VACCINE AVAILABILITY IN ONTARIO
1882 - 1997
|1882||Smallpox vaccine was made available|
|1907||The Provincial Board of Health distributed
diphtheria antitoxin free of charge to physicians for the treatment of this disease.
(Ehrlich had standardized diphtheria antitoxin at the Koch Institute in 1895, Roux having produced the crude equine preparation in 1892).
|1910||Rabies vaccine treatment became available.|
|1916||Diphtheria antitoxin became freely available. The forerunner, the toxin-antitoxin mixture introduced by von Behring in 1913 was used on a very limited scale in Ontario.|
|1917||Pertussis vaccine became available on a limited scale to physicians.|
|1922||Schick testing and immunization of positive cases with the toxin-antitoxin preparation became available.|
|1925||Diphtheria toxoid (Ramon) was introduced and administered as a single dose causing a distinct reduction in cases and deaths, which improved when a second dose was given in 1926.|
|1926||Diphtheria toxoid, the formalized product was prepared at the Pasteur Institute by Roux and was introduced.|
|1927||The three dose schedule (McKinnon and Ross) reduced the attack rate of diphtheria by 91% with no deaths from diphtheria during 1927-1932. The time interval between doses was one year. Diphtheria was the main cause of death in the 2-14 year age group prior to this period. It may sound remarkable, but in 1930 physicians spoke of the possibility of diphtheria eradication.|
|1929||Poliomyelitis serum was provided on a very limited basis.|
|1935||Pertussis vaccine (Sauer type) became available.|
|1943||Diphtheria toxoid and pertussis vaccine were combined. This was discontinued in 1959.|
|1947||Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine combination was provided (TRIAD, DPT).|
|1949||Diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid combined was provided.|
|1955||Poliomyelitis vaccine (Salk) became available.|
|1959||Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with
pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines provided (QUAD).
Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids with poliomyelitis vaccine provided (DPT).
Diphtheria toxoid and poliomyelitis vaccine also became available.
Tetanus toxoid and poliomyelitis vaccine was provided.
|1962||Sabin vaccine (oral polio) was introduced.|
|1963||The live measles vaccine was available through commercial outlets to physicians.|
|1967||Killed measles vaccine was distributed to Medical Officers of Health only.|
|1970||Live further attenuated measles vaccine was distributed through Medical Officers of Health. The rubella vaccine (live) HPV-77DE5 was also distributed through Medical Officers of Health. Rubella vaccine monovalent - HPV-77DE5 available.|
|1970||October. Killed measles vaccine was discontinued.|
|1972||Combined measles - rubella vaccine was distributed to physicians and Medical Officers of Health.|
|1974||Rubella vaccine HPV-77DE5 was distributed to physicians and Medical Officers of Health.|
|1975||Combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine distributed to physicians and Medical Officers of Health. Referred to as MMRI - RI = HPV-77DE5.|
|1977||December 10. Measles-rubella vaccine discontinued.|
|1980||January. Rubella vaccine RA27/3 monovalent was introduced and replaced the HPV-77DE5.|
|1980||April 16. MMRII vaccine with RA27/3 component was introduced to replace the MMRI.|
|1981||Introduction of diploid cell rabies vaccine for all post-exposure treatment (HDCV).|
|1982||July. Immunization of School Pupils Act introduced.|
|1983||Hepatitis B vaccine distributed at cost to specific groups at risk. Discontinued in 1985.|
|1984||Introduction of absorbed vaccine. DPT Polio, Td Polio, Tetanus Polio and Tetanus.|
|1985||Introduction of hepatitis B vaccine for neonates (Heptavax).|
|1986||Hepatitis B program expanded to include family contacts of carriers.|
|1987||January. TriVirix (MMR vaccine) was introduced.|
|1987||April. Immunization of 2 year old children against Haemophilus influenzae b with PRP (polysacchride) Hib vaccine.|
|1988||Conjugate Haemophilus b vaccine introduced for children aged 18 months to 5 years (PRP-D, ProHIBiT). PRP discontinued.|
|1988||April to July. TriVirix discontinued.|
|1988||Introduction of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix).|
|1989||April. Enhanced IPV (MRC5 Salk), only single component IPV only available.|
|1989||Public health program for influenza vaccine introduced to groups at high risk of influenza-related complications.|
|1989||December. Tetanus-polio vaccine discontinued.|
|1990||January. OPV (Sabin) introduced into the routine Ontario immunization schedule. Routine use of IPV discontinued. Routine polio boosters for adults discontinued.|
|1991||August 31. Two Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines licensed in Canada for use for children aged 2-59 months: HbOC (HibTITER Lederle Laboratories) and PRP-OMP (PedvaxHIB, Merck Frosst Canada). Commercially available in Ontario beginning October 1991 (Merck) and February 1992 (Lederle).|
|1991||October 25. Expansion of hepatitis B high risk program to include household and sexual contacts of acute cases, sexual contacts of chronic carriers, IV drug users, those with multiple sex partners, those having needle stick injuries in a non-health care setting.|
|1992||March. A third infant Hib vaccine licensed for
use in children aged 2-59 months: PRP-T (ActHIB), Connaught Laboratories Ltd).
Commercially available in Ontario in June.
September 1. HbOC (HibTITER) introduced into the routine infant immunization schedule in Ontario at 2, 4, 6 and 18 months of age.
|1993||Expansion of influenza program to cover patient-care staff of long term care facilities.|
|1993||April. OPV discontinued. DPT-eIPV introduced.
Tetanus toxoid discontinued.
|1994||June 1. PENTA (DPT-eIPV/PRP-T) introduced for
routine immunization at 2, 4, 6 and 18 months.
September. Hepatitis B program further expanded to include routine immunization of all grade 7 students against hepatitis B.
HibTITER discontinued. ActHIB (PRP-T) introduced, as a component of PENTA.
|1996||February - June. Measles "catch-up"
campaign conducted to administer a second dose of measles vaccine (Connaught Laboratories
Limited) to all 2.1 school aged children age 4-18 at school-based clinics; 89% of target
group immunized. Following the campaign, a second dose of MMR recommended for all children
immunized with a single dose of MMR after their first birthday, to administered at 4-6
years of age (school entry).
September. Adolescent high school hepatitis B catch-up program, targeted at students in grades 10 to OAC. The grade 7 program continues.
September. Pneumococcal vaccine, 23-valent, for high risk groups, introduced in the public health immunization program, with a "catch-up" over 3 years as follows: 1996/97: 400,000 doses; 1997/98: 500,000 doses; 1998/99: 500,000 doses. Product from Merck Frosst Canada used in first year, product from Pasteur-Merieux Connaught used in following two years. Vaccine thereafter to be purchased for those entering the high risk group each year, estimated at 80,000 doses per year.
|1997||July. Acellular pertussis vaccine introduced, in the form of PENTACEL (Pasteur Merieux Connaught), at 2, 4, 6, and 18 months of age, and as QUADRACEL given at 4-6 years. Products containing whole cell pertussis vaccines (PENTA DPT-Polio, pertussis vaccine) were discontinued.|