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Serbia and Montenegro


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Background: Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as a state by the US. The US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation.


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Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Europe

total: 102,350 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,938 sq km)
land: 102,136 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,724 sq km)
water: 214 sq km (Serbia 0 sq km; Montenegro 214 sq km)

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky (Serbia is slightly larger than Maine; Montenegro is slightly smaller than Connecticut)

Land boundaries:
total: 2,246 km
border countries: Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro), Bulgaria 318 km (with Serbia), Croatia (north) 241 km (with Serbia), Croatia (south) 25 km (with Montenegro), Hungary 151 km (with Serbia), The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km (with Serbia), Romania 476 km (with Serbia)
note: the internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km

Coastline: 199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: in the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Daravica 2,656 m

Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Environment—current issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube

Environment—international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography—note: controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast


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Population: 11,206,847 (Serbia—10,526,478; Montenegro—680,369) (July 1999 est.)
note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing

Age structure:
0-14 years: Serbia—20% (male 1,102,109; female 1,025,069); Montenegro—21% (male 75,633; female 70,464)
15-64 years: Serbia—67% (male 3,538,689; female 3,483,192); Montenegro—68% (male 232,223; female 227,371)
65 years and over: Serbia—13% (male 595,200; female 782,219); Montenegro—11% (male 30,829; female 43,849) (July 1999 est.)

Population growth rate: Serbia—0.02%; Montenegro—0.07% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: Serbia—12.54 births/1,000 population; Montenegro— 13.19 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: Serbia—9.68 deaths/1,000 population; Montenegro— 7.44 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: Serbia—-2.65 migrants/1,000 population; Montenegro—-5.09 migrants/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: Serbia—1.08 male(s)/female; Montenegro—1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: Serbia—1.08 male(s)/female; Montenegro—1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: Serbia—1.02 male(s)/female; Montenegro—1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: Serbia—0.76 male(s)/female; Montenegro—0.70 male(s)/female
total population: Serbia—0.99 male(s)/female; Montenegro—0.99 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: Serbia—16.49 deaths/1,000 live births; Montenegro—10.99 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: Serbia—73.45 years; Montenegro—76.32 years
male: Serbia—71.03 years; Montenegro— 72.87 years
female: Serbia—76.05 years; Montenegro—80.07 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: Serbia—1.74 children born/woman; Montenegro—1.76 children born/woman (1999 est.)

noun: Serb(s); Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Serbian; Montenegrin

Ethnic groups: Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%, Hungarians 4%, other 13%

Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%

Literacy: NA


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Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Serbia and Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Srbija-Crna Gora
note: Serbia and Montenegro has self-proclaimed itself the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (FRY) but the US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation

Data code: Serbia—SR; Montenegro—MW

Government type: republic

Capital: Belgrade (Serbia), Podgorica (Montenegro)

Administrative divisions: 2 republics (republike, singular—republika); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces* (autonomn pokrajine, singular—autonomna pokrajina); Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*

Independence: 11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or FRY formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY)

National holiday: St. Vitus Day, 28 June

Constitution: 27 April 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Slobodan MILOSEVIC (since 23 July 1997); note—Milan MILUTINOVIC is president of Serbia (since 21 December 1997); Milo DJUKANOVIC is president of Montenegro (since 21 December 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Momir BULATOVIC (since 20 May 1998); Deputy Prime Ministers Nikola SAINOVIC (since 15 September 1995), Vuk DRASKOVIC (since 1 February 1999), Jovan ZEBIC (since 9 April 1998), and Vladan KUTLESIC (since 20 March 1997), Zoran LILIC (since 20 May 1998), Danilo VUKSANOVIC (since 20 May 1998)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president elected by the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 23 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2001); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Slobodan MILOSEVIC elected president; percent of legislative vote—Slobodan MILOSEVIC 90%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Savezna Skupstina consists of the Chamber of Republics or Vece Republika (40 seats—20 Serbian, 20 Montenegrin; members distributed on the basis of party representation in the republican assemblies to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Citizens or Vece Gradjana (138 seats -, 108 Serbian with half elected by constituency majorities and half by proportional representation, 30 Montenegrin with six elected by constituency and 24 proportionally; members serve four-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Republics—last held 24 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2000); Chamber of Citizens—last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: Chamber of Republics—percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—NA; note—seats are filled on a proportional basis to reflect the composition of the legislatures of the republics of Montenegro and Serbia; Chamber of Citizens—percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—SPS/JUL/ND 64, Zajedno 22, DPSCG 20, SRS 16, NS 8, SVM 3, other 5; note—Zajedno coalition includes SPO, DS, GSS

Judicial branch: Federal Court or Savezni Sud, judges are elected by the Federal Assembly for nine-year terms; Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the Federal Assembly for nine-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party) [Slobodan MILOSEVIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC, president]; Democratic Party or DS [Zoran DJINDJIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPSCG [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Novak KILIBARDA]; Socialist People's Party of Montenegro or SNP [Momir BULATOVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Montenegro or SDP [Zarko RAKCEVIC]; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro [Slavko PEROVIC]; Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians or DZVM [Sandor PALL]; League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]; Reformist Democratic Party of Vojvodina or RDSV [Aleksandar POPOV]; Democratic Alliance of Vojvodina Croats or DSHV [Bela TONKOVIC]; League of Communists-Movement for Yugoslavia or SK-PJ [Dragomir DRASKOVIC]; Democratic Alliance of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president]; Democratic League of Albanians [Rexhep QOSJA]; Parliamentary Party of Kosovo or PPK [Bajram KOSUMI]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Dr. Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Civic Alliance of Serbia or GSS [Vesna PESIC, chairman]; Yugoslav United Left or JUL [Mirjana MARKOVIC (MILOSEVIC's wife)]; New Democracy or ND [Dusan MIHAJLOVIC]; Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Jozsef KASZA]; Together or Zajedno [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ICFTU, IOC, OPCW

Diplomatic representation in the US: the US and Serbia and Montenegro do not maintain full diplomatic relations; the Embassy of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia continues to function in the US
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim Nebojsa VUJOVIC
chancery: 2410 California St. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-6566

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Serbia and Montenegro do not maintain full diplomatic relations
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chief of Mission Richard M. MILES
embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
mailing address: American Embassy, Belgrade, United States Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5070 (pouch)
telephone: [381] (11) 645655
FAX: [381] (11) 645221


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Economy—overview: The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation in 1991 has been followed by highly destructive warfare, the destabilization of republic boundaries, and the breakup of important interrepublic trade flows. Output in Serbia and Montenegro dropped by half in 1992-93. Like the other former Yugoslav republics, it had depended on its sister republics for large amounts of energy and manufactures. Wide differences in climate, mineral resources, and levels of technology among the republics accentuated this interdependence, as did the communist practice of concentrating much industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup of many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial plants lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical assets in the fighting all have contributed to the economic difficulties of the republics. One singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia is the continuation in office of a government that is primarily interested in political and military mastery, not economic reform. Hyperinflation ended with the establishment of a new currency unit in June 1993; prices were relatively stable from 1995 through 1997, but inflationary pressures resurged in 1998. Reliable statistics continue to be hard to come by, and the GDP estimate is extremely rough. The economic boom anticipated by the government after the suspension of UN sanctions in December 1995 has failed to materialize. Government mismanagement of the economy is largely to blame. Also, the Outer Wall sanctions that exclude Belgrade from international financial institutions and an investment ban and asset freeze imposed in 1998 because of Belgrade's repressive actions in Kosovo have added to economic difficulties.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$25.4 billion (1998 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 3.5% (1998 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$2,300 (1998 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 25%
industry: 50%
services: 25% (1994 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 48% (1998 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force—by occupation: industry 41%, services 35%, trade and tourism 12%, transportation and communication 7%, agriculture 5% (1994)

Unemployment rate: more than 35% (1995 est.)

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate: 8% (1997 est.)

Electricity—production: 36.155 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity—production by source:
fossil fuel: 63.44%
hydro: 36.56%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1996)

Electricity—consumption: 35.999 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity—exports: 156 million kWh (1996)

Electricity—imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture—products: cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports: $2.3 billion (1998 est.)

Exports—commodities: manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials

Exports—partners: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Imports: $3.9 billion (1998 est.)

Imports—commodities: machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials

Imports—partners: Germany, Italy, Russia

Debt—external: $11.2 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid—recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Yugoslav New Dinar (YD) = 100 paras

Exchange rates: Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1—official rate: 10.0 (December 1998), 5.85 (December 1997), 5.02 (September 1996), 1.5 (early 1995); black market rate: 14.5 (December 1998), 8.9 (December 1997), 2 to 3 (early 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year


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Telephones: 700,000

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station—1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: 27 (public or state-owned 1, private 26)

Radios: 2.015 million

Television broadcast stations: more than 771 (consisting of 86 strong stations, 685 low-power stations, and 20 repeaters in the principal networks; there are also numerous local or private stations in Serbia and Vojvodina) (1997)

Televisions: 1 million


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total: 3,987 km
standard gauge: 3,987 km 1.435-m gauge (1,377 km partially electrified since 1992) (1998)

total: 50,414 km
paved: 45,020 km (including 545 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,394 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas 2,110 km

Ports and harbors: Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat, Zelenika

Merchant marine:
total: 1 short-sea passenger (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,437 GRT/400 DWT (owned by Montenegro) (1998 est.)

Airports: 48 (Serbia 43, Montenegro 5) (1998 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (Serbia 3, Montenegro 2)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (Serbia 4, Montenegro 1)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
under 914 m: 4 (Serbia 4, Montenegro 0) (1998 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
914 to 1,523 m: 14 (Serbia 13, Montenegro 1)
under 914 m: 14 (Serbia 13, Montenegro 1) (1998 est.)


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Military branches: Army (including ground forces with border troops, naval forces, air and air defense forces)

Military manpower—military age: Serbia—NA years of age; Montenegro—19 years of age

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: Serbia—2,727,292; Montenegro—187,198 (1999 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males age 15-49: Serbia—2,183,534; Montenegro—150,415 (1999 est.)

Military manpower—reaching military age annually:
males: Serbia—NA; Montenegro—5,671 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $911 million (1999)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 6.5% (1999)

Transnational Issues

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Disputes—international: disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina over Serbian populated areas; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian republic; Serbia and Montenegro is disputing Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka Peninsula in southern Croatia because it controls the entrance to Boka Kotorska in Montenegro; Prevlaka is currently under observation by the UN military observer mission in Prevlaka (UNMOP); the border commission formed by The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro in April 1996 to resolve differences in delineation of their mutual border has made no progress so far

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route

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