Continents in the Pliocene
The Pliocene was the fifth epoch in the Cenozoic era. It followed the Miocene and lasted from 5.2 to 1.6 million years ago.
The continents were still shifting, and one particular movement was about to change the whole World. South America was on a collision course with North America.
South America reapproached North America for the first time since the Cretaceous period, almost 100 million years earlier. The Panamanian Isthmus emerged due to fluctuating sea levels.
Africa and Europe
Mediterranean sea formed when Africa continued to crash into Europe cutting off the ancient Tethys Sea, isolating the Mediterranean into its familiar form.
Fluctuating sea levels temporarily exposed the land bridge from Alaska linking North America and Asia.