Airfoils

Last Update: 2 March 1999


A

Abbott, I.H., VonDoenhoff, A.E., Theory of Wing Sections (Summary of Airfoil Data) Dover, New York, 1959. Remark: also NACA Rpt 824. theory and profiles for NACA 4,5, and 6 digit series airfoils.

Abu-Abdou, K. and Zedan, M. F., Performance of Improved Thin Aerofoil Theory for Modern Aerofoil Sections, Aeronautical J., Feb. 1991, pp 64-70.

Althaus, D., ProfilePolaren Fur den Modellflug (Windkanalmessungen an Profile im Kritischen Reynoldszahlbereich), [Model airfoil polars (Wind tunnel measurements of airfoils at critical Reynolds numbers)], Institut Fur Aerodynamik u. Gasdynamik der Universitat Stuttgart Neckar-Verlag, Postfach 1820, 7730 Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany, 1980. Remark: Windtunnel data on many airfoils. Wortman, Eppler, NACA, Gottingen, Clark Y etc.

Althaus, D., ProfilePolaren Fur den Modellflug, Band 2 (Book 2), Institut Fur Aerodynamik u. Gasdynamik der Universitat Stuttgart. Neckar-Verlag, Postfach 1820, 7730 Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany, 1985. Remark: More windtunnel data. Some Eppler, Selig, Quabeck and many free flight airfoils.

Althaus, D., Wortmann, F.X., Stuttgarter Profilkatalog 1, F. Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1981. Remark: Text in English and German. Vol. 1 is a new ed. of a publication of the Institut fur Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik of Universitat Stuttgart first issued in 1972 in German. Includes bibliographical references. Contents: 1. Messergebnisse aus dem Laminarwindkanal des Instituts fur Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik der Universitat Stuttgart.

Ardonceau, P. L., Computation of the Potential Flow over Airfoils with Cusped or Thin Trailing Edges, AIAA J., Vol. 24, No. 8, Aug. 1986, pp. 1375-1377.

Ardonceau, Pascal L., Unsteady Pressure Distribution Over a Pitching Airfoil, AIAA J., Vol. 27, No. 5, 1988, pp. 660-662.

Arena, A. V. and Mueller, T. J., Laminar Separation, Transition, and Turbulent Reattachment near the Leading Edge of Airfoils, AIAA J., Vol. 18, No. 7, July 1980, pp. 747-753.

B

Bauer, F., Garabedian, P., David Korn, D., Supercritical wing sections III, Springer-Verlag, Berlin ; New York : 1977. (Lecture notes in economics and mathematical systems; 150) Remark: Two earlier books: [1] A theory of supercritical wing sections, by F. Bauer, P. Garabedian, and D. Korn; [2] Supercritical wing theory, by F. Bauer et al.

Beatty, T. D. and Narramore, J. C., Inverse Method for the Design of Multielement High-Lift Systems, J. Aircraft, Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1976, pp. 393-398.

Bender, H-W, Airfoil Catalog, (on floppy disk), 1993. Hans-Walter Bender, Erlenhof 3, W-5309 (53340),Mekenheim, Germany Remark: an attempt to compile all of the 'important' airfoils ever published. coordinates, thickness, and pitching moment data for over 2300 airfoils on computer disk. Available in the United States from, Mr. Herk Stokely, 1504 North Horseshoe Circle, Virgina Beach, Virginia 23451

Bender, H-W, Modellflug-Profilesammlung, Model-Technik-Berater MTB 17, Verlag fur Technik u. Handwerk, Baden-Baden, Germany, 1987. ISBN 3-88180-117-0 Remark: (Model airplane airfoil catalog) General catalog. Provides coordinates for MANY airfoils. Wortman, Pfenniger, Gottingen etc.

Bera, Rajendra K., A New Look at Theodorsen's Method in Aerofoil Theory, Int. J. Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 9, 1989, pp. 251-262.

Blascovich, John D., A Comparison of Separated Flow Airfoil Analysis Methods, J. Aircraft, Vol. 22, No. 3, Mar. 1985, pp. 208-215.

Brendel, M. and Mueller, T. J., Boundary Layer Measurements on an Airfoil at Low Reynolds Number in an Oscillating Freestream, AIAA J. Vol. 26, No. 3, Mar. 1988, pp. 257-263.

C

Callaghan, J. G. and Beatty, T. D., A Theoretical Method for the Analysis and Design of Multielement Airfoils, J. Aircraft, Vol. 9, No. 12, pp. 844-848.

Cebeci, Tuncer, Essential Ingredients of a Method for Low Reynolds- Number Airfoils, AIAA J., Vol. 27, No. 12, pp. 1680-1688.

Cebeci, T., McIlvaine, M., Chen, H. H. and Liebeck, R. H., Calculation of Low Reynolds Number Flows at High Angles of Attack, J. Aircraft, Vol. 28, No. 4, April 1991, pp. 246-252.

Chacko, Baby, Balabaskaran, V., Tulapurkara, E. G. and Aswathanarayana, P. A., Effect of Thickness Distribution on Performance of S-Cambered Profiles, J. Energy Engineering, Vol. 118, No. 3, Dec. 1992, pp. 164-179.

Chaviaropoulos, P., Bouras, B., Leoutsakos, G. and Papailiou, K. D., Design of Optimized Profiles for Stall Regulated HAWTs Part I: Design Concepts and Method Formulation, Wind Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 6, 1994, pp. 275-287. Part II: Airfoil Design Method Validation and Assessment, Wind Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 6, 1994, pp. 289-304

Choi, D. H. and Landweber, L., Inviscid Analysis of Two-Dimensional Airfoils in Unsteady Motion Using Conformal Mapping, AIAA J., Vol. 28, No. 12, Dec. 1990, pp. 2025-2033.

Cohen, M. J., High-Lift Airfoil Design from the Hodograph, J. Aircraft, Vol. 21, No. 10, Oct. 1984, Vol. 21, No. 10, pp. 760-766.

Comprehensive Guide to Airfoil Sections for Light Aircraft, Technical Reference Manual, Aviation Publications, Appleton, Wisconsin, 1982. ISBN 0-87994-038-7 Remark: Many different airfoils from many different sources, wind tunnel data at moderate to high Reynolds numbers (~3x10**6)

D

Dragos, Lazar and Dinu, Adrian, Application of the Boundary Element Method to the Thin Airfoil Theory, AIAA J., Vol. 28, No. 10, Oct. 1990, pp. 1822-1824.

Dulikravich, George S., Aerodynamic Shape Design and Optimization: Status and Trends, J. Aircraft, Vol. 29, No. 6, Nov.-Dec. 1992, pp. 1020-1026. 99 references.

Dumitrescu, Lucien Z., Flow Near the Trailing Edge of an Airfoil, AIAA J., Vol. 30, No. 4, April 1992, pp. 865-870.

Dumitrescu, Lucien Z., Wake Curvature and Airfoil Lift, J. Aircraft, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1993, pp. 465-466.

Dumitrescu, Lucien Z., Comment on Flow Near the Trailing Edge of an Airfoil, AIAA J., Vol. 30, No. 8, Aug. 1992, pp. 1538-1539.

Dutt, H. N. V., Comment on Computation of the Potential Flow over Airfoils with Cusped or Thin Trailing Edges, AIAA J., Vol. 26, No. 1 Jan. 1988, pp. 122-123.

Dutt, H. N. V., Analysis of Multi-Element Airfoils by a Vortex Panel Method, AIAA J., Vol. 27, No. 5, May 1989, pp. 658-660.

E

Eppler, Richard, Turbulent Airfoils for General Aviation, J. Aircraft, Vol. 15, No. 2, Feb. 1978, pp. 93-99.

Eppler, R., Somers, D., A Computer Program for the Design and Analysis of Low Speed Airfoils, NASA TM-80210, 1980.

Eppler, R., Airfoil design and data, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, New York, 1990.

Erickson, Gary E., High Angle of Attack Aerodynamics, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., Vol. 27, 1995, pp. 45-88

F

G

Gad-El-Hak, Mohammed, Control of Low-Speed Airfoil Aerodynamics, AIAA J., Vol. 28, No. 9, Sep 1990, pp. 1537-1552. 150 references

Giannakidis, George, Calculation of Potential Flow Around Airfoils Using a Discrete Vortex Method, AIAA J., Vol. 30, No. 7, July 1992, pp. 1689-1690.

Girshberger, R., Some new airfoils for F3B, Soar Tech #3, 1984, published by Herk Stokely, 1504 Horseshoe Circle, Virgina Beach, VA 23451.

Goldstein, Sydney, Low-Drag and Suction Airfoils, J. of Aeronautical Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 4, April 1948.

Goradia, Suresh H. and Lyman, Victor, Laminar Stall Prediction and Estimation of CL(max), J. Aircraft, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep. 1974, pp. 528-536.

Green, R. B., Galbraith, R. A. McD. and Niven, A. J., Measurements of the Dynamic Stall Vortex Convection Speed, Aeronautical J., Oct. 1992, pp. 319-325.

H

HQ-Profile, Model-Technik-Berater MTB 7, Verlag fur Technik und Handwerk, Baden-Baden, Germany, 1983. Remark: Airfoils of Dr. Helmut Quabeck.

Hsiao, Fei-Bin, Liu, Chin-Fung and Tang, Zen, Aerodynamic Performance and Flow Structure Studies of a Low Reynolds Number Airfoil, AIAA J.,Vol. 27, No. 2, Feb. 1989, pp. 129-137.

I

Ito, A., The Effect of Trailing Edge Extensions on the Performance of the Gottingen 797 and the Wortmann FX 63-137 Aerofoil Sections at Reynolds Numbers Between 300,000 and 1,000,000, Aeronautical J., Oct. 1989, pp. 283-289.

J

K

Kennedy, J. L. and Marsden, D. J., A Potential Flow Design Method for Multicomponent Airfoil Sections, J. Aircraft, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan. 1978, pp. 47-52.

Kentfield, J. A. C. and Clavelle, E. J., The Flow Physics of Gurney Flaps, Devices for Improving Turbine Blade Performance, Wind Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1993, pp. 24-34.

King, D. A. and Williams, B. R., Developments in Computational Methods for High-Lift Aerodynamics, Aeronautical J., Aug.-Sep. 1988, pp. 265-288. 63 references.

Korkan, K. D., Cross Jr, E. J. and Cornell, C. C., Experimental Aerodynamic Characteristics of an NACA 0012 Airfoil with Simulated Ice, J. Aircraft, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 130-134.

L

Lewis, R. I. and Prakash, S., Vortex Element Methods Applied to Slatted Aerofoils for Application to Wind Turbines, Wind Engineering Vol. 17, No. 4, 1993, pp. 189-205.

Liebeck, Robert H. and Ormsbee, Allen I., Optimization of Airfoils for Maximum Lift, J. Aircraft, Vol. 7, No. 5, Sep.-Oct. 1970, pp. 409-415.

Liebeck, Robert H., A Class of Airfoils Designed for High Lift in Incompressible Flow, J. Aircraft, Vol. 10, No. 10, Oct. 1973, pp. 610-617.

Liebeck, Robert H., Design of Subsonic Airfoils for High Lift, J. Aircraft, Vol. 15, No. 9, Sep 1978, pp. 547-561.

Lissaman, P.B.S., Low-Reynolds-Number Airfoils, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 15, p.223-239, 1983.

M

McCroskey, W. J., Inviscid Flowfield of an Unsteady Airfoil, AIAA J. Vol. 11, No. 8, Aug. 1973, pp. 1130-1137.

Mallon, K. J., The NACA 0018-64 Aerofoil at Low Reynolds Numbers with Application to Vertical Axis Wind Turbines - Including Turbulence Stimulation, Australisation Fluid Mech. Conf., 14-19 Dec. 1992, Uni. of Tasmania, Hobart, pp. 1133-1136.

Maughmer, M., Somers, D., Design and Experimental Results for a High Altitude, Long Endurance Airfoil, AIAA J. Aircraft, 26, No.2, Feb. 1989. (AIAA 87-2554).

Miley, S.J., A Catalog of Low Reynolds Number Airfoil Data for Wind Turbine Applications. RFP-3387 VC-60, Rockwell International, Feb. 1982. US Dept. of Energy, Wind Energy Technology Division, Federal Wind Energy Program.

Mokry, M., Complex Variable Boundary Element Method for External Potential Flows, AIAA J., Vol. 29, No. 12, Dec. 1991, pp. 2027-2028.

Moriarty, J. A. and Tuck, E. O., Thin Airfoils with High-Incidence Flaps or Blunt Trailing Edges, Aeronautical. J., Mar 1989, pp. 93-99

Proceedings of the Conference on Low Reynolds Number Airfoil Aerodynamics. held at Notre Dame Univ., June 1985. Thomas Mueller ed. UNDAS-CP-77B123 Dr. T. Mueller, Dept. Aero and Mech. Eng., Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 Remark: 1st. of 2 conferences held on the subject of low Re # airfoils. many papers by all of the experts in the field. Eppler, Somers, Selig, Leibeck, Mueller, H.K. Cheng, Morkovin etc.

Low Reynolds number aerodynamics : proceedings of the conference, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA, 5-7 June 1989 / T.J. Mueller, editor. -- Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, c1989. v, 446 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. -- (Lecture notes in engineering ; 54) Papers presented at the Conference on Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics, held June 4-7, 1989 at the University of Notre Dame Includes bibliographical references.

N

NACA-Profile, Model-Technik-Berater MTB 3, Verlag fur Technik und Handwerk, Baden-Baden, Germany, 1990. ISBN 3-88180-103-0 Remark: coordinates and calculated polars for about 30 NACA 4-series, 6-series and GA(W)-1 and GA(W)-2. The booklet is laid out similar to the MTB 1/2, some (german) text, velocity distributions of all airfoils, drag polars and profile plots in various sizes.

Newman, B. G. and Tse, M-C., Incompressible Flow Past a Flat Plate Aerofoil with Leading Edge Separation Bubble, Aeronautical J., Feb. 1992, pp. 57-92

O

Olejniczak, J. and Lyrintzis, A. S., Design of Optimized Airfoils in Subcritical Flow, J. Aircraft, Vol. 31, No. 3, May-June 1994, pp. 680-687.

Oskam, B., Asymptotic Convergence of Higher-Order Accurate Panel Methods, J. Aircraft, Vol. 23, No. 2, Feb. 1986, pp. 126-130

Ostowari, C. and Naik, D., Post Stall Studies of Untwisted Varying Aspect Ratio Blades with an NACA 4415 Airfoil Section - Part I, Wind Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1984, pp. 176-194.

Ostowari, C. and Naik, D., Post Stall Studies of Untwisted Varying Aspect Ratio Blades with an NACA 44XX Series Airfoil Section - Part I, Wind Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1984, pp. 149-164.

P

Pandey, M. M., Pandey, K. P. and Ojha, T. P., Aerodynamic Characteristics of Cambered Steel Plates in Relation to Their Use in Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Wind Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1988, pp. 90-104.

Pfenninger, W. and Vemuru, C. S., Design of Low Reynolds Number Airfoils: PArt I, J. Aircraft, Vol. 27, No. 3, March 1990, pp. 204-210.

Pfenniger, W., Vemuru, C.S., Mangalam, S., Evangelista, R., Design of Low Reynolds Number Airfoils-II, AIAA 88-3764-CP.

Plotkin, A., Thickness and Camber Effects in Slender Wing Theory, AIAA J., Vol. 21, No. 12, Dec. 1983, pp. 1755-1757.

Plotkin, A., Comment on Improved Thin-Airfoil Theory, J. Aircraft, Vol. 27, No. 5, May 1990, pp. 478-480.

Poling, David R. and Dadone, Leo, Blade-Vortex Interaction, AIAA J., Vol. 27, No. 6, June 1989, pp. 694-699.

Pope, A., Basic wing and airfoil theory, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1951.

Q

R

Raghunathan, S., Harrison, J. R. and Hawkins, B.D., Thick Airfoil at Low Reynolds Number and High Incidence, J. Aircraft, Vol. 25, No. 7, July 1988, pp. 669-671.

Ramamoorthy, P. and Padmavathi, K., Airfoil Design by Optimization, J. Aircraft, Vol. 14, No. 2, Feb. 1977, pp. 219-221.

Ramjee, V., Tulapurkara, E. G., and Balabaskaran, V., Experimental and Theoretical Study of Wings with Blunt Trailing Edges, J. Aircraft, Vol. 23, No. 4, April 1986, pp. 349-352.

Reuther, J., van Dam, C. P. and Hicks, R., Subsonic and Transonic Low-Reynolds-Number Airfoils with Reduced Pitching Moments, J. Aircraft, Vol. 29, No. 3, May-June 1992, pp. 297-298.

Rossow, Vernon J., Aerodynamics of Airfoils with Vortex Trapped by Two Spanwise Fences, J. Aircraft, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994, pp. 146-153.

Rossow, Vernon J., Conformal Mapping for Potential Flow about Airfoils with Attached Flap, J. Aircraft, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan. 1973, pp. 60-62.

Ruban, A. I., Asymptotic Theory of Short Separation Regions on the Leading Edge of a Slender Airfoil, Izvestiya Akad. Nauk SSSR, Mekh. Zhidkosti i Gaza, No. 1, pp. 42-51, Jan.-Feb. 1981.

Rumsey, Christopher L., Evaluation of a Stalled Airfoil Analysis Program, J. Aircraft, Vol. 22, No. 2, Feb. 1985, pp. 156-157.

S

Sapuppo, J. and Archer, R. D., Fully Laminar Flow Airfoil Sections, J. Aircraft, Vol. 19, No. 5, MAy 1982, pp. 406-409.

Scharpf, Daniel F. and Mueller, Thomas J, Experimental Study of a Low Reynolds Number Tandem Airfoil Combination, J. Aircraft, Vol. 29 No. 2, March-April 1992, pp. 231-236.

Selig, Michael, The Design of Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers, Soar Tech #3, 1984, published by Herk Stokely, 1504 Horseshoe Circle Virgina Beach, VA 23451. Remark: first of the published Selig airfoils.

Selig, M.S., Donovan, J.F., Fraser, D.B., Airfoils at Low Speeds (Soar Tech Vol 8), Herk Stokely, publisher, address above. Remark: The final results of the Selig/Donovan Princeton Wind Tunnel tests of airfoils at low speeds. Wind tunnel data on many different airfoils including all the new Selig-Donovan (SD) airfoils. A very complete volume.

Selig, Michael and Maughmer, Mark D., Multipoint Inverse Airfoil Design Method Based on Conformal Mapping, AIAA J., Vol. 30, No. 5, May 1992, pp. 1162-1170.

Simons, M., Model Aircraft Aerodynamics, 2nd. ed., Argus Books, London England, 1987. ISBN 085-242-195-0 Remark: 2nd. ed. contains aerodynamic data on many airfoils in the appendix. Eppler, Selig, Wortman, NACA etc. Available from Zenith Aviation Books.

Soinne, Erkki and Laine, Seppo, An Inverse Boudary Element Method for Single Component Airfoil Design, J. Aircraft, Vol. 22, No. 6, June 1985, pp. 541-543.

Somers, D., Design and Experimental Results for a Natural-Laminar- Flow Airfoil for General Aviation Applications, NASA TP-1861, 1981.

Somers, D., Design and Experimental Results for a Flapped Natural- Laminar-Flow Airfoil for General Aviation Applications, NASA TP-1865, 1981.

Storms, Bruce and Jang, Cory S., Lift Enhancement of an Airfoil Using a Gurney Flap and Vortex Generators, J. Aircraft, Vol. 31, No. 3, May-June 1994, pp. 542-547.

Strand, T., Exact Method of Designing Airfoils with Given Velocity Distribution in Incompressible Flow, J. Aircraft, Vol. 10, No. 11, Nov. 1973, pp. 651-659.

T

Theodorsen, Theodore, Theory of Wing Section of Arbitrary Shape, NACA Report No. 411. 1931.

Thies, W., Eppler-Profile, Model-Technik-Berater MTB 1/2, Verlag fur Technik u. Handwerk, Baden-Baden, Germany, 1986. ISBN 3-88180-100-6 Remark: Complete Low Reynolds number Eppler airfoils. single volume.

Tuck, E. O., Thin Airfoils with Small Trailing-Edge Flaps at Arbitrary Angles, J. Austral. Math. Soc. Ser. B 29(1987), pp. 142-155

Tuck, E. O., A Criterion for Leading-Edge Separation, J. Fluid Mech. Vol. 222, 1991, pp. 33-37.

Tuncer, Ismail H., Wu, James C. and Wang, C. M., Theoretical and Numerical Studies of Oscillating Airfoils, AIAA J., Vol. 28, No. 9, Sep. 1990, pp. 1615-1624.

U

V

Vatsa, V. N. and Carter, J. E., Analysis of Airfoil Leading-Edge Separation Bubbles, AIAA J., Vol. 22, No. 12, Dec. 1984, pp. 1697-1704.

W

X

Y

Z

Zedan, M. F. and Abu-Abdou, K., Improved Thin-Airfoil Theory, J. Aircraft, Vol. 25, No. 12, Dec. 1988, pp. 1122-1128.

Zedan, M. F., Series Complex-Potential Solution of Flow Around Arbitrary Airfoils, J. Aircraft, Vol. 27, No. 11, Nov. 1990, pp. 936-940

Zedan, M. F. and Nuhait, A. O., Unsteady Effects of Camber on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Thin Aerofoil Moving Near the Ground, Aeronautical J., Nov. 1992, pp. 343-350.


Acknowledgements

Thanks to Jim Sonnemeier who contributed several references to this bibliography.



Airfoils