist the English flag on the Island.

Nui visited 29 July 1892

  1. Name of King. His religion. Taloka. King. Protestant. 10 Kaupuli 20 Police.

  2. Name of religion of Missionary. Does he trade?

    Kirisome. Samoan, London Mission. Protestant. No.

  3. Name of white. Nationality. For whom trading.

    Martin Kleis, Dane. Henderson and Macfarlane.

  4. Number of native population. Religion. 387 Protestant.

  5. Increase or Decrease. Cause. Increasing.

  6. Marriage Laws. Girls at 15 or 16 years of age.

  7. Labour. None.

  8. Productions. Copra, taro, papoi, pandanus, a few bananas, fowls and ducks, a very little sugar cane and bread fruit.

  9. Exports annually. About 100 tons of copra - in a good year -

  10. Weapons and ammunition. None -Since heard Tukaike has one or two-

  11. Last visited by man of war. H.M.S. "Miranda" 1886.

  12. Communication with other islands & c. Henderson and Macfarlane's steamers every 4 or 5 months.

  13. Landing. Indifferent in canoes. None for boats. A long reef to wade over, several dangerous blow holes in it.

  14. Anchorage. None recommended.

  15. Laws and Customs. Money fines. Adultery, stealing &c. $5 or work.

  16. Remarks. Natives appear poor, and not very clean. A good deal of elephantisaisis and Tekeutani amongst the children. The King appears to be a very weak man, and entirely under the influence of a native Tuikaike, formerly a Mission teacher at Onoatoa, dismissed by the Society for adultery. On his return to Nui, being rich, he coerced the King to taboo trade. He is related to the Missionary by marriage. He obtained goods from the trader, and refused to ;pay his debt of $50. Many natives wish to sell fowls to the ship at their own prices, but said Tukaike had fixed a certain price, and any one selling under that price was fined by the King. I made Tukaike ;pay his debt, turned him out of the Kaupuli, never to return to it again- advocated free trade to the King and Kaupuli, pointing out to him the taboo only made men deceitful to him. He, then and there, freed from Tukaiko, raised the taboo, and promised to be guided no more by the man. I warned Tukaike as to his future behaviour, and that the next man of war would inquire into his conduct in my absence. The King requested me to ask Queen Victoria to hoist her Flat on the Island.

 

Nuito -visited 28 July 1892

  1. Name of King or Chief and his religion. Vandunga King, Judge and 10 Kaipuli, Protestant.

  2. Name and religion of Missionary. Jeremia. Samoan. London Mission Protestant. Does not trade.

  3. Name of whites, nationality. For whom trading.

    Jon Buckland. English, Henderson & Macfarlane.

  4. Number of native population. Religion. 615. All Protestants.

  5. Increase or Decrease. Cause. Interesting.

  6. Marriage Laws. Girls marry about 16.

  7. Labour. None.

  8. Production. Copra, Taro, Papei, Pandanus.

  9. Exports annually. About 50 tons copra -in good season-

  10. Weapons and ammunition. None.

  11. Last visited by a man of war. H.M.S. "Emerald" 1881.

  12. Communication with other islands &c. Henderson & Macfarlane's steamers,occasionally.

  13. Landing. Fair in canoes.

  14. Anchorage. None.

  15. Laws and Customs. Adultery and Fornication, make 5 fathoms of road, either crimes, small fines, mostly road work.

  16. Remarks. Natives do not appear quite so clean as on other Islands. Elephantiasis and a little ringworm here. Church and Missionary's house well built and clean. Met King and all important men of Island in Maniaba. They wished Queen Victoria to take them under her protection. Answered various questions concerning trade. Advocated Free trade. A few fowls, eggs and pigs procured here. The judge appears to be a very good man, talks English a little. With the King's permission I landed Tentonanibiea a native of Tarawa, to remain on the Island until a British man-of-war took him away. A native of Maiana in trader's employ, took him into his house. Before leaving the King asked me if I would try and have his island placed under British protection. Jeremia, the Missionary is very well spoken of. I gave passages to a number of Oaitupu people, who were anxious to get to their Island; also some for Nukufetau, for which they were very grateful.

NANOMANA - visited 27 July 1892

  1. Name of King or Chief. His religion. Neko Protestant 15 Kaupuli.

  2. Name and religion of Missionary. Does he trade. Luke. Samoan. London Mission. Protestant.

  3. Name of whites. Nationality. For whom trading. None.

  4. Number of native population. Religion. 373 Protestant.

  5. Increase of Decrease. Cause. Increasing.

  6. Marriage laws. Girls marry at 16 or 17.

  7. Labour. None.

  8. Production. Copra, Taro, Pandanus, Fowls.

  9. Exports annually. 15 to 20 tons copra -in a fair year-

  10. Weapons and ammunition. None.

  11. Last visited by man of war. H.M.S. "Miranda", 1886.

  12. Communication with other Islands &c., a vessel occasionally.

  13. Landing. Indifferent, in canoes.

  14. Anchorage. None.

  15. Laws and customs. Money fines, very light ones.

  16. Remarks. People clean and particularly glad to see the ship. Several cases of elephantiasis and Tennemanu. Fowls plentiful. No vessel having called for 7 or 8 months, tobacco much in demand. More so than money. Large numbers visited ship. The King and Council requested me to ask Queen Victoria to hoist the British Flag on their Island. The Missionary appears to be a very good man.

NANOMEA - visited 27 July 1892-

  1. Name of Chief or King. His religion. Vaitoro. Protestant. Judge and 18 Kaupuli and Police.

  2. Name and Religion of Missionary. Doe he trade? Amos. Samoan. London Mission. No.

  3. Name of whites. Nationality For when trading.

    Edmund A. Duffy. English. Henderson & Macfarlane.

  4. Number of Native Population. Their religion. 690 Protestant.

  5. Increase or Decrease. Cause. Increasing.

  6. Marriage laws. Girls marry at about 17.

  7. Labour. 1 man in steamer "Archer"

  8. Productions. Copra, Pandanus, Taro, Fowls & eggs.

  9. Exports annually. 30 to 40 tons copra.

  10. Weapons & Ammunition. None.

  11. Last visited by a man of war. H.M.S. "Miranda" 1886. A German '89.

  12. Communication with other Islands.

    Steamers "Archer" and "Balmain" about 5 monthly.

  13. Landing. Indifferent, in canoes.

  14. Anchorage. None.

  15. Laws & Customs. All money fines. Adultery $2, or make quantity of native rope. A woman divorced annot marry again until the main is married. Very little immorality on Island.

  16. Remarks. Natives very clean, light coloured. Some quite Samoan in appearance. A little elephantiasis here. Fowls plentiful, 6d each. Eggs and pigs. In Lochen Island is a fresh water lagoon about 1/2 mile in width by 3/4 mile long, with a few fish in it. Numbers of natives, including women and girls, visited the ship. The King, Judge and Kaupuli after a meeting asked me to get a British Flag hoisted. I said I would ask the Queen. Some slight trouble here as to prices of copra, fowls &c. I advocated Free trading, natives and Traders their own prices. After discussing the matter, the King agreed to this. Those who would take Traders prices for copra, could do so. Those who wnted more right try and get it from vessels calling.

OAITUPO -visited May 19 and July 30 1892.

  1. Name of Chief. His religion. Tuputa Protestant. 20 Kaupuli and Police.

  2. Name and Religion of Missionary. Does he trade? Iero. Samoan. London Mission. Protestant. No.

  3. Name of whites. Nationality. For when trading. Henry Nitz. German. Own account.

  4. Number of natives. Religion. 456. Protestant.

  5. Increase of Decrease. Cause. Increasing.

  6. Marriage laws. Women marry at 17 or 18.

  7. Labour. None.

  8. Productions. Copra, Taro, Puraka, Pandanus, Fowls.

  9. Exports annually. Copra about 50 tons.

  10. Weap;ons and ammunition. None.

  11. Last visited by man of war. H.M.S. "Miranda" 1886.

  12. Communication with other Islands etc. About every 4 months, steamer "Archer" to other Islands and Sydney.

  13. Landing. Fairly good in canoes, 2 or 3 passages through reef off village, south end.

  14. Anchorage. Fair 7 to 12 fms. S.W. OF Island.

  15. Laws & Customs. Money fines. In default clean roads &c.

  16. Remarks. Natives not over clean. Water in wells very brackish. Want of sufficient vegetables causes a sort of scurvy. Several cases of elephantiasis. Chilian $ mostly used up. English Coinage used. Two lagoons on the Island. A frew pigeons to be shot. People very thankful to get their friends back again from Niutao. Complaints made here about Zachia a native, formerly a Mission teacher at Tamana, Gilbert Group, who since his return to the Island had told the King he was no good, and that he wanted to be King &c. He left the same morning I arrived with some natives for Nukufetau. Mr. Nitz having verified those statements, I informed the King to pay no attention to Zachia, and if he interfered again, to punish him. I also said I would see him at Nukufetau and warn him as to his future behaviour, which the next man of war would enquire about. The King said that all the people were anxious that Queen Victoria's flag should be hoisted on the island.

NURAKITA or Sophia Island. -visited 4 August 1892.

Stopped off Island, August 4th 1892. Too much sea on to effect a landing in ship's boats. No canoe put off. Several natives appeared on the beach, and hoisted up an American ensign. After waiting some time off Island, I proceeded on our course.

PART II

3. Landing. Good at high water, much wading after high tide - a substantial coral pier is in
course of construction off the King's house.
  1. Anchorage. Good off King's flagstaff in 17 fms.

  2.  
    15.  Laws & Customs. Very heavy money fines, quite cut of proportion to offences committed.
    Men and women are flogged in this Island-Laws appear to be made to suit the King's pockets.
  1. Remarks.

Natives clean and healthy looking and in the town mostly wear European clothing. The King
lives in a Semi European style. BUTARITARI seems by far the most important Island in the Group. The American Firms have their head stations here. Traders are charged $100 per annum for a license to trade, and all natives pay a tax of $1 yearly to the King. Finding the traders got little or nothing from the King, in return for their heavy tax. I told him he must protect them, and settle all disputes between them and the natives, also that unless their prices were unjust, he must confine his trading to traders resident on the island. The natives here owe $40,000 to the traders. I told the King this must be paid off at once, and told the traders that debts contracted in the future, would be at their own risk. WAN SANG (Chinese) British subject, complained that having been robbed of goods to the value of $65 he complained to the King. Although he paid his tax regularly, he had received no satisfaction. At my suggestion, the King paid the claim, admitting he had taken no steps in the matter.

I found here a commercial agent of the United States, a Mr. Rick - agent for Mepro Crawford and Co. of San Francisco. It was not until my third visit to the island, I was officially informed of his consular position. I then informed Mr. Rick that until accredited to her Britannic Majesty, I could not recognize his position as a United States Consular official. The King had just returned from a visit from San Francisco, where he had gone with a view of purchasing a schooner, but his credit does not appear to have been good enough. Whilst there he was induced to apply for American protection, but this request so far, had met with no response, although he "thought" someone was coming to see about it. Since his return, the firm that had taken him to San Francisco and back had asked to be reimbursed for his expenses, but, as he assured me they had pressed him to go, saying he would have nothing to pay. I advise him not to pay it until the claim had been enquired into by some British authority. The King appears a weak man, willing to do well, but is easily led. His son styled the "Crown Prince" is his chief advisor - he seemed a much more intelligent man. I suggested a number of reforms to the King, for the better government of his island - and warned him against being led by any one more than another. Amongst other things I advised him to moderate his fines and enter them in a book, telling him, a portion of the money so collected should be used in public works. I spoke to him about the flogging of women, which was still in vogue on the island. He promised this should be discontinued. He also promised that some people I mentioned, who were to all intents and purposes trading on the island, should be charged for their license, the same as other traders. The King himself is in debt some $2,000 - this he promised to pay off, and at my suggestion, said he would not collect his tax from the natives until they had paid their debts. Mr. TUSHTFELOT made a complaint that the King had refused to accept Chilian money from him for his license. I enquired into this case, which is reported on attached papers.

Being at BUTARITARI on 20th June, the Anniversary of Her Majesty's Accession - the ship was dressed, and a Royal Salute fired at noon. The King and some two hundred of his people came on board, and the ship's company were exercised at various evolutions. I gave the King some red ensign for his boat - also a second Union Jack, in order that he might fly one at his staff daily. There is a hotel at BUTARITARI owned by WIGHTMAN BROS. No liquor is supplied to the natives. I gave special leave to both watchers here whilst here during the first visit. A native NAN TAKABANE informed me that he was a witness (and the only one) to the murder of AHSAM (a Chinese) British Trader on this Island in 1883. The murderer of NAN TARABE was now in TARAWA having left BUTARITARI about three years ago. I embarked this witness, also accused's brother and at TARAWA enquired into the case, which resulted in the charge being brought home to NAN TARABE, who was executed on the 16th June (vide "Royalist" letter No. 25 of 1892) - on my return to BUTARITARI from the Marshall Group on 6th July, I found the King had been acting on my advice, and the debts to traders were being reduced. The American Mission vessel "MORNING STAR" was lying here, but I ascertained no white Missionary has come in her to visit the Mission Stations. his I regretted, as I wished to call his attention to many irregularities I found existing at different islands in the Group and which I considered required looking into without delay.

I landed here ten natives whom I had brought from Milli Island in the Marshall Group where they had been on a visit. One of these men being affected with venereal disease which is almost unknown in the Gilbert Group, I gave particular instructions to the King concerning the isolation of this man to prevent him spreading the disease. At the same time, I asked some Traders to see my instructions carried out as the King did not appear to realize the seriousness of such a disease being transmitted to others in the Island. Mepro RICK & LUTTRELL American traders requested me to arbitrate in a dispute between them, with reference to the ownership of a coral wall. Under ordinary circumstances I should not have complied with this request, but seeing some serious trouble would ensue were this dispute not settled at once, I undertook to do it, the result being that I considered Mr. RICK had no claim against Mr. LUTTRELL. Papers concerning this case are attachedl. Finding the American Schooner "FLEUR de LYS" at Anchor here KUSTEL being the master. At the King's house I saw him with reference to a complaint made to me by a Native of Tarawa of his having threatened to Shoot him. He admitted the charge, and as the offer made by him as reparation to the native was not, in my opinion, an adequate one, he requested the case might be referred to his own Government. This is fully reported in "Royalist" Letter No. 24 of 1892.

At the same time I enquired into 2 charges against ALFRED HANSON a Swedish Trader - Committed after the British Protectorate had been established. Finding him guilty I inflicted a fine in each case of $100. Papers concerning this are attached.

Whilst at BUTARITARI I sent to MAKIN for the child NEITERB and took her evidence concerning the charge brought against JORGENSON a Danish Trader at Nonuti (Reported in Royalist's Letter No. 30 of 1892). Knowing that fines were inflicted on this Island by others than the King himself and suspecting that MAKKA the Missionary was guilty of this malpractice - in the letters presence. I distinctly told the King that much irregularities were to be at one discontinued, and in future no one but himself was to levy fines on the Island. Hearing that Mrs. RICK, wife of a trader on the Island, had gained a great influence over the King, which did not tend to his welfare or that of his subjects, I advised him strongly not to be guided by her any longer, and pointed out to him, now that Her Majesty had assumed a Protectorate over the group - he must ask more on his own responsibility - and he might rely on assistance from Her Majesty's Ships visiting the Islands.

I spoke to his son with reference to the reforms I had suggested to the King - and told him I hoped he would loyally support his father and insist on his fulfilling his promise to me to carry them out. Before leaving the King thanked me for all the troubles I had taken to right matters on the Island, and said he hoped a Resident would be appointed very shortly. The Traders at the same time, petitioned me to the same effect (copy of which petition with my reply - also suggestions made to the King - is attached to Royalist's letter No. 36 of 1892.

TO BE CONTINUED

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