UNB UNB

 
 
Bibliography of Reported Corporal
Punishment Cases in Canada

(2000 02 16)

Lawrence M. Bezeau

Table of Contents
Civil Cases in School Settings
Criminal Cases in School Settings
Criminal Cases in Institutional Settings
Criminal Cases in Family Settings
Cases Decided on Purely Procedural Grounds
Cases Involving Student Resistance to Corporal Punishment
Miscellaneous Cases

         This bibliography includes reported Canadian court cases involving corporal punishment.  Corporal punishment is not itself an offence; rather the term implies the use of certain common law or statutory defences to a criminal charge of assault or an action under tort law for assault. Because assault is both a crime and a tort, corporal punishment cases can be either criminal or civil.  Both types are included here.

         The cases below are cited in scholarly (as opposed to legal) style and are in strict alphabetical order.  Thus "R. c." comes before "R. v.".  Each entry is followed by a short annotation giving information on the province or territory, the victim, and the outcome of the case. 

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Civil Cases in School Settings

         "Andrews v. Hopkins".  (1932).  Dominion Law Reports.  1932,3: 459–465.  Nova Scotia; female victim, age 9 years; teacher negligent.

         "Béland v. Les Commissaires d'écoles pour la Municipalité de S.-Thecle".  (1933).  La Revue de Jurisprudence.  39: 400–402.  Quebec; no information on victim; school commission apparently liable.

         "Bernier c. La Commission scolaire de Marieville et Martel".  (1972).  La Revue de Droit du Travail.  1972: 540–546.  Quebec; male victim, age 10 years; school commission liable.

         "Brisson v. Lafontaine dite Surprenant".  (1864).  Lower Canada Reports.  14: 377–381. Quebec; male victim, age 6 years; teacher liable.

         "Duchesne v. La Commission des écoles catholiques de Montréal".  (1923).  Rapports Judiciares de Québec.  61: 422–423.  Quebec; female victim, age 9 years; school commission liable.

         "Filostrato v. Boyle".  (1938).  La Revue Légale.  45: 29–35.  Quebec; male victim, age 14 years; teacher liable.

         "Lefebvre v. La Congrégation des Petits Frères de Ste-Marie".  (1890).  Montreal Law Reports.  6: 430–436. Quebec; male victim, age 7 years 6 months; teacher liable.

         "Murdock v. Richards".  (1953).  Dominion Law Reports.  1954,1: 766–772.  Nova Scotia; female victim, age not given; teacher not negligent.

         "Poupart c. C.E.C.M. et Poirier".  (1975).  Recueils de Jurisprudence du Québec (Cour provinciale).  1976: 224.  Quebec; male victim, age 12 years; teacher liable.

         "Ruest c. Provencher".  (1968).  La Revue Légale.  1968: 378–381. Quebec; female victim, no age given; teacher not liable.

         "Saint-Germain c. Commissaires d'écoles de Saint-Léon de Grantham".  (1935).  La Revue de Jurisprudence.  41: 480–509. Quebec; male victim, age 8 years; teacher liable.

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Criminal Cases in School Settings

         "Bouillon c. R.".  (1996).  Annuaire de jurisprudence et de doctrine du Québec.  1996,1,2340: 885.  Quebec; male victim, age 15 years; teacher not guilty.

         "Fonder c. R.".  (1993).  Annuaire de jurisprudence et de doctrine du Québec.  1993,1969: 646.  Quebec; male victim, age 14 years; teacher not guilty.

         "Campeau v. the King".  (1952).  Criminal Reports.  2: 202–219.  Quebec; male victim, age 8 years; teacher guilty.

         "King v. Gaul".  (1904).  Canadian Criminal Cases.  8: 178–183.  Nova Scotia; male victim, age 9 years; teacher (principal) not guilty.

         "King v. Zinck".  (1910).  Canadian Criminal Cases.  18: 456–460.  Nova Scotia; male victim, age 14 years; teacher not guilty.

         "Queen v. Robinson".  (1899).  Canadian Criminal Cases.  7: 52–59.  Nova Scotia; male victim, age 14 years; teacher (principal) not guilty.

         "R. c. Bélisle".;  (1986).  Annuaire de jurisprudence du Québec.  1986,1785: 413.  Quebec; female victim, age not given; substitute teacher not guilty.

         "R. c. Benoît".;  (1987).  Annuaire de jurisprudence du Québec.  1987,1109: 179.  Quebec; male victim, no age given but at the high school level; teacher not quilty.

         "R. c. Deschamps".  (1974).  La Revue de Droit du Travail. 1974: 241–250. Quebec; male victim, age not given; teacher not guilty.

         "R. c. Jutras".  (1989).  Annuaire de jurisprudence et de doctrine du Québec.  1989,2113: 590.  Quebec; sex of victim not given, age 11 years; teacher not guilty.

         "R. c. Lacasse".  (1988).  Annuaire de jurisprudence du Québec.  1988,992: 200–201.  Quebec; adolescent victim, sex and age not given; bus driver guilty.

         "R. c. LePage".  (1983).  La Revue Légale (new series).  1983: 247–249.  Quebec; male victim, age not given; bus driver not guilty.

         "R. c. Matieux".  (1972).  La Revue Légale. 1972: 526–527.  Quebec; male victim, age 13 years; teacher not guilty.

         "R. c. Rozon".  (1974).  La Revue de Droit du Travail.  1974: 445–456.  Quebec; male victim, age 16 years; teacher not guilty (assault ruled an accident).

         "R. c. Vergnas".;  (1995).  Annuaire de jurisprudence et de doctrine du Québec.  1995,1,2081: 797–798.  Quebec; victim at pre-kindergarten level, age and sex not given; teacher guilty.

         "R. v. Benoît (I.)".  (1989).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  140: 210–219.  New Brunswick; male victim, age 13 years; teacher not guilty.

         "R. v. Collins (J.G.)".  (1996).  Alberta Reports.  192: 71–78.  Alberta; male victim, age 9 years; teacher not guilty, injury to child ruled an accident.

         "R. v. Condon (K.D.)".  (1992).  Atlantic Provinces Reports.  323: 142–144.  Newfoundland; male victim, age not given but at the high school level; teacher not guilty.

         "R. v. Corkum".  (1937).  Dominion Law Reports.  1937,1: 79–80.  Nova Scotia; male victim, age 10 years; teacher not guilty.

         "R. v. Cyr".  (1991 but reported in 1994).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  138: 252–260.  New Brunswick; male victim, age not given but at the high school level; teacher not guilty.

         "R. v. Dimmell".  (1980).  Canadian Criminal Cases (2d).  55: 239–243.  Ontario; male victim, age 15 years; teacher not guilty.

         "R. v. Duggan (E.)".  (1993).  Atlantic Provinces Reports.  348: 304–309.  Newfoundland; male victim, age 16 years; teacher guilty.

         "R. v. Gallant".  (1993).  Atlantic Provinces Reports.  346: 174–178.  Prince Edward Island; male victim, age 11 years; teacher not guilty.

         "R. v. Graham (D.)".  (1994).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  151: 81–103.  New Brunswick; female victim, age 9 years; trial in Provincial Court; teacher (principal) not guilty.

         "R. v. Graham (D.)".  (1995).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  160: 306–316.  New Brunswick; Crown appeal of acquittal in above case; acquittal confirmed by Court of Queen's Bench.

         "R. v. Haberstock".  (1971).  Canadian Criminal Cases (2d).  1: 433–436.  Saskatchewan; male victim, age 12 years; teacher (vice-principal) not guilty.

         "R. v. Harriott (H.R.)".  (1992).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  128: 155–163.  New Brunswick; male victim, age 14 years; teacher not guilty.

         "R. v. Imbeault".  (1977).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  17: 234–247.  New Brunswick; male victim, age 17 years; teacher not guilty.

         "R. v. Kanhai".  (1981).  Dominion Law Reports (3d).  124: 85–92.  Saskatchewan; male victim, age 14 years; teacher guilty.

         "R. v. Metcalfe".  (1927).  Canadian Criminal Cases.  49: 260–267.  Saskatchewan; female victim, age 10 years; teacher (principal) not guilty.

         "R. v. Park (S.M.)".  (1999).  Atlantic Provinces Reports.  544: 194–200.  Newfoundland; female victim, age 9 years; teacher not guilty.

         "R. v. Plourde (J.-G.)".  (1993).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  140: 273–281.  New Brunswick; two male victims in grade 8, age not given; teacher not guilty.

         "R. v. Trynchy".  (1970).  Criminal Reports (new series).  11: 95–99.  Yukon; male victim, age 7 years; bus driver not guilty.

         "R. v. Wetmore (R.)".  (1996).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  172: 224–232.  New Brunswick; four male victims in grade 10, ages not given; teacher not guilty.

         "R. v. Whalen (O)".  (1994).  Atlantic Provinces Reports.  369: 331–337.  Newfoundland; two female victims, age 11 years; teacher (principal) guilty on one count.

         "R. v. Wheaton".  (1982).  Atlantic Provinces Reports. 99: 520–523.  Newfoundland; male victim, age 16 years; teacher not guilty.

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Criminal Cases in Institutional Settings

         "Nixon v. the Queen".  (1985).  Dominion Law Reports (4th).  12: 762–763.  Ontario; case following and very similar to Ogg-Moss; decided by the Supreme Court of Canada; adult victim, age and gender not given but mentally handicapped; appeal against a guilty verdict dismissed.

         "Ogg-Moss v. R.".  (1984).  Criminal Reports (3d).  41: 297–318. Ontario; decided by the Supreme Court of Canada; appeal against a guilty verdict dismissed.  See the Court of Appeal decision cited below in this section.

         "R. v. Burke (J.) (No. 3)".  (1991).  Atlantic Provinces Reports.  287: 289–303.  Newfoundland; male victim, age not given; dormitory supervisor guilty of assault causing bodily harm. See the appeals cited below.

         "R. v. Burke (J.) (No. 3)".  (1994).  Atlantic Provinces Reports.  365: 191–216.  Newfoundland; decided by the Court of Appeal; appeal against a guilty verdict on a charge of assault causing bodily harm dismissed. See the trial case above.

         "R. v. Burke (J.) (No. 3)".  (1996).  Atlantic Provinces Reports.  433: 147–177.  Newfoundland; decided by the Supreme Court of Canada; appeal against a guilty verdict on a charge of assualt causing bodily harm dismissed.  See the Court of appeal case cited above.

         "R. v. Ogg-Moss".  (1981).  Canadian Criminal Cases (2d).  60: 127–128.  Ontario; male victim, age 21 but mentally handicapped; acquittal at trial reversed by the Court of Appeal.  See the appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada cited above in this section.

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Criminal Cases in Family Settings

         "R. c. Laflamme".  (1992).  Annuaire de jurisprudence et de doctrine du Québec.  1992,2008: 688–689.  Quebec; male victim, age 11 years; father guilty.

         "R. v. Baptiste and Baptiste".  (1980).  Canadian Criminal Cases (2d).  61: 438–446.  Ontario; female victim, age 15 years; father and mother guilty.

         "R. v. Beattie (W.J.)".  (1996).  Ontario Appeal Cases.  94: 363–366.  Ontario; three child victims, ages and sexes not given; father guilty.

         "R. v. Bunn".  (1990).  Manitoba Reports (2d).  64: 285–287.  Manitoba; female victim, age 9 years; no verdict reported for defendant stepfather.

         "R. v. Burtt".  (1986).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  75: 259–270.  New Brunswick; female victim, age 15 years; mother not guilty.

         "R. v. D.(R.S.)".  (1995).  Canadian Criminal Cases (3d).  102: 319–344.  Ontario; male victim, age 11 months to 39 months and female victim, age 16 months to 44 months; father guilty.

         "R. v. Dunfield".  (1990).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  103: 172–180.  New Brunswick; female victim, age 9 years; foster mother not guilty.

         "R. v. Dupperon".  (1984).  Canadian Criminal Cases (3d).  16: 453–462.  Saskatchewan; male victim, age 13 years; father guilty.

         "R. v. Fritz and Fritz".  (1987).  Saskatchewan Reports.  55: 302–309.  Saskatchewan; two female victims, ages 13 and 14 years; uncle and aunt not guilty.

         "R. v. Goforth".  (1991).  Saskatchewan Reports.  98: 26–30.  Saskatchewan; male victim, age 8 years; father not guilty.

         "R. v. H.B.".  (1998).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  201: 315–321.  New Brunswick; female victim, age 13 years; father guilty.

         "R. v. Halcrow".  (1993).  Canadian Criminal Cases (3d).  80: 320–356.  British Columbia (Court of Appeal); nine victims of both sexes and various ages; foster mother guilty of two counts of assault causing bodily harm to two females, ages 14 and 16 years.

         "R. v. Halcrow".  (1995).  Canadian Criminal Cases (3d).  95: 94–95.  British Columbia; decided by the Supreme Court of Canada confirming Court of Appeal decision above.

         "R. v. L.A.K.".  (1992).  Atlantic Provinces Reports.  329: 118–125.  Newfoundland; female victim, age 11 years; father not guilty.

         "R. v. M.(R.W.)".  (1995).  Canadian Criminal Cases (3d).  103: 375–382.  Prince Edward Island; female victim, age 13 years; father guilty.

         "R. v. M.(W.F.)".  (1995).  Criminal Reports (4th).  41: 330–357.  Alberta; female victim, age 12 years; stepfather not guilty.

         "R. v. M.K.".  (1992).  Manitoba Reports (2d).  81: 151–155.  Manitoba; two male victims, ages 6 and 8 years; father not guilty.

         "R. v. Murphy".  (1996).  Canadian Criminal Cases (3d).  108: 414–424.  British Columbia; male victim, age 45 months; baby sitter not guilty.

         "R. v. Peterson".  (1995).  Canadian Criminal Cases (3d).  98: 253–263.  Ontario; female victim, age 5 years; father not guilty.

         "R. v. Robinson".  (1986).  Yukon Reports.  1: 161–163.  Yukon; female victim, age 12 years; father not guilty.

         "R. v. Sarwer-Foner".  (1979).  Reports of Family Law (2d).  8: 342-349.  Ontario; male victim, age 11 years; stepfather guilty of assault causing bodily harm.

         "R. v. Serack (L.A.)".  (1994).  Alberta Reports.  159: 392–397.  Alberta; male victim, age 4 years; father guilty.

         "R. v. Snodgrass (D.M.)".;  (1998).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  203: 41–54.  New Brunswick; female victim, age 18 years; stepfather guilty.

         "R. v. Taylor".  (1985).  Canadian Criminal Cases (3d).  19: 156–163.  Alberta; female victim, age 16 years; Crown appeal from acquittal at trial; new trial ordered by Court of Appeal.

         "R. v. Thornley".  (1988).  Weekly Criminal Bulletin (2d).  5: 160.  British Columbia; male victim, age 3 years; baby sitter guilty.

         "R. v. Veinot".  (1988).  Saskatchewan Reports.  72: 74–76.  Saskatchewan; female victim, age 12 years; person standing in place of a parent guilty.

         "R. v. Wood (D.)".  (1995).  Alberta Reports.  176: 223–228.  Alberta; male victim, age 4 years; father not guilty.

         "R. v. Yaholnitsky".  (1992).  Alberta Reports.  123: 151–158.  Alberta; two female victims, ages 12 and 16 years; father guilty.

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Cases Decided on Purely Procedural Grounds

         "Ely c. Ouellette".  (1983).  Annuaire de jurisprudence du Québec.  1983,1468: 332. Quebec; institutional case; original guilty verdict reversed by the Cour supérieure because of judicial errors committed by the trial judge; accused not guilty.

         "R. v. Eagan".  (1991).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  112: 88–90.  New Brunswick; school case; original guilty verdict reversed by Court of Queen's Bench because of a judicial error committed by the trial judge; teacher not guilty.

         "R. v. Mahoney".  (1975).  New Brunswick Reports (2d).  11: 539–540.  New Brunswick; school case; original guilty verdict reversed by the Appeal Division of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick on evidentiary grounds; teacher not guilty.

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Cases Involving Student Resistance to Corporal Punishment

         "Protection de la Jeunesse — 633".  (1993).  Recueil de Jurisprudence du Québec.  1993: 1972–1980.  Quebec; accused student, age 16 years; student guilty of assault for resisting corporal punishment.

         "R. v. F.(J.)".  (1990).  Canadian Criminal Cases (3d).  57: 216–223. Ontario; accused student, age under 18 years; high-school student guilty of assault for resisting corporal punishment.

         "R. v. F.(V.A.)".  (1989).  Canadian Criminal Cases (3d).  53: 74–82.  Saskatchewan; male offender, age under 18 years, in place of open custody (camp) resisting corporal punishment; acquitted of assault against youth worker on grounds of self defence.

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Miscellaneous Cases

         "Nova Scotia (Minister of Community Services) v. B.M. and L.M.".  (1998).  Nova Scotia Reports.  168: 271–286.  Nova Scotia; six victims from 2 to 12 years of age;  Section 43 of the Criminal Code (force used for correction) was considered in a child protection hearing.  The children were found in need of protective services.

         "Re F.".  (1983).  Alberta Reports.  46: 321–357.  Alberta; male victim, age 12 years;  Section 43 of the Criminal Code (force used for correction) was considered in a child protection hearing.  A child welfare supervision order was granted against the family.

         "Re Infant K.; K. v. Public Trustee".  (1985).  British Columbia Law Reports.  60: 209–240.  British Columbia;  Section 43 of the Criminal Code (force used for correction) was considered in denying a request for a therapeutic hysterectomy for a mentally retarded person.

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Last update: 2000 02 17 0146 -0400 by Larry Bezeau (Bezeau@UNB.Ca)