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Alfred Krauss
Alfred Krauss rose to command the XXXIV. infantry division in General Pflanzer-Baltin's VII. Army in time for the invasion of Roumania, autumn 1916.  By autumn 1917, he ascended to the command of the I. Corps, which was transferred into the German XIV. Army under General Otto von Below.  Group Krauss was one of the key fighting arms that smashed through the Italians at Caporetto on 24 October 1917.  By this time, he was ranked General der Infanterie.  In May 1918, he replaced General Böhm-Ermolli as commander of the II. Army and this force was redesignated the Ost Armee.  It was assigned as an occupation force in the Eastern Ukraine.  Krauss was to remain in this command until well after the armistice; he helped supervise the evacuation of German and Austrian troops not only from the Ukraine but also from Turkey. Krauss published his book, "Die Ursachen unserer Niederlage," shortly after the war.

GWS, 3/01
Orders of Battle:  Eastern Front, mid-August 1916
Immediately preceding Roumania's declaration of war on Austria
VII. Army,
Generaloberst von Pflanzer-Baltin
     Krauss Group, Feldmarschalleutnant Krauss
          XXXIV. inf. div., Feldmlt. Krauss
Orders of Battle:  Eastern Front, mid-July 1917
Immediately preceding Brussilov's second Offensive (Kerensky Offensive)
VII. Armee,
Generaloberst Kövess von Kövesshaza
     Krauss Group, Feldmlt. von Krauss
     support:  CXVII. Deutsch inf. div., Gennmj. Seydel
     XI. Korps, Feldmlt. von Habermann
          LI. Honved inf. div., Genmj. von Benke
          LXXIV. Honved inf. div., Genmj. Grallert
     Apor Group, Feldmlt. Apor
          V. Honved kav. div., Feldmlt. Apor
          VI. kav. div., Genmj. von Schwer
     Pichler Group, Feldmlt. Pichler
          XI. Honved kav. div., Genmj. von Jony
          LIX. inf. div., Feldmlt. Pichler
Orders of Battle:  Italian Front, early November 1917
Immediately preceding the Caporetto Offensive
Deutsch XIV. Armee,
Gen. d. Inf. von Below
     Group Krauss, K.u.K. I. Korps, Gen. d. Inf. von Krauss
          Edelweiss, III. K.u.K. inf. div., Genmj. von Wieden
          XXII. Schützen div., Genmj. Müller
          LV. inf. div., Genmj. Prinz zu Schwarzenberg
Orders of Battle:  Eastern Front, mid-October 1918
Austria's Army of Occupation in the Ukraine
Ost Armee,
Gen. d. Inf. Krauss
     XXV. Korps, Gen. d. Inf.
von Hofmann
          CLV. Honved inf. div., Feldmlt. ?
          LIV. Schützen div., Feldmlt. Severus von Laubenfeld und Ciminago
     XVII. Korps, Gen. d. Inf. von Fabiani
          VII. kav. div., Genmj. Szivo de Bunja
          XI. inf. div., Feldmlt. Metz von Spondalunga
     XII. Korps, Feldzm. von Braun (Odessa sector; Governor Feldmlt. von Böltz)
          V. Honved kav. div., Genmj. von Mouillard
          XV. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Aust
          II. kav. div., Feldmlt. Abele von und zu Lilienberg
          IV. Gen. Kom., Feldzm.
     Siebenbürgen Group Command, Feldmlt.
Goldbach von Sulittaborn
          I. kav. div., Genmj. von Haberman
     Oberkommand Mackenstein, XVI. gen. kom., Feldmlt. von Salis-Sewis
          LXII. inf. div., Feldmlt. Braunschweig von Krompa
The Ost Armee:  Deep in Alien Territory, 1918
Alfred Krauss was given command of a newly designated "Ost Armee" in early May, 1918.  It's mission was to protect the Ukrainians from Soviet penetration.  General Kritek and his VII. Army had pushed to Odessa in March under terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed on February 9 by Austrian Foreign Minister Czernin and the Rada's representative, Hrushchevsky.  The Austrians and Germans divided the occupation of the Ukraine into several sectors.  Odessa and Podolia came under Austrian control, while Volhynia, Kiev, and Kharkov was occupied by the German Ost Armee under General Hoffmann.  The Dnieper River and the Crimea was also administered by the Germans.  The Zaporozhian or "Wild" Plains together with the South Russian port of Taganrog was under Austrian control, while Rostov and the Don Basin was occupied by the Germans in late June 1918, at the request of the Cossacks.   Krauss soon discovered that his forces were quite unwelcome in the Ukraine, and the people, though loathing the bolsheviki and Russians in general, did not look upon the Quadruple Alliance as liberators.  In general, the Ukrainians had supported the Tsar's war against Austria as much as the Russians, and the fall of Przemysl in early 1915 was acclaimed throughout Kiev as a great victory for Slavdom.  On the Zaporozhian Plains especially, there was a significant anarchist element that strove to expel the occupiers, no matter whom it might be...
Enemy Portrait:  Nestor Makhno, Anarchist
Coming soon!