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Chinese Cultural Studies:
Bibliographical Guide


Although to some students this may appear to be a very extensive bibliography, in fact it is rather superficial. Much of what is written about China is in Chinese and Japanese. Other important work has also been done in other European languages, especially French and German. Here references are restricted to a fairly small number of the thousands of works available in English.


A very good World Wide Web page with links to all sorts of resources concerning Chinese studies is in Australia at the Chinese Culture Page

There are pointers here to texts, bibliographies, other web pages and so forth.

If you would like to access this document as a plain ascii text file, click here Chinese Plain Text Bibliography




Bary, William Theodore de, ed., Sources of Chinese Tradition, 2 Vols., (New York: Columbia University Press, 1964) Excellent collection of sources in translation, with a heavy emphasis on the history of thought. pb

Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, ed., Chinese Civilization and Society: A Sourcebook, (New York: The Free Press, 1981) pb. A collection of translations focusing on Chinese social history.

Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, ed., Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook, (New York: The Free Press, 1993) pb. Second edition of the 1981 collection, but containing more standard political and philosophical material.

Grazia. Sebastian de., Masters of Chinese Political Thought: From the Beginnings to the Han Dynasty, (New York: Viking, 1973) pb, Very extensive and useful selection.

Legge, James, The Texts of Taoism, 2 Vols, The Sacred Books of the East Vols. 49 & 50, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1891; reissued New York: Dover, 1962), pb. Contains, in a rather archaic English and with a distinct transliteraion scheme, The Tao Te Ching, the writings of Chuang Tzu, and shorter works - the T'ai Shang [of Tractate of Actions and Their Retributions], the Ch'ing Chang Ching [or Classic of Purity], the Yin Fu Ching [or Classic of the Harmony of the Seen and Unseen], the Yü Shu Ching [ or Classic of the Pivot of Jade] and the Hsia Yung Ching [ or Classic of the Directory for the Day].

The Chinese Classics : With A Translation, Critical And Exegetical Notes, prolegomena, and copious indexes / by James Legge. In seven volumes, (Hong Kong : Legge ; London : Trubner, 1861-1872)

Wing-tsit Chan, A Sourcebook in Chinese Philosophy, (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1963) pb. This compries over 800 pages of Chinese philosophical works, arranged in chronological order, and each introduced by a well-informed commentary. It is a basic tool for English readers.

The Yi Qing [I Ching]

The Classic of Changes: A New Translation of the I Ching as Interpreted by Wang Bi, translated by Richard John Lynn, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994). A much more uptodate translation than the famous Wilhelm version. See review in The New Republic 11/16/1994.

I Ching [Book of Changes], trans [into German], Richard Wilhelm, rendered into English by Cary F. Barnes, 3rd. ed., Bollingen Series XIX, (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967, 1st ed. 1950) For decades the standard English version of the I Ching. The core text [sometiimes called the Zhou Yi, without the 7 [or ten] "wings" is available on the internet, via the World Wide Web, at

Shchutskii, Iulian K., Researches on the I Ching, trans. [from Russian] William L. MacDonald, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa with Hellmut Whilhelm, (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980, Russian edition Moscow, 1960) pb. Desigbed to accompany the Wilhelm/Barnes version of the Iching.

Si Shu - The Four Books [the Confucian Classics]:

Kung tzu [Confucius], 6th Century BCE

The Analects, [Lun Yu Lun yü] attrib. to Confucius,

The Doctrine of the the Mean [Zhong Yong Chung Yung], attrib. to Confucius,

trans. In Wing-Tsit Chan, A Sourcebook in Chinese Philosophy, (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1963), 95-115
another version available on the Internet via World Wide Web at gopher://

Meng Zi/Meng-tzu [Mencius]

The Book of Mencius, [Meng Zi Meng tzu] attrib to Mencius
Mencius, translated by D.C. Lau (New York: Penguin Books, 1970)
James Legge, The Works of Mencius (New York: Dover Publications, 1970)
not yet available on the Internet, but for any updates see link on World Wide Web at


Basic writings of Mo Tzu, Hsun Tzu, and Han Fei Tzu, translated by Burton Watson, Records of civilization: sources and studies, no. 74, (New York, Columbia University Press, 1967)

Xun Zi [Hsun tzu] 340-245 BCE

Basic writings. translated by Burton Watson, (New York, Columbia University Press, 1963)

Han Fei-tzu, d. 233BCE

Han Fei Tzu : Basic Writings, translated by Burton Watson, (New York, Columbia University Press, 1970, 1964)

Li Szu

Mo Tzu; Basic Writings, translated by Burton Watson. (New York, Columbia University Press, 1963).

Later Confucianism

A.C. Graham, trans., The Book of Lieh-tzu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1960)

Wang Yang-ming, Instructions for Practical Living and Other Neo-Confucian Writings, translated by Wing-tsit Chan, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1963)

Daoist [Taoist] Texts:

Legge, James, The Texts of Taoism, 2 Vols, The Sacred Books of the East Vols. 49 & 50, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1891; reissued New York: Dover, 1962), pb.

Lao Zi [Lao Tzu], 6th Century BCE [perhaps]

Dao De Ching [Tao Te Ching] [The Book of the Way and Virtue],

Zhang Zi [Chuang Tzu], 3rd Century BCE

The Way of Chuang Tzu,

Buddhist Texts:

Buddhist Scriptures, ed. and trans. Edward Conze, (NewYork: Penguin, 1959) Selected passages from Indian and Chinese Buddhist traditions.

I-hsuan, d. 867 CE, The Zen Teachings Of Master Lin-Chi : A Translation Of The Lin-Chi Lu, by Burton Watson. 1st ed., (Boston : Shambhala Publications, 1993)

The Threefold Lotus Sutra, trans, Burton Watson, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993) pb. Perhaps the most important Mahayana text, the Lotus Sutra purports to be the discourse of the historic Buddha before his final parinirvana.

Other History of Thought Texts

Pan Chao, ca. 49-ca. 120 CE The Chinese Book Of Etiquette And Conduct For Women And Girls, Entitled, Instruction For Chinese Women And Girls, By Lady Tsao. transS. L. Baldwin. (New York, Eaton & Mains, 1900)

Sun Zi [Sun Tzu], The Art of War,
trans Samuel B, Griffin, (Oxford: Clarendon, 1963; later pb editions available), pb.
another translation, by Lionel Giles, is available on the Internet, via the World Wide Web, at

Historical Texts:

Faxian [Fa-hsien], ca. 337-ca. 422CE,

Xu Qing Shu Ching

Shu Ching: Book of History: A modernized edition of the translation of James Legge, by Clae Waltham, (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1972) As indicated, a modernization and merging of two Legge translations which avoids Legge's outdated transliteration system in favor of the Wade-Giles system. Along with the Yi Qing I Ching and the Shih Ching this is one of the three oldest Chinese books to survive.

Sima Qian, Ssu-ma Chien, Records of the Historian: Chapters from the SHIH-CHI of Ssuma Ch'ien, trans. Burton Watson, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958), pb. 5 chapters dealing with the Zhou [Chou] and Qin [Ch'in] dynasties. The extracts are meant to suggest the form and conetnt of the first great Chineses historical work.

Sima Qian, Ssu-ma Chien, Records of the Grand Historian of China: Chapters from the SHIH-CHI of Ssuma Ch'ien, 2 Vols., trans. Burton Watson, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1961), pb. (Rev. ed. Hong Kong ; New York : Renditions-Columbia University Press, c1993-) 18 chapters dealing with the Han Dynasty.

Sima Qian, Ssu-ma Ch'ien, ca. 145-ca. 86 B.C, The Grand Scribe's Records,William H. Nienhauser, Jr., editor ; Tsai-fa Cheng ... [et al.], translators, (Bloomington : Indiana University Press, c1994-)

Sima Qian, Ssu-ma Ch'ien, ca. 145-ca. 86 B.C, Historical Records, translated with an introduction and notes by Raymond Dawson. Oxford, (New York : Oxford University Press, 1994) pb.

Tso-ch'iu, Ming., The Tso Chuan : Selections From China's Oldest Narrative History, translated by Burton Watson (New York : Columbia University Press, 1989)

Literary Texts

Shih Ching [Book of Odes]

The oldest Chinese collection of poems.

Shih ching = The shi king : the old "Poetry classic" of the Chinese: a close metrical translation, with annotations, by William Jennings, (London ; New York : G. Routledge and Sons, Ltd., 1891, repr. New York : Paragon Book Reprint Corp., 1969)
Book of odes (Shi-King), by L. Cranmer-Bying. London, J. Murray, 1909.

The odes of Confucius, by L. Cranmer-Byng. [2d. ed.]. (New York, Dutton, 1908)
The book of odes. Chinese text, transcription and translation, by Bernhard Karlgren. (Stockholm, Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 1950)

Cao Xueqin Ts'ao Hsueh-ch'in, ca. 1717-1763., Dream Of The Red Chamber,; translated and adapted from the Chinese by Chi-Chen Wang ; with a preface by Mark Van Doren. Abridged, (New York : Anchor Books, 1989, c1958). The most famous Chinese novel - a sort of complex Romeo and Juliet storry. This is an expansion of the 1929 version, but not the complete work.

Cao Xueqin Ts'ao Hsueh-ch'in, ca. 1717-1763. Dream Of The Red Chamber; Hung lou meng. A Chinese novel of the early Ching Period. English translation by Florence and Isabel McHugh, (New York: Pantheon Books 1958). (also New York : Grosset & Dunlap ; 1968, c1958.)

Cao Xueqin Ts'ao Hsueh-ch'in ca. 1717-1763. The Story of the Stone, Also knonw as The Dream Of The Red Chamber; Hung lou Meng.. Complete English translation in four volumes, (New York: Penguin, 19??)

Chinese Lyricism; Shih Poetry From The Second To The Twelfth Century, with translations by Burton Watson, (New York, Columbia University Press, 1971)

Chinese Rhyme-Prose; Poems In The Fu Form From The Han And Six Dynasties Periods. translated and with an introd. by Burton Watson. (New York, Columbia University Press, 1971)

The Columbia Book Of Chinese Poetry : From Early Times To The Thirteenth Century, translated and edited by Burton Watson. New York , (Columbia University Press, 1984)

Graham, A. C.,trans., Poems of the Late T'ang, (London: Penguin, 1965) Translations of seven poets of the 8th and 9th centuries CE.

Han-shan, fl. 627-649CE, Cold mountain; 100 poems by the T'ang poet Han-shan. translated and with an introd. by Burton Watson, (New York, Columbia University Press ,1970)

Hsiao-hsiao-sheng [attrib.] Chin P'ing Mei: The Golden Lotus: The Adventurous History of Hsi Men and His Six Wives, Chin P'ing Mei tz'u hua, trans. Ct. T. Hsia, (New York: G. P. Putnam's, 1940, repr. New York: Perigree, 1982)

Li Po and Tu Fu, Li Po and Tu Fu, trans. Arthur Cooper, (London: Penguin, 1973) Poems of two freinds traditionally considered the greatest poets of China.

Lu Yu, 1125-1210 CE, The Old Man Who Does As He Pleases; Selections From The Poetry And Prose Of Lu Yu, translated [from the Chinese] by Burton Watson. (New York, Columbia University Press, 1973)

Six Yüan Plays, trans. Liu Jung-en, (New York: Penguin, 1972) pb. Plays by Chi Chün-hsiang, Chêng Teh-hui, Kuan Han-ch'ing, Li Han-ku, Ma Chih-yüan, and anonymous.

Su Shih, 1037-1101CE, Su Tung-p'o: selections from a Sung dynasty poet, translated and with an introd. by Burton Watson (New York, Columbia University Press, 1965)

Su Shih, 1037-1101CE, Selected poems of Su Tung-p'o, translated by Burton Watson, (Port Townsend, WA : Copper Canyon Press, 1994)



[See also under Post-Mao China for books/sources on statistics, etcs, for modern China as a whole]

Anderson, Eugene N., The Food of China, (New Haven : Yale University Press, 1988)

Butterfield, Fox., China: Alive in the Bitter Sea, rev. ed. (New York: Random House, 1990).

Dawson, Raymond, The Chinese Experience, ( New York: Charles Scribner, 1978) Focuses on cultural aspects of Chinese life.

Eberhard, Wolfram, A History of China, rev. ed. (4th Ed), (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1977, first ed. 1950) pb. A standard textbook on Chinese history with much information arranged under clearly marked subheadings.

Elvin, Mark, The Pattern of the Chinese Past: A Social and Economic Interpretation, (Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1973) pb. A determined attempt to consider Chinese history apart from the dyanstic cycles of political historiography. The major focus is on the questions of 1. why China remained a coherent culture when all other ancient cultures dissipated, 2. the economic revolution of the 8-12th centuries, and 3. why China failed to maintain its economic and technological lead in the modern period.

Fairbank, John King, ed., Chinese Thought and Institutions, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957)

Filstrup, Chris, and Filstrup, Janie. China: From Emperors to Communes, (London: Dillon, 1982).

Gernet, Jacques, A History of Chinese Civilization, trans. J. R. Foster, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982, pb. 1985, first French ed. 1972) pb. Standard textbook from a senior French China scholar.

Kublin, Hyman, China, rev. edition, (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1976) A boo designed for high school social studies courses, by a former proffesor at Brooklyn College. It gives very good general overview of Chinese culture in straightforward language.

Lin Yu-tang, My Country and My People, (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1935), A widely read discussion of Chinese culture by probably the most famous Chinese writer [apart from Mao] this century.

Lord, B.B., Legacies: A Chinese Mosaic, (Knopf, 1990).

MacNair, Harley Farnsworth, ed., China, (Berkeley and Los Angles: University of Califirnia Press, 1946). A selection of articles by leading sinologists on many aspects of Chinese culture.

March, Andrew, The Idea of China: Myth and Theory in Geographic Thought, (New York: Praeger, 1974),

McLenighan, Valjean., China: A History to 1949,(Childrens, 1983).

Morton, W. Scott, China, Its History and Culture, 3rd ed. (New York : McGraw-Hill, 1994?, 1st ed 1980)

Murphey, Rhoads., China, rev. ed. (Gateway, 1988).

Tung Chi-ming, An Outline History of China, (San Francisco: China Books, 1979), A Textbook written from the point of view of a modern PRC marxist historian.

Williams, C.A.S., Outlines of Chinese Symbolism & Art Motives, 3rd ed.,, (Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1941, repr. New York: Dover, 1976), pb. Useful, if sometimes outdated, dictionary of Chinese symbolism.


Chang Kwang-chih, The Archaeology of Ancient China, 4th ed., (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, I968) pb. The most authoritative source on Chinese archaeology..

Chang Kwang-chih, Shang Civilization, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980) pb. A synthetic interpretation of what is known about the Shang as of I980.

Chang Kwang-chih, Art, Myth andRitual: The Path to Political Authority in Ancient China, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, I983). A highly readable interpretation of earlv Chinese art and politics. KGO

Keighley, David N., Sources of Shang History: The Oracle Bone Inscriptions of Bronze Age China, (Berkelev and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1978). A survev and explanation of the oracle bone documentation. KGO

Keighley, David N., "Early Civilization in China: Reflections on How It Became Chinese," in Paul Ropp, ed., Heritage of China: Contemporary Perspectives on Chinse Civilization, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990), 15-54, A stimulating article that explicitly contrasts ancient Chinese and Greek civilizations, and examines what is distinctive about each. KGO

Goff, Denise, Early China, rev. ed. (Watts, 1986).

Sabin, Louis., Ancient China, (Troll, 1985).


Creel, Herrlee G., The Origins of Statecraft in China, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970). Although i t perhaps overstates the degree of centralization present in Zhou China, this work s a massive repository of information. KGO

Giles, Herbert, Confucianism and its Rivals, (London: 1915)

Hall, David and Roger Ames, Thinking through Confucius, (New York: SUNY Press, 1987) pb. An exploration of the comnonalities and disjunctures between Confucian and Western philosophies. KGO

Lewis, Mark Edward, Sanctioned Violence in Early China, (Albany, NY: State Universitv of New York Press, 1990). A provocative interpretation of the Warring States Transition that centers on the role of sanctioned violence. KGO

More, Frederic, The Intellectual Foundations of China, 2d ed., (New York: McGraw Hill, 1989) pb. An elegant introduction to the major issues in classical Chinese thought. KGO

Schwartz, Benjamin, The World of Thought in Ancient China, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985) pb. A thoughtful and sustained reappraisal ofmajor thinkers ofthe late Zhou. KGO

Shaughnessy, Edward L., Sources of Western Zhou History: Inscribed Bionze Vessels, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Universitv of California Press, 1991). A technical yet accessible introducion to the studv of bronze inscriptions.

Watson, Burton, Early Chinese Literature, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1962), pb. Excellent synthetic overview of History, Philosophy and Poetry in China to circa 220 CE.


Bodde, Derk, Festivals in Classical China: New Year and Other Annual Observances During the Han Dynasty 206 BC-AD 200, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Universitv Press, 1975). An encvclopedic account of textual references to festivals during the Han. KGO

Ch'u T'ung-csu (edited by Jack Dull), Han Social Structures, (Seattle: Universitv of Washington Press, 1972). Includes both primary sources and analysis of Han dynasty society. KGO

Levi, Jean, The Chinese Emperor, trans. Barbara Bray, (New York: Vintage Books, 1989). A sinologist's novelistic account of the intrigues and power struggles in the first emperor's reign. KGO

Loewe, Michael, Crisis and Conflict in Han China: 104BC to AD 9, (London: Allen and Unwin, 1974). A collection of essavs that discuss Han dynasty politics. KGO

Loewe, Michael, Ways to Paradise: The Chinese Quest for Immortality, (London: Allen & Unwin, I979). A survev of archaeological and textual materials on Han dynastv beliefs about .immortality and other religious issues. KGO

Twitchett, Denis and Michael Loewe. eds.., The Cambridge History of China, Vol 1: The Ch'in and Han Bmpires 221 BC - AD 220, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, I986). A collection of authoritative essays. KGO

Wu Hung, The Wu Liang Shrine: The Ideology of Early Chinese Pictorial Art, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1989). A splendidly illustrated analysis of the engravings at a Han dynasty shrine. KGO


Fitzgerald, The Empress Wu, (London: Cresset, 1968). Story of the Wo Chao, the only woman to rule China in here own right.

Needham, Joseph, Science and Civilization in China, (New York: Cambridge University Press, I954- ). A multivolume magisterial survey of Chinese science and technology, painstakingly documented and lavishly illustrated. KGO

Wright, Arthur, Buddhism in Chinese History, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1959) pb. A classic account of the Chinese transformation of Buddhism. KGO

Maspero, Henri, China in Antiquity, trans. Frank Kierman, (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1978). Important studies of Taoism. KGO

Wright, Arthur, The Sui Dynasty, (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1978) pb. A lucid account of the Sui. KGO

Spiro, Audrey, Contemplating the Ancients: Aesthtic and Social Issues in Early Chinese Portraiture, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990). An examination of portraiture of the Period of Disunion in its context. KGO

Barfield, Thomas, The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic 1 and China 221 B.C. to A.D. 1957, (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1989) pb. A provocative interpretation of Chinese-nomad relations, designed for the general reader. KGO

Dudbridge, Glen, The Legend of Miao-san, (London: Press, 1978). A detailed study of the legend of a young who is identified with the bodhisattva Guanyin.

Teiser , Stephen F., The Ghost Festival in Medieval China, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988). A detailed of the Chinese festival of the dead.

Wechsler, Howard, Offerings of Jade and Silk: Ritual and Legitimation the Tang Dynasty, (New Haven, CT: Yale Unversity Press, 1985). A political analysis that takes ritual seriously.

Twitchett, Denis, The Writing of Official History under The Tang, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992) A discussion of the politics and mechanics of history under the Tang.


Gernet, Jacques, Daily Life in China on thr Eve of the Mongol Invasion, (New York: Macmillan, 1962; repub .Stanford: Stanford Univerity Press, 1970) pb. A lively and readable account of daily life in the Song capital. KGO

Hansen, Valerie, Changing Gods in Medieval China 1127-1276, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990). A splendid study of the transmission and transformacion of popular religion in Song dynasty China. KGO

Ebrecy, Patricia, Chu Hsi's Family Rituals: A Twelfth Ccentury Manual for the Performance of Cappings, Weddings, Funerals and Ancestral Rites, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991). A translation of a crucial ritual text. KGO

Hymes, Robert, Statsmen and Gentlemen: The Elite of Fu-chou, Chiang-hsi, in Northern and.Southernn Sung, (Cambridge, Cambridge Universi~v Press, 1986). An analysis in changes elite status and society from the Northern to the Southern Song.

Chaffee, John, The Thorny Gates of Learning in Sung China: A Social History of Examinations, (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1985). An account of the examination system and its implications. KGO


Rossabi, Morris, Khublai Khan: His Life and Times, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1988), A highly readable account of the man who ruled most of East Asia in the thirteenth century. KGO

Allsen, Thomas , Mongol Imperialism: The Politics of the Grand Oan Mongke in China, Russia and Islamic Lands 1251-1259, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987), The Mongol empire in world perspective.

Endicoct-West, Elizabeth, Mongolian Rule in China: Local Administration in the Yuan Dynasty, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989). A careful syudv of Yuan administration. KGO

Langlois, John, ed., China under Mongol Rule, (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981). A collection of essays treating various aspects ofYuan history.

Marco Polo, The Travels, trans Ronald Latham, (London: Penguin, 1958) pb. Polo is the most famous medieval traveller to China. This is his account of his travels and acquaintance with Kublai Khan.

Morgan, David, The Mongols, (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986) An up to date history of the entire Mongol imperial adventure. Looks not just at China, but at origins and expansion in the West and in the Muslim world.


Huang, Rav, 1587, A Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty in Decline, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981) pb. A collection of biographies of key players in late Ming politics and society. KGO

Dardass, John, Confucianism and Autocracy: Professionl Ethics and the Founding of the Ming Dynasty, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Universitv of California Press, 1983). An analysis of the role of the Confucian literati in the formation of the Ming state. KGO

Clunas, Craig, Superflous Things: Material Culture and Social Status in Early Modern China, (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1991). A study of elite consumption which suggestive of comparisons to early modern Europe. KGO

Brokaw, Cynthia.T., The Ledgers of Merit and Demerit: Social Change and Moral Order in Late Imperial China, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991) A studv of popular morality books and the ways in which they are rooted in changing social contexts. KGO


Will, Pierre-Etienne and R. Bin Wong, Nourish the People: The State Civilian Granary System in China, 1650-1850, (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Center for Chinese Studies, 1991). A temporal, spatial, structural, and comparative analysis of a major Qing institution affecting the lives of peasants gives a concrete sense of the capacities and commitments of the state. KGO

Wakeman, Jr., Frederic, The Grand Enterprise : The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth Century China, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1985) A grand narrative of the Manchu conquest, through which much of the foundation for modern China was laid. KGO

Kuhn, Philip, Soulstealers: The Chinese Sorcery Scare of 1768, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Universitv Press, 1990). An engrossing story about sorcery that reveals much about popular culture and officials' views of the societv they ruled.

Spence, Jonathan, ed., Ts'ao Yin and the K'ang-hsi Emperor, (New Haven: Yale, 1966, 2nd printing 1988) pb. Recounts the story of a hereditary bondservant of the Manchu emperors.

Spence, Jonathan, ed., Emperor of China: Self-Portrait of K'ang-hsi, (New York: Vintage, 1975) pb. An autobiography of the great Qing emperor - 1661-1722, constructed from his comments scattered throughout a variety of documents.

Spence, Jonathan, and John Wills. eds., From Ming to Ch'ing: Conquest, Region and Continuity in Seventeenth Century China, (New Haven. CT: Yale University Press, 1979 ). Collection of essays on late Ming and early Qing China.


Fairbank, John King, ed., The Chinese World: Traditional China's Foreign Relations, (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1968) pb. An excellent summary of China's relations with neighbors, especially in the late imperial period. KGO

Fletcher, Joseph, "Ch'ing Inner Asia c. I800, " in John Fairbank, ed., Cambridge History of China, Vol. 10, (Cambridge: Cambridge Universitv Press, 1978). The finest essay on Qing Inner Asia. KGO

Hevia, James L., Cherishing Men from Afar: Qing Guest Ritual and the Macartney Embassy of 1793, (Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1995) pb. Examines a famous encounter between the Qing and British empires. Does not see this a merely a process of "misunderstanding" but developsa postmodern critique of the event and the way it was later studied.

Rossabi, Morris, China and Inner Asia: From 36C to the Present Day, (London: Thames and Hudson, 1975 ). Part One gives a good overview of Ming dynasty Inner Asia relations. KGO

Spence, Jonathan, The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci, (New York: Viking, 1984; pb 198?) pb. A discussion of the life of Matthew Ricci S.J., perhaps the most perceptive of Western visitors to China. Spence use the conceit of a Renaissance memory scheme. The review bu H. R. Trevor Roper in the New York Review of Books (1984) provides, in fact, a good quick overview of the life and career of Ricci. Roper praises Spence's book, but notes that its clevernessc an sometimes obscure the story for those who do not already know something about the subject.

Spence, Jonathan, The Question of Hu, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988; pb Vintage, 1989) pb. Account of the travels in the west of John Hu, a Chinese catholic who in 1722 accompanied jesuit missionary on a journey to France.

Steinberg, David Joel, ed., In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History, rev. ed. (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986) pb. Parts I and II give excellent thematic and country-specific accounts of Soucheast Asia in the eighteenth century. KGO


Fairbank, John King, Trade and Diplomacy on the Coast: The Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842-1854, (Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1969) pb. The classic account of the creation of the port system by the founder of modern China studies in the United States. KGO

Fairbank, John King, The Great Chinese Revolution 1800-1985, (New York: Harper & Row, 1986, pb 1987) pb. Well written narrative account of the huge changes faced by China since 1800, but it has no footnotes.

Kuhn, Philip, Rebellion and Its Enemies in Late Imperial China, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971) pb. An influential statement of how officials and elites mobilized militray power to oppose the Taiping. KGO

Seagrave, Sterling¸Dragon Lady: The Life and Legend of the Last Empress of China, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992) pb. Popular, but long, biography of Cixi, the "dowager empress", who effectively ruled China in the late 19th century.

Waley, Arthur, The Opium War ar Through Chinese Eyes, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1968) pb. A revealing account of the Opium War through Chinese documents, all blended into a narrative by one of the foremost translators of Chinese literature. KGO

Wright, Mary, The Last Stand of the Chinese Government, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1962) pb. The best survey of the full range of policies taken by the Chinese state after defeating the mid-century rebellions.


Steinberg, David Joel, ed., In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History, rev. ed. (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986) pb. Parts II and III consider nineteenth-century political changes before and after European imperialism.

Rossabi, Morris, China and Inner Asia: From 1368 to the Present Day, (London: Thames and Hudson, 1975). Part III considers China's strength in Inner Asia and its subsequent decline.


Alitto, Guy S., The Last Confucian: Liang Shu-ming and the Chinese Dilemma of Modernity, 2nd ed., (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), pb. A biography of the most famous defender of Chinese traditional Confucianism in this century. The book addresses the whole issue of "modernity" and China.

Rozman, Gilbert, ed., The Modernization of China, (New York: The Free Press, 1981), pb. A team-written book covering all aspects of the modernization issue.

Spence, Jonathan, The Gate of Heavenly Peace: The Chinese and Their Revolution, 1895-1980, (New York; Viking, 1981; London: Faber, 1982; pb, Penguin, 1982) pb

Spence, Jonathan, In Search of Modern China, (New York; Viking, 1992?) pb.

Ssu-yü Teng and John King Fairbank, eds., China's Response to the West: A Documentary Survey 1839-1923, (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1954)

Tse-Tsung Chow, The May Fourth Movement, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1967). A rich survey of the intellectual currents of the time. KGO


Buck, Pearl S. (Pearl Sydenstricker), 1892-1973, The Good Earth [Novel], (New York, Grossett & Dunlap publishers 1931, repr. New York, The Modern library 1934) multiple reissues, pb

Clifford Nicholas R., Spoilt Children of Empire: Westerners in Shanghai and the Chinese Revolution of the 1920s, (Hanover: Middlebury College Press, 1991) pb. An analysis and account of the cross-cultural megapolis of pre-Communist China. As much about Western imperialism as about China itself.

Huang, Philip, The Peasant Economy and Social Change in North China, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1985) pb. A challenging study of economic change, social relations, and political control in early twentieth-century north China. KGO

Levy Jr., Marion J, The Family Revolution in Modern China, (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1949, repr. in pb New York: Atheneum, 1968) pb. A sociological approach.

Seagrave, Sterling¸The Soong Dynasty, (New York: Harper & Row, 1985), pb. An account of the Soong family which played an important, perhaps dominant, part in Chinese history in the first half of this century. A business family which married well, its most famous member is perhaps Soong Mayling who became Madame Chiang Kai-shek.

Sheridan, James E., China in Disintegration: The Republican Era in Chinese History, 1912-1949, (New York: The Free Press, 1971) pb . A comprehensive survey of Republican China 's precarious situation. KGO


Beasley, W. G., Japanese Imperialism, 1899-199, (Oxford: Oxford Universitv Press, 1987). A systematic and balanced account of Japan's formal and informal empire throughout Asia.

Perry , Elizabeth, Rebels and Revolutionaries in North China, 1845-1945, (Stanford, CA: Stanford Universitv Press, 1980) pb. An elegant comparison of the Nian Rebellion and the Communist movement in north China. KGO

Dower, John , War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War, (New York: Pantheon, 1981) pb. A sobering analysis of Japanese and Chinese perspectives on the enemy during World War II. KGO


Bianco, Lucien, Origins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915-1949, (Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1967)

Carter, A.R., Modern China (Watts, 1986).

Chan, Anita, Richard Madsen and Jonathan Unger, Chen Village: The Recent History of a Peasant Community in Mao's China, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1984) pb. Looks at a South China farming village.

Ch'ên, Jerome, Mao and the Chinese Revolution, (London: Oxford Univerity Press, 1965) Includes 37 poems by Mao. Well document account of Mao and the Communist Party up to the moment of power in 1949.

Danforth, Kenneth, and Dickinson, M.B., eds., Journey into China, (National Geographic, 1982).

Jacobs, Dan. N. and Hans H. Baerwald, eds., Chinese Communism: Selected Documents, (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), pb.

Hacker, J.H., The New China,(Watts, 1986).

Mao Zedong, Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung, 3d ed., (Peking: Foreign Language Press, 1975)

Martin, Helmut, Cult and Canon: The Origins and Development of State Maoism, (M.E. Sharpe, 1982).

Mosher, Steven W., Broken Earth: The Rural Chinese, (New York: Free Press, 1983) An account based on fieldwork in Guangdong province, but with no documentation.

Pannell, C.W., East Asia, Geographical and Historical Approaches to Foreign Area Studies, (Kendall/Hunt, 1983).

Rau, Margaret., The Minority Peoples of China,(Messner, 1982).

Roderick, John., China: From the Long March to Tiananmen Square, (Holt, 1990).

Wilson, Dick, The Long March 1935: The Epic of Chinese Communism's Survival, (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1971; New York: Viking, 1972, repr in Penguin pb, 1977, 1982) An account of the 6000 mile march by 100,000 Chinese communists which eventually enabled them to defeat the Nationalist government.

Wood, Frances., People at Work in China (David & Charles, 1988).

Schurmann, Franz, Ideology and Organization in Communist China, 2nd ed., (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1971), pb. A systematic analysis of China's political organiza tion and ideology during the 1950s and I960s.

For autobiographical analyses of the Cultural Revolution years consider any of the three following accounts:

Liang Heng and Judith Shapiro, Son of the Revolution, (New York: Vintage Books, 1983) pb KGO

Yue Daivun and Carolyn Wakeman, To the Storm: The Odyssey of a Revolutionary Chinese Woman, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1985) pb KGO

Gao Yuan, Born Red: A Chronicle of the Cultural Revolution, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1987) pb KGO


Congress of the United States, Joint Economic Committee. China Under the Four Modernizations. Part I (Washington DC: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1982).

Dorn, James A. And Wang Xi, eds., Economic Reform in China: Problems and Prospects, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), pb.

Fang Lizhi, Bringing Down the Great Wall: Writings on Science, Culture and Democracy in China, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991) A collection of speeches and writngs by China's most famous modern dissident.

Harding, Harry, China's Second Industrial Revolution: Reform After Mao, (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1987) pb. A balanced assessment of China's political and economic reforms from 1976 to the late 1980s. KGO

Kristof Nicholas D. and Sheryl WuDunn, China Wakes: The Struggle for the Soul of a Rising Power, (New York: Vintage, 1994) pb

Link, Perry, Evening Chats in Beijing: Probing China's Predicament, (New York: W.W. Norton, 1992) pb. Based on discussions, in China, with Chinese intellectuals and the perpetuation of their tradition duty to worry about society at large.

Link, Perry, Richard Madsen and Paul G. Pickowitz, eds., Unofficial China: Popular Culture and Thought in the People's Republic, (Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1989) pb.

Mackerras, Colin And Amanda Yorke, edsa., The Cambridge Handbook of Contemporary China; Country Study, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991) pb. Useful sourcs of statisticas and maps about modern China.

Schell, Orville, Mandate of Heaven: The Legacy of Tiananmen Square and the Next Generation of Chinese Leaders, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994) pb.

Vogel, Ezra F., One Step Ahead in China: Guangdong Under Reform, (Cambridge MA: Harvard Univerity Press, 1989) pb. An account of the huge economic changes in the Guangdong region, the first to press ahaed with a post-Mao capitalist system.

Worden, Robert L., Andra Matles Savada and Ronald E. Dolan, eds., China; Country Study, (Washington DC: Federal Research Division, 1988) Extensive survey of many aspects of modern China.


[see also WOMEN;]

Anderson, Mary M. Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China, (Buffalo NY: Prometheus: 1990) Popular account with minimal notes.

Cabezon, Jose Ignacio, ed., Buddhism, Sexuality and Gender, (Albany NY: SUNY, 1992), pb. Articles by Leonard Zwilling and Paul Gordn Schalow look at homosexuality in Buddhist writings and practice.

Edwards, Louise P., Men And Women In Qing China : Gender In The Red Chamber Dreams, Series title: Sinica Leidensia ; v. 31, (Leiden ; New York : E.J. Brill, 1994)

Franklin, Margaret Ann, The Chinese Sex-Gender System, Party Policy, And The Education Of Women, (East Lansing, MI: Women in International Development, Michigan State University, c1989

Gilmartin, Christina K. et al., eds., Engendering China : Women, Culture, And The State, (Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1994)

Hinsch, Bret, Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990), pb.

Martin, Bernard, The Strain Of Harmony; Men And Women In The History Of China, (London, W. Heinemann, 1948)

Miller, Neil, Out in the World : Gay and Lesbian Life from Buenos Aires to Bangkok, (New York: Vintage, 1993), pb.

Sadler, C.E., Two Chinese Families, (London: Atheneum, 1981).

Wile, Douglas, Art Of The Bedchamber : The Chinese Sexual Yoga Classics Including Women's Solo Meditation Texts, (Albany : State University of New York Press, c1992)

Zito, Angela and Tani. E. Barlow, eds., Body, Subject & Power in China, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994)


Anderson, Jennifer and Theresa Munford, trans.Chinese Women Writers: A Collection of Short Stories By Chinese Women Writers Of The 1920S And 30S. (Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Co., 1985).

Andors, Phyllis, The Unfinished Liberation Of Chinese Women, 1949-1980, (Bloomington : Indiana University Press ; Brighton, Sussex : Wheatsheaf Books, 1983)

Ayscough, Florence Wheelock, Chinese Women, Yesterday And Today, (Boston, Houghton Mifflin company, 1937)

Broyelle, Claudie, Women's Liberation in China, translated from the French by Michele Cohen and Gary Herman, (Atlantic Highlands, N.J. : Humanities Press, 1977)

Burton, Margaret E. (Margaret Ernestine), The Education Of Women In China, (New York : Fleming H. Revell, c1911)

Chang, Jung, Wild Swans : Three Daughters Of China, (New York : Simon & Schuster, 1991)

Chao, Paul, Women Under Communism : Family In Russia And China, (Bayside, N.Y. : General Hall, 1977)

Chao Pu-wei Yang, 1889-, Autobiography Of A Chinese Woman, Buwei Yang Chao, put into English by her husband Yuenren Chao, (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press 1970, c1947).

Cheng, Lucie, Charlotte Furth, and Hon-ming Yip, Women In China : Bibliography Of Available English Language Materials, (Berkeley, Calif. : Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Center for Chinese Studies, 1984)

Anderson, Jennifer & Theresa Munford, trans., Chinese Women Writers : A Collection Of Short Stories By Chinese Women Writers Of The 1920s And 30s, (Hongkong : Joint Pub. Co., 1985)

Chow, Rey, Woman And Chinese Modernity : The Politics Of Reading Between West And EastU (Minneapolis, MN : University of Minnesota Press, 19??)

Conger, Sarah Pike, Letters From China : With Particular Reference To The Empress Dowager And The Women Of China, 3d ed, (Chicago : A. C. McClurg, 1910, c1909)

Contemporary Chinese women writers II, 1st ed., (Beijing : Panda Books, 1991)

Contemporary Chinese Women Writers III, 1st ed., (Beijing, China : Chinese Literature Press : Distributed by China International Book Trading Corp., 1993)

Croll, Elisabeth J., The Women's Movement In China : A Selection Of Readings, 2d ed. (London : Anglo-Chinese Educational Institute, 1974)

Croll, Elisabeth J., Chinese Women Since Mao, (London : Zed Books ; Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, 1983)

Curtin, Katie, Women in China, (New York : Pathfinder Press, 1975)

Cusack, Dymphna, Chinese Women Speak, 2d ed., (London : Century Hutchinson, 1985)

Davis, John Angell, The Chinese Slave-Girl : A Story Of Woman's Life In China, (Philadelphia : Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1901, c1880)

Drunken Whiskers, That Chinese Woman : The Life Of Sai-Chin-Hua, trans. Henry McAleavy, (London : Allen & Unwin, 1959; New York: Crowell 1959)

Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, The Inner Quarters : Marriage And The Lives Of Chinese Women In The Sung Period, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993)

Gerstlacher, Anna, et al. eds., .Woman And Literature In China,..(Bochum [Germany] : Studienverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, 1985)

Guisso Richard W. and Stanley Johannesen, eds,, Women In China : Current Directions In Historical Scholarship, (Youngstown, N.Y. : Philo Press, 1981)

Gross, Susan Hill, Women In Traditional China : Ancient Times To Modern Reform, (Gross & Marjorie Wall Bingham. Hudson, Wis. : G.E. McCuen Publications, 1980)

Honig, Emily & Gail Hershatter, Personal Voices : Chinese Women In The 1980's, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1988)

Hung, Eva, Contemporary Women Writers: Hong Kong And Taiwan.. (Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong: Research Centre for Translation, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1991). The authors are women who came into literary prominence in the early to mid-1980's.

The Impact Of Economic Development On Rural Women In China : A Report Of The United Nations University Household, Gender, And Age Project / All-China Women's Federation, (Tokyo : United Nations University, c1993)

Ko, Dorothy, Teachers of the Inner Chambers: Women and Culture in Seventeenth-Century CHina, (Stanford CA; Stanford University Press, 1994) pb.

Kwok Pui-lan, Chinese women and Christianity, 1860-1927, (Atlanta, Ga. : Scholars Press, 1992)

Landy, Laurie, Women and the Chinese Revolution, (New York : International Socialists, 1969?)

Lee, Lily Xiao Hong., The Virtue Of Yin : Studies On Chinese Women, (Broadway, NSW, Australia : Wild Peony ; Honolulu : International distribution, University of Hawaii Press, 1994)

Li Yu-ning, Chinese Women Through Chinese Eyes, (Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, 1992)

Lieh Nu Chuan, The Position Of Woman In Early China According To The Lieh Nu Chuan, "The Biographies Of Chinese Women", ed. Albert Richard O'Hara, (Taipei : Mei Ya Publications, 1971)

Lin, Julia C., trans., .Women Of The Red Plain : An Anthology Of Contemporary Chinese Women's Poetry, (New York, N.Y., USA : Penguin Books, 1992)

Ling, Amy., Between Worlds : Women Writers Of Chinese Ancestry (New York : Pergamon Press, 1990)

Liu Hsiang, 77?-6? BCE. The Position Of Woman In Early China According To The Lieh Nu Chuan, "The Biographies Of Eminent Chinese Women" edited Albert Richard O'Hara, (Westport, Conn. : Hyperion Press, 1981)

Liu Hsiang, 77?-6? BCE, Typical Women Of China. Translated From A Popular Native Work On The Virtues, Words, Deportment, And Employment Of The Women Of China, by the late Miss A. C. Safford. edited by John Fryer. 2d ed. (Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, limited, 1899)

Nienling Liu et al, trans., The Rose Colored Dinner : New Works By Contemporary Chinese Women Writers, (Hong Kong : Joint Pub. Co., 1988). Nine women's prose selections written since 1979 are presented in this collection.

Martin, Diana, Women in Chinese Society: An Annotated Bibliography (Farnham Royal: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, 1974) Series title: Annotated bibliography (Commonwealth Bureau of Agricultural Economics) ; no. 42.

Mosher, Steven W., A Mother's Ordeal : One Woman's Fight Against China's One-Child Policy, (New York : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, c1993)

The Muse Of China: A Collection Of Prose And Short Stories, (Taipei, Taiwan: Chinese Women Writers Association, 1974)

The Muse Of China: A Collection Of Prose And Short Stories, Vol 2., (Taipei, Taiwan: Chinese Women Writers Association, 1978)

Paledndri, Angela Jung, ed., Women Writers Of 20th Century China, (Eugene, Or. : Asian Studies Program, University of Oregon, 1982)

Peck, Stacey, Halls Of Jade, Walls Of Stone : Women In China Today (New York : F. Watts, 1985)

Pruitt, Ida, A Daughter of Han: The Autobiography of a Chinese Working Woman by Ida Pruit from the Story Told Her by Ning Lao T'ai t'ai, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1945, repr. Stanford CA; Stanford University Press, 1967) pb.

Rexroth, Kenneth, & Ling Chung., trans. and eds., Orchid boat. Women poets of China (New York : Published for J. Laughlin by New Directions Pub. Corp., 1982, c1972) pb, 120 poems by 54 poets are included. Also includes an essay titled, "Chinese Women and Literature - A Brief Survey" by Ling Chung.

Roberts, R.A. and Angela Knox, trans., One Half Of The Sky : Selection From Contemporary Women Writers Of China, (London : Heinemann, 1987), Eight authors are represented in this selection designed to illustrate the range of twentieth-century Chinese women's writing

Rosen, Stanley, ed., Chinese Women. special edition of Chinese Sociology And Anthropology 21:3 (1987)

Ross, James R., Caught In A Tornado : A Chinese American Woman Survives The Cultural Revolution, (Boston : Northeastern University Press, 1994)

Seven Contemporary Chinese Women Writers. 1st ed. (Beijing, China : Chinese Literature : Distributed by China Publications Centre, 1982.)

Sheridan, Mary, and Janet W. Salaff, eds. Lives, Chinese working women, (Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1984)

Shimer, Dorothy Blair, ed., Rice Bowl Women: Writings By And About Women Of China And Japan, (New York: New American Library, 1982). Chronological selections of a wide range of women's experiences from two cultures where the rice bowl is a traditional symbol of womanhood.

Sidel, Ruth., Women And Child Care In China; A Firsthand Report, (New York: Hill and Wang, 1972)

Siu, Bobby, Women Of China : Imperialism And Women's Resistance, 1900-1949, (London : Zed Press ; Westport, Conn., U.S.A. : U.S. distributor, L. Hill, 1982, c1981)

Spence, Jonathan, The Death of Woman Wang, (New York: Viking Penguin, 1987; pb Penguin, 1989) pb. Set in 17th century provincial China, this recounts the story of an unhappy marriage, and the murder by her husband of 'Woman Wang".

Swann, Nancy Lee, Pan Chao, foremost woman scholar of China, first century A.D.; background, ancestry, life, and writings of the most celebrated Chinese woman of letters, (New York, Russell & Russell, 1968, first ed. 1932)

Tong, Benson, Unsubmissive Women : Chinese Prostitutes In Nineteenth-Century San Francisco, (Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, 1994)

Tseng, Chi-fen, 1852-1942, Testimony Of A Confucian Woman : The Autobiography of Mrs. Nie Zeng Jifen, 1852-1942, trans. and annotated by Thomas L. Kennedy ; edited by Thomas L. Kennedy and Micki Kennedy, (Athens, Ga. : University of Georgia Press, 1993)

Wallace, L Ethel., Hwa Nan College : The Woman's College Of South China, (New York : United Board for Christian Colleges in China, 1956)

Wei Chang-ling, Status of Wmen: China, (Bangkok : Unesco Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1989)

Wei, Katherin and Terry Quinn, Second Daughter: Growing Up in China, 1930-1949, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984) pb. The life a member of the Chinese upper class girl in the turbulent 1930s.

Weidner, Marsha et al., Views From Jade Terrace : Chinese Women Artists, 1300-1912 (Indianapolis, Ind. : Indianapolis Museum of Art ; New York : Rizzoli, c1988)

Wolf, Margery and Roxane Witke. eds., Women In Chinese Society, (Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 1975)

Wolf, Margery, Revolution Postponed: Women in Contemporary China, (Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 1985) Documents continuing oppression of Chinese women, but sees real imrpovements.

Wu Chao, ed., Women in Chinese Folklore, Women of China Special Series, (Beijing, China : Women of China : Distributed by China Publications Centre, 1983)

Young, Marilyn Blatt, ed.,, Women In China; Studies In Social Change And Feminism. (Ann Arbor, Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1973)

Yueh Tai-yun, To The Storm : The Odyssey Of A Revolutionary Chinese Woman, recounted by Yue Daiyun ; written by Carolyn Wakeman, (Berkeley : University of California Press, 1985)

Zhang, Zhimei, Foxspirit : A Woman In Mao's China, (Montreal : Vehicule Press ; Don Mills, Ont. : Distributed by General Distribution Services, 1992)

Zhu Hong, ed.,The Serenity Of Whiteness : Stories By And About Women In Contemporary China, (New York : Available Press, 1992)


Chong, Denise, The Concubine's Children, Story of author's immigrant ancestors.

Daniels, Roger, "Minorities from Other Regions: Chinese", in Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life, (New York: HarperCollins, 1990), 238-50

Gutman, Herbert, director, Who Built America: Working People and the Nation's Economy, Politics, Culture and Society, Volume I, (New York: Pantheon, 1989), pp. 523-31, 538-45 look at the situation of Chinese immigrant workers, and the hostility of many White working class unions.

Kingston, Maxine Hong, The Woman Warrior,

Tan, Amy, The Joy Luck Club, [Novel] (New York: Putnam's, 1989, pb. New York: Ballantine's, 1990) pb.

Tan, Amy, The Kitchen God's Wife, [Novel] (New York: Putnam's,1991, pb New York: Ballantine's, 1992)


Boyd, A., Chinese Architecture¸ (London: 1962)

Bussagli, Mario, Chinese Painting, trans. from Italian by Henry Vidon (London: Paul Hamlyn, 1969). Short, but beautifully illustrated, history of Chinese painting.

Chiang Yee, Chinese Calligraphy, (London: Methuen, 1961, reissue of 1st ed 1938)

Fisher, Robert E., Buddhist Art and Architecture, (New York; Thames & Hudson, 1993) pb. An introduction to the varieties of Buddist art, including that of China and Japan.

Medley, Margaret, The Chinese Potter. (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1982)

Siren, O., Chinese Painting, 7 vols., (New York: Ronald Press, 1956-58)

Siren, O., The Chinese on the Art of Painting, (Peking: H. Vetch, 1936)

Siren, O., Chinese Sculpture from the Vth to the XIVth Century, 4. vols. (London: Benn, 1925)

Sullivan, M., An Introduction to Chinese Art¸ (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1961)

Treagear, Mary, Chinese Art, (London: Thames & Hudson, 1980) pb. Easily available and part of a distnguished art history series.

Willets, W., Chinese Art, (London: Penguin, 1958), pb


Bercholz, Samuel and Sherab Chödzin Kohn, eds., Entering the Stream: An Introduction to the Buddha and His Teachings, ( Boston: Shambala, 1993) pb. An eclectic selection of texts and modern discussions, icluding of the Mahayana tradition, published to accompany the film "Little Buddha". Because it is directed at a non-specialist audience, this is a good introduction.

Blofeld, John, Boddisattva of Compassion: The Mystical Tradition of Kuan Yin, (Boston: Shambala, 1977) pb. A discussion, by a western believer, of the very important tramsgendered boddisattva of compassion.

Ch'en, Kenneth, Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey, (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1964) pb. Looks at all schools of Buddhism. Takes a rise and decline approach.

Creel, Herrlee G., Chinese Thought From Confucius to Mao Tse-tung, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953)

Dumoulin, Heinrich, Zen Buddhism: A History, Volume I: India and China, trans James W. Heisig and Paul Knitter, ( New York: Macmillan, 1988)

Gernet, Jacques, Buddhism in Chinese Society, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995, first French ed. 19??) Recent book focusing on the economic aspects of Buddhism in Chinese history.

Getty, Alice, The Gods of Northern Buddhism: Their History and Iconography, 2nd ed., (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1928; reissued New York: Dover, 1988) pb. An extensive survey of the large number of divinities, buddhas, and bodhisattvas of the various Mahayana religious and artistic traditions.

Humphries, Christmas, Buddhism: An Introduction and Guide, (London: Penguin, 1951) A basic introduction to all aspects of Buddhism by a famous English judge who was the most famous Western Buddhist for much of his life. pb

Koller, John M., Oriental Philosophies, (New York: Charles Scribner's, 1970)

Merton, Thomas, Mystics and Zen Masters, (New York: Noonday Press, 1967) pb

A series of essay on Eastern religion by a famous American Catholic monk. They are very readable. Particularly useful are essays on "Classic Chinese Thought", "Love and Tao", "The Jesuits in China", "Zen Buddhist Monasticism" and "The Zen Koan".

Ross, Nancy Wilson, Buddhism: A Way of Life and Thought, (New York: Knopf, 1980; pb Vintage, 1981) pb. A more recent basic introduction than that by Christmas Humphries.

Paul, Diana, "Kuan-Yin: Savior and Savioress in Chinese Pure Land Buddhism", in Carol Olson, ed., The Book of the Goddess Past and Present, (New York: Crossroad, 1983), 161-75

Schafer, Edward H. The Divine Woman: Dragon Ladies and rain Maidens, (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1980)

Snelling, John, The Buddhist Handbook, (Rochester VT: Inner Traditions, 1991) pb. See especially the chapters on "Mahayana", 83-92, "Northern Transmission: China", 121-143. The work is also useful as general overview.

Smith Jr., Kidder, et all, Sung Dynasty Uses of the I Ching, (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990)

Tao Tao Liu Sanders., Dragons, Gods and Spirits from Chinese Mythology, (Schocken, 1982).

Yoshinori, Takeuchi, ed., Buddhist Spirituality: Indian, Southeast Asain, Tibetan, and Early Chinese, Vol 8. of World Spirituality: An Encyclopedic History of the Religious Quest, (New York: Crossroad, 1993) See especially the essays: G.C Pande, "The Message of Gotama Buddha and Its Earliest Interpretations", 3-33; Kajiyama Yuichi, :Prajnaparimita and the Rise of Mahayana", 137-54; Michael Pye, "The Lotus Sutra and the Essence of Mahayana", 171-87; Roger J. Corless, "Pure Land Piety", 242-274; Whalen Lewis, "The Three Jewels in China"; Paul L Swanson, "The Spirituality of Emptiness in Early Chinese Buddhism", 373-96. All essays have excellent up to date bibliographies

Buddhist Spirituality: Ch'an, East Asian and Contenporary, Vol 9. of World Spirituality: An Encyclopedic History of the Religious Quest, (New York: Crossroad, to be published 199?)

Confucian Spirituality, Vol 11. of World Spirituality: An Encyclopedic History of the Religious Quest, (New York: Crossroad, to be published 199?)

Taoist Spirituality, Vol 10. of World Spirituality: An Encyclopedic History of the Religious Quest, (New York: Crossroad, to be published 199?)

Yu-Lan, Fung, The Spirit of Chinese Philosphy, (Boston: 1962)

This was useful bibliographic guide to Chinese philosophical texts, from a Western philosophical perspective, which may be useful to some readers:


Compiled by Bryan W. Van Norden

( and

(version of October 8, 1994)

Many philosophers say that they would like to include non-Western philosophy in their courses, but have no idea where to look for appropriate selections. Other philosophers worry that they lack the necessary expertise to teach texts from another intellectual tradition. The following texts have been selected for two reasons: they deal with issues and use philosophical techniques recognizable to philosophers with "analytic" training; and they are relatively "self-contained," so that they can be used without a broad background in Chinese philosophy. For secondary works on some of the philosophers mentioned below, see "Bibliography of Some Major Works on Confucian Philosophy."

Mo Tzu, "Universal Love," in Burton Watson, trans., (New York: Columbia University Press, 1963), pp. 39-49. This essay presents a sustained argument for a kind of universalistic consequentialism. It advocates "universalism" (equal concern for all humans) over "partialism" (more concern for some humans than for others). The targets of the essay are Confucianism and Yangism (the latter is the philosophy of Yang Chu, vide infra).

"Yang Chu," in A.C. Graham, trans., The Book of Lieh-tzu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1960), pp. 138-157. The historical Yang Chu was probably either a psychological egoist or an ethical egoist (although A.C. Graham argues that he was actually a sort of "Epicurean"). This collection of dialogues and anecdotes was compiled long after his death, but can be used to illustrate a variety of standard egoistic arguments.

Kung-sun Lung, "On the White Horse," in Wing-tsit Chan, trans., A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963), pp, 235-237. (For an alternative translation with discussion, see A.C. Graham, "Kung-sun Lung's Discourse Re-Read as Argument about Whole and Part," in idem, Studies in Chinese Philosophy and Philosophical Literature (Albany: SUNY Press, 1990), especially pp. 201-210.) This is an infamous sophistical argument in which it is claimed that "a white horse is not a horse."

Mencius, Mencius, translated by D.C. Lau (New York: Penguin Books, 1970). (For an alternative translation, see James Legge, The Works of Mencius (New York: Dover Publications, 1970).)The richness of Mencius's isolated sayings often cannot be appreciated without understanding his historical context and his work as a whole.However, a number of passages present brief arguments that should prove provocative for classroom use. Mencius criticizes consequentialist arguments in 1A1 (Book 1, Part A, Section 1) and 6B4. He presents an anti-egoistic thought-experiment in 2A6. In 3A5, he argues with a "universalist" follower of Mo Tzu (vide supra). He argues that human nature is "good" (in the sense of possessing innate but incipient tendencies toward virtue) in 2A6, and 6A1 through 10. Alternative translations of many passages in the Mencius are available from Bryan W. Van Norden (

Chuang Tzu, "Discussion on Making All Things Equal," in Burton Watson, trans., Chuang Tzu: Basic Writings (New York: Columbia University Press, 1964), pp. 31-45. (For an alternative translation, see "The Sorting Which Evens Things Out," in A.C. Graham, trans., Chuang-Tzu: The Inner Chapters (Boston: Unwin Paperbacks, 1981), pp. 48-61.) The style of this text is not analytic, so some philosophers may find it difficult to deal with. In addition, scholars disagree about how to interpret it.ntal Essays on Chuang-tzu (Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 1983), especially pp. 38-50. For a critique of Hansen's interpretation, and a discussion of the other major interpretations of Chuang Tzu, see Paul Kjellberg, "Zhuangzi and Skepticism," Doctoral Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Stanford University, 1993 (University Microfilms International Order Number 9403970).

Wang Ch'ung, "A Treatise on Death," in Wing-tsit Chan, trans., A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963), pp. 299-302. Wang Ch'ung presents a number of incisive arguments against personal immortality.

Wang Yang-ming, Instructions for Practical Living and Other Neo-Confucian Writings, translated by Wing-tsit Chan (New York: Columbia University Press, [1963]), Section 5, pp. 9-12. In this section, Wang Yang-ming denies the possibility of what Western philosophers call akrasia, or weakness of will. Wang Yang-ming is also a radical "particularist"; many sections in this work illustrate this.

Tai Chen, Evidential Commentary on the Meanings of Terms in the Mencius, Sections 3-5. (The best translation of this is John Ewell, "Re-inventing the Way: Dai Zhen's Evidential Commentary on the Meaning of Terms in Mencius (1777)," Ph.D. dissertation, History, University of California at Berkeley, 1990 (University Microfilms International Order Number 9126550), pp. 111-125. A usable published translation is Ann-ping Chin and Mansfield Freeman, Tai Chen on Mencius (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990), pp. 72-76.) Tai's work is organized as a commentary on the Mencius, but in this section he presents an interesting universalizability argument reminiscent of many Western "ideal observer" theories.


Movies Addressing Chinese History and Culture

The third largest movie industry in the world is based in Hong Kong, so there are thousands of movies which could be listed. It should be noted that, in contrast to the Chinese "art movies" often shown in rep movie houses, the Hong Kong movies excel in extremely bloody and choreographed violence. Here, though, is a very small selection of easily accessible films, many made in the West.

Choice For A Chinese Woman : Enlightenment In A Buddhist Convent, a production of ZDF in cooperation with Zhongshan TV Art Center. (Princeton, N.J. : Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 1993) 1 videocassette (VHS) (35 min.)

Double Happiness, Director:, Released 1995 [In English]
Looks at the life of a Canadian woman and the complexities of her life in living up to her goals as an independant woman and the expectations of her Chinese family.

Eat Drink, Man Woman, Director: Ang Lee, written by Mr. Lee, Hui-Ling Wang and James Schamus, Released 1994 [In Chinese, with English subtitles]

This is about a father who has lost his joie de vivre. No happier than Mr. Chu (Sihung Lung) are the three beautiful daughters whose romantic lives are star-crossed and who can't seem to escape their father's spell. Mr. Chu, a widower, is considered a great man in some circles, but at home it's another matter. Sunday dinner for father and daughters is a terrible ordeal. Family tensions run so high the participants can barely even eat. It's possible that Mr. Lee, a warmly engaging storyteller under any circumstances, could have made the father a celebrated singer or dog-trainer with equal ease. As it happens, he presents Mr. Chu as the greatest chef in Taipei, which not only makes the Sunday dinner sequence a spectacular affair but also turns "Eat Drink Man Woman" into an almost edible treat.

[from review by Janet Maslin, New York Times, August 3, 1994] NYT

Farewell My Concubine, Director: Chen Kaige; screenplay (in Mandarin, with English subtitles) by Lilian Lee and Lu Wei, based on the novel by Miss Lee; 154 minutes, Released 1993

This Chinese epic proved troublesome to the Communist authorities at home, and is one of those very rare film spectacles that deliver just about everything the ads are likely to promise: action, history, exotic color, multitudes in confrontation, broad overviews of social and political landscapes, all intimately rooted in a love story of vicious intensity, the kind that plays best when it goes badly, which is most of the time.

The time covered is 1925 through 1977. The setting is Beijing, earlier called Peking and, when not the national capital, Peiping. The film's title is taken from a favorite work in Chinese opera repertory, a tragic tale out of an ancient past that has become myth. It's about a concubine who's so loyal and true that rather than abandon her king as he faces military defeat, she chooses to dance for him one last time and then to cut her throat with his sword.

The opera is important to the film for several reasons. It is the work that makes stars of the two actors who are its principal characters, Dieyi and Xiaolou. It comes to dominate the professional lives of both men, and even to shape the emotional and sexual development of Dieyi, who is loved by the public for the women's roles he plays in the all-male opera company. The opera is also a reminder that in life, as in the story of the concubine and the king, each of us must take responsibility for his own fate.

Dieyi and Xiaolou meet as boys when both are apprenticed to an opera school. It is the mid-1920's, near the end of the period when warlords were the effective rulers of China. Dieyi, a pretty, gentle boy, is the son of a prostitute who dumps him at the school to get him out of the brothel. When the school's master initially refuses to accept Dieyi because he has six fingers on one hand, his mother takes an ax and chops off the extra digit.

During those first days at the school, which makes a Dickensian orphanage look like Disney World, the robust Xiaolou befriends Dieyi, initiating a relationship that becomes the obssessive center of Dieyi's life. As often happens in such fiction, crucial events in the friends' lives coincide with great public events that, in turn, shape their destinies.

In this way ``Farewell My Concubine'' interweaves the story of Dieyi and Xiaolou with the Japanese invasion of China in the 1930's, the surrender of the Japanese at the end of World War II, the rule of the Nationalist Government, the Chinese civil war, the victory of the Communists in 1949 and, finally, the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) and its exhausted aftermath.

That's a lot of ground for any film to cover, but Mr. Chen and his screenwriters (Lilian Lee and Lu Wei) succeed with astonishing intelligence and clarity. For all of the complexities of its leading characters, ``Farewell My Concubine'' is not a subtle film. It's a long declarative statement, reporting complexities without in any way reflecting them, which ultimately distinguishes a film as thoroughly accomplished as this from a truly great one.

Instead of subtleties, ``Farewell My Concubine'' offers a physical production of grand scale and sometimes ravishing good looks, though those looks overwork the director's fondness for shooting through filtered lenses, glass, smoke, mist, gauze, fish tanks and flames. All of the sequences relating to Chinese opera are riveting, from the brutal discipline and training of the boys to their exquisite performances on the stage when they have grown up. Mr. Chen is a director who has as much command of the intimate moments as of the big scenes of crowds, chaos and confusion.

The film's central love story is actually a triangle: Dieyi, Xiaolou and Juxian, the beautiful, strong-minded prostitute whom Xiaolou, an aggressive heterosexual as an adult, marries to the furious resentment of his co-star and boyhood friend. Dieyi drifts into a liaison with a rich, older opera patron. The co-stars break up their act on the night the Japanese enter Peiping. Yet when Xiaolou is arrested by the Japanese, it is Dieyi who sings a command performance for the occupation officers to win Xiaolou's release.

The movie is full of memorable scenes, including Xiaolou's courtship of Juxian while she's still working at the notorious House of Blossoms, and a harrowing sequence toward the end when the Red Guards successfully reduce their initially decent victims to desperate, panicked wrecks, each furiously denouncing old friends and lovers as counter-revolutionaries. It's a narrative of suicides, miscarriages, betrayals, drug addiction and sorrowful paradoxes: good intentions inevitably go wrong, which could be an observation about the Communist revolution.

You don't have to be a China hand to understand why ``Farewell My Concubine'' has had the Beijing authorities climbing the walls. Though the evils it describes would not be denied by the present Communist regime, the film doesn't preach truisms. It celebrates the rights of the individual and the importance of idiosyncrasy. Its treatment of the homosexual Dieyi is sympathetic to the point of being deeply romantic. ``Farewell My Concubine'' examines the activities of the Red Guards with such implacable fury that the criticism extends to the entire system itself, before and after the Cultural Revolution.

Probably the film's most maddening fault in the eyes of official Beijing, where no news is good news: It will bewitch audiences everywhere, people who have never before spent two consecutive moments thinking about the nature of the world's least-known major power.

[from a review by Vincent Canby, New York Times, 1993] NYT

Inn of the Sixth Happiness, Director: Mark Robson, Starring: Ingrid Bergman, Curt Jurgens, Robert Donat. Released: 1958 [In English]

Engrossing drama set in China just prior to World War II. Bergman does a fine acting job as an English girl who becomes a brave missionary. She shepherds children through enemy lines and carries on a romance with Jurgens. Donat, in his last film, is notable in the role of a mandarin. An exciting happy ending wraps it up nicely. l58 minutes [AOL]

Genghis Khan, Director: Henry Levin, Starring: Omar Sharif, Stephen Boyd, Francoise Dorleac, Released: 1964 [In English]

A passable historical epic with some good action scenes, but hung up by a script loaded with nonsense. The plot follows the Chinese warriors' rise to power and his campaign of revenge against his old enemy Jamuga, who murdered Genghis Khan's father. Moments of decent acting stand out among the routine.126 minutes [AOL]

The Good Earth, Director: Sidney Franklin ; screenplay by Talbot Jennings, Starring Tess Slesinger, Claudine West. Released 1937.
Based on nobel-prize winning author Pearl Buck's most successful novel, this film is the classic account of the world of a Chinese peasant.

The Joy Luck Club, Director: Wayne Wang, Starring Kieu Chinh, Tsai Chin, France Nuyen and Lisa Lu. Wayne Wang, Released 1994. 139 mins. Video: Hollywood Pictures Home Video ; [Burbank, Calif.] : Buena Vista Home Video [distributor], 1994].

Based on Amy Tan's popular novel, this complex, epic tearjerker tells of the often difficult relationships of four immigrant Chinese women and their yuppie daughters. Unfortunately, the awkward film evolves as a maze of disconnected vignettes and flashbacks, especially when it involves the hardships of the older women in their native China. The actresses, however, turn in nifty performances while the male parts are primarily cardboard caricatures. 135 mins. [AOL]

The Last Emperor, Director: Bernardo Bertulucci, Starring John Lone. Released 1988, 164 mins. [in Mandarin and English] Video: Beverly Hills, Calif. : Nelson Entertainment :

Beautifully filmed epic of China's last imperial ruler, Pu Yi - from his appointment to the throne at age three to his death as an ordinary citizen in the People's Republic in 1967. Film maker Bernardo Bertolucci tells an intimate, sweeping story of a man controlled by historical forces. The picture is visually exciting, generally engrossing and fascinating as a portrait of modern China made by westerners. 166 mins. [AOL]

Left Hand of God, Director: Edward Dmytryk, Starring: Humphrey Bogart, Gene Tierney, Lee J. Cobb Released: 1955 [In English]

Bogart stars as an American pilot posing as a Catholic priest in China just after World War II. He gets involved with a renegade warlord, played by Cobb, who is immersed in conflict. The drama plods along, but it's watchable because of the top cast, which is much better than the material. 87 minutes [AOL]

Little Buddha, Director: Bernardo Bertolucci, Starring Keanu Reeves, Released, 199? [in English]

From renown director Bernardo Bertolucci ("The Last Emperor"), a visually lavish but ultimately drab and absurd excursion into Eastern religion and the life of Buddha. The amamteurish plot involves a nine-year-old Seattle boy (Alex Wisendanger) who is identified by Tibetan monks as a possible reincarnated high priest. This situation finds the youth and his father (Chris Isaak) on a trip to Katmandu. The listless drama is laced with flashbacks to 500 B.C. when the actual Buddha (Keanu Reeves) apparently lived. Shallow characterizations and listless acting add up to a long meditation rather than a moving story. 123 mins. [AOL]

M. Butterfly, Director: David Cronenberg, Starring Jeremy Irons and John Lone, Released 19 [In English]

Based on David Hwang's Broadway play, this chilly drama, set in Beijing, China, in 1964, presents an incredible premise: a French diplomat engages in a long-term sexual affair with a Chinese opera singer who he believes is a woman but actually is a man and a spy. The story apparently is true, but the film fails to clarify such a far-fetched deception. Nevertheless, Jeremy Irons, as the attache, and John Lone, as the crafty female impersonator, gamely try to breathe life into their characters, but it's an impossible task. 100 mins. [AOL]

Temptation of a Monk, Director Clara Law, Starring Wu Hsin-ku, Released 1994, 118mins.
A historical epic set in 7th CE China. The hero is one General Shi who hides himself as a Buddhist monk after getting involved in a failed plot to murder a prince. The movie addresses both 7th century politcis and the religious quest. Although it is spectacular, without an immense background in the period, the viewer can easily become bored. [In Mandarin with English Subtitles. Video released by Fox Lorber].

The Wedding Banquet, Director Ang Lee; Released 199?, [In Mandarin and English]
A commedy of manners in which a gay Taiwanese businessman in Manhattan and his American lover go through a series of pretended marriage situations in order to impress the businessmen's visiting Taiwanese parents. It is very funny.

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