CUM GRATIA ET PRIVILEGIO CÆS.MA TIS SPECIA LI
TO THE RIGHT WORTHIE AND HONOURABLE, SIR WALTER RALEGH , KNIGHT, SENESCHAL OF THE DUCHIES OF Cornewall and Exeter, and L. Warden of the stannaries in Devon and Cornewall. T.B. wisheth true felictie.
SIR, seeing that the parte of the Worlde, which is betwene the FLORIDA and the Cap BRETON nowe nammed VIRGINIA, to the honneur of yours most sovveraine Ladye and Queene ELIZABETH, hath ben descovverd by yours meanes and great chardges. And that your Collonye hath been theer established to your great honnor and prayse, and noe lesser proffit unto the common welth : It is good raison that every man euertwe him selfe for to showe the benefit which they have receve of it. Theerfore, for my parte I have been allwayes Desirous for to make yow knowe the good will that I have to remayne still your most humble servant. I have thincke that I cold faynde noe better occasion to declare yt, then takinge the paines to cott in copper (the most dilligentlye and well that wear in my possible to doe ) the Figures which doe levelye represent the forme and maner of the Inhabitants of the same
Your most humble servant,
THEODORUS de BRY.
TO THE ADVENTURERS, FAVORERS, AND WELWILLERS OF THE ENTERPRISE FOR THE INHABITTING and planting in VIRGINIA.
SINCE the first undertaking by Sir Walter Ralegh to deale in the action of discovering of that Countrey which is now called and known by the name of VIRGINIA; many voyages having bin thither made at sundrie times to his great charge, as first in the yeere 1584, and afterwardes in the yeeres 1585, 1586, and now of late this last yeare of 1587. There have bin divers and variable reportes with some slaunderous and shamefull speeches bruited abroade by many that returned from thence. Especially of that discovery which was made by the Colony transported by Sir Richard Greinvile in the yeare 1585, being of all the others the most principal and as yet of most effect, the time of their abode in the countrey beeing a whole yeare, when as in the other voyage before they staied but sixe weekes ; and the others after were onelie for supply and transportation, nothing more being discovered then had been before. Which reports have not done a litle wrong to many that otherwise would have also favoured & adventured in the action, to the honour and benefite of our nation, besides the particular profite and credite
I have therefore thought it good beeing one that have beene in the discoverie and in dealing with the naturall inhabitantes specially imploied ; and having therefore seene and knowne more then the ordinarie : to imparte so much unto you of the fruites of our labours, as that you may knowe howe injuriously the enterprise is slaundered. And that in publike manner at this present chiefelie for two respectes.
First that some of you which are yet ignorant or doubtfull of the state thereof, may see that there is sufficient cause why the cheefe enterpriser with the favour of her Majestie, notwithstanding suche reportes ; hath not onelie since continued the action by sending into the countrey againe, and replanting this last yeere a new Colony; but is also readie, according as the times and meanes will affoorde, to follow and prosecute the same.
Secondly that you seeing and knowing the continuance of the action by the view hereof you may generally know & learne what the countrey is, & therupon consider how your dealing therein if it proceede, may returne you profit and gaine ; bee it either by inhabitting & planting or otherwise in furthering thereof.
And least that the substance of my relation should be doubtful unto you as of others by reason of their diversitie : I will first open the cause in a few wordes wherefore they are so different; referring my selve to your favourable constructions, and to be adjudged of as by good consideration you shall finde cause.
Of our companie that returned, some for their midemeanour and ill dealing in the countrey, have beene there worthily punished;
Some beeing ignorant of the state thereof, notwithstanding since their returne amongest their friendes and acquaintance and also others, especially if they were in companie where they might not be gainesaide; woulde seeme to knowe so much as no men more; and make no men so great travailers as themselves. They stood so much as it maie seeme uppon their credite and reputation that having been a twelve moneth in the countrey, it woulde have beene a great disgrace unto them as they thought, if they coulde not have saide much whether it were true or false. Of which some have spoken of more then ever they saw or otherwise knew to bee there; othersome have not bin ashamed to make absolute deniall of that which although not by them, yet by others is most certainely and there plentifully knowne. And othersome make difficulties of those things they have no skill of.
The cause of their ignorance was, in that they were of that many that were never out of the Iland where wee were seated, or not farre, or at the leastwise in few places els, during the time of our aboade in the countrey ; or of that many that after golde and silver was not so soone found, as it was by them looked for, had little or no care of any other thing but to pamper their bellies; or of that many which had little understanding, lesse discretion, and more tongue then was needfull or requisite.
Some also were of a nice bringing up, only in cities or townes, or such as never (as I may say) had seene the worlde before. Because there were not to bee found any English cities, nor such faire houses, nor at their owne wish any of their olde accustomed daintie food, nor any soft beds of downe or fethers : the countrey was to them miserable, & their reports thereof according.
Because my purpose was but in briefe to open the cause of the varietie of such speeches; the particularities of them, and of many envious, malicious, and slaunderous reports and devises els, by our owne countrey men besides; as trifles that are not worthy of wise men to bee thought upon, I meane not to trouble you
The treatise whereof for your more readie view & easier understanding I will divide into three speciall parts. In the first I will make declaration of such commodities there alreadie found or to be raised, which will not onely serve the ordinary turnes of you which are and shall bee the planters and inhabitants, but such an overplus sufficiently to bee yelded, or by men of skill to bee provided, as by way of trafficke and exchaunge with our owne nation of England, will enrich your selves the providers; those that shal deal with you; the enterprisers in general; and greatly profit our owne countrey men, to supply them with most things which heretofore they have bene faine to provide either of strangers or of our enemies: which commodities for distinction sake, I call Merchantable.
In the second, I will set downe all the comodities which wee know the countrey by our experience doeth yeld of it selfe for victuall, and sustenance of mans life; such as is usually fed upon by the inhabitants of the countrey, as also by us during the time we were there.
In the last part I will make mention generally of such other commodities besides, as I am able to remember, and as I shall thinke behooffull for those that shall inhabite, and plant there to knowe of; which specially concerne building, as also some other necessary uses: with a briefe description of the nature and maners of the people of the countrey.
THERE is a kind of grasse in the countrey uppon the blades where of there groweth very good silke in forme of a thin glittering skin to bee stript of. It groweth two foote and a halfe high or better: the blades are about two foot in length, and half inch broad. The like groweth in Persia, which is in the self same climate as Virginia, of which very many of the silke workes that come from thence into Europe are made. Here of if it be planted and ordered as in Persia, it cannot in reason be otherwise, but that there will rise in shorte time great profite to the dealers therein; seeing there is so great use and vent thereof as well in our countrey as els where. And by the meanes of sowing & planting in good ground, it will be farre greater, better, and more plentifull then it is. Although notwithstanding there is great store thereof in many places of the countrey growing naturally and wilde.
In manie of our journeyes we found silke wormes fayre and great; as bigge as our ordinary walnuttes. Although it hath not beene our happe to have found such plentie as elsewhere to be in the coutrey we have heard of; yet seeing that the countrey doth naturally breede and nourish them, there is no doubt but if art be added in planting of mulberry trees and others fitte for them in commodious places, for their feeding and nourishing; and some of them carefully gathered and husbanded in that fort as by men of skill is knowne to be necessarie : there will rise as great profite in time to the Virginians, as thereof doth now to the Persians, Turkes, Italians and Spaniards.
The trueth is that of Hempe and Flaxe there is no great store in any one place together, by reason it is not planted but as the soile doth yeeld it of it selfe ; and howsoever the leafe, and stemme or stalke doe differ from ours; the stuffe by the judgement of men of skill is altogether as good as ours. The stuffe by the judgement of men of skill is altogether as good as ours. And if not, as further proofe should finde otherwise; we have that experience of the soile, as that there cannot bee shewed anie reason to the contrary, but that it will grow there excellent well; and by planting will be yeelded plentifully: seeing there is so much ground whereof some may well be applyed to such purposes. What benefite heereof may growe in cordage and linnens who can not easily understand?
There is a veine of earth along the sea coast for the space of fourtie or fiftie miles, whereof by the judgement of some that have
Wapeih, a kinde of earth so called by the naturall inhabitants; very like to terra sigillata: and having beene refined, it hath beene found by some of our Phisitions and Chirurgeons to bee of the same kinde of vertue and more effectuall. The inhabitants use it very much for the cure of sores and woundes : there is in divers places great plentie, and in some places of a blewe sort.
There are those kindes of trees which yeelde them abundantly and great store. In the very same Iland where wee were seated, being fifteene miles of length, and five or sixe miles in breadth, there are fewe trees els but of the same kind; the whole Iland being full.
Sassafras, called by the inhabitantes Winauk, a kinde of wood of most pleasand and sweete smel, and of most rare vertues in phisick for the cure of many diseases. It is found by experience to bee farre better and of more uses then the wood which is called Guaiacum, or Lignum vitae. For the description, the manner of using and the manifolde vertues thereof, I referre you to the booke of Monardus, translated and entituled in English, The joyfull newes from the West Indies.
Cedar, a very sweet wood and fine timber; wherof if nests of chests be there made, or timber therof fitted for sweet & fine bedsteads, tables, deskes, lutes, virginalles & many things else, (of which there hath beene proofe made already) to make up fraite with other principal commodities will yield profite.
There are two kinds of grapes that the soile doth yeeld naturally: the one is small and sowre of the ordinarie bignesse as ours in England: the other farre greater & of himselfe lushious sweet. When they are planted and husbanded as they ought, a principall commoditie of wines by them may be raised.
There are two sortes of Walnuttes both holding oyle, but the one farre more plentifull then the other. When there are milles & other devises for the purpose, a commodity of them may be raised because there are infinite store. There are also three severall kindes of Berries in the forme of Oke akornes, which also by the experience and use of the inhabitantes, wee finde to yeelde very good and sweete oyle. Furthermore the Beares of the countrey are commonly very fatte, and in some places there are many: their fatnesse because it is so liquid, may well be termed oyle, and hath many speciall uses.
All along the Sea coast there are great store of Otters, which beeying taken by weares and other engines made for the purpose, will yeelde good profite. Wee hope also of Materne furres , and make no doubt by the relation of the people but that in some
Deare skinnes dressed after the manner of Chamoes or undressed are to be had of the naturall inhabitants thousands yeerely by way of trafficke for trifles: and no more wast or spoile of Deare then is and hath beene ordinarily in time before.
In our travailes, there was founde one to have beene killed by a salvage or inhabitant: and in an other place the smell where one or more had lately beene before: whereby we gather besides then by the relation of the people that there are some in the countrey : good profite will rise by them.
In two places of the countrey specially, one about fourescore and the other sixe score miles from the Fort or place where wee dwelt: wee founde neere the water side the ground to be rockie, which by the triall of a minerall man, was founde to holde Iron richly. It is founde in manie places of the countrey else. I knowe nothing to the contrarie, but that it maie bee allowed for a good marchantable commoditie, considering there the small charge for the labour and feeding of men: the infinite store of wood: the want of wood and deerenesse thereof in England: & the necessity of ballasting of shippes.
A hundred and fiftie miles into the maine in two townes wee founde with the inhabitaunts diverse small plates of copper, that had beene made as wee understood, by the inhabitantes that dwell
Sometimes in feeding on muscles wee founde some pearle ; but it was our hap to meete with ragges, or of a pide colour; not having yet discovered those places where wee hearde of better and more plentie. One of our companie ; a man of skill in such matters, had gathered together from among the savage people aboute five thousande : of which number he chose so many as made a fayre chaine, which for their likenesse and uniformitie in roundnesse, orientnesse, and pidenesse of many excellent colours, with equalitie in greatnesse, were verie fayre and rare; and had therefore beene presented to her Majestie, had wee not by casualtie and through extremity of a storme, lost them with many things els in comming away from the countrey.
Sweete Gummes of divers kindes and many other Apothecary drugges of which wee will make speciall mention, when wee shall receive it from such men of skill in that kynd, that in taking reasonable paines shall discover them more particularly then wee have done; and than now I can make relation of, for want of the examples I had provided and gathered, and are nowe lost, with other thinges by causualtie before mentioned.
There is a Shoemake well knowen, and used in England for blacke ; the feede of an hearbe called Wasewówr: little small rootes called Chappácor; and the barke of the tree called by the inhabitaunts Tangomóckonomindge: which Dies are for divers sortes of red: their goodnesse for our English clothes remaynes yet to be proved. The inhabitants use them onely for the dying of hayre ; and colouring of their faces, and Mantles made of Deare skinnes ; and also for the dying of Rushes to make artificiall workes withall in their Mattes and Baskettes ; having no other thing besides that they account of, apt to use them for. If they will not prove merchantable there is no doubt but the Planters there shall finde apte uses for them, as also for other colours which wee knowe to be there.
A thing of so great vent and use amongst English Diers, which cannot bee yeelded sufficiently in our owne countrey for spare of ground; may bee planted in Virginia, there being ground enough, The grouth therof need not to be doubted when as in the Ilandes of the Asores it groweth plentifully, which is in the same climate. So likewise of Madder.
Whe carried thither Suger canes to plant which beeing not so well preserved as was requisit, & besides the time of the yere being past for their setting when we arrived, wee could not make that proofe of them as wee desired. Notwithstanding seeing that they grow in the same climate, in the South part of Spaine and in Barbary, our hope in reason may yet continue. So likewise for Orenges , and Lemmons , there may be planted also Quinses . Wherbi may grow in reasonable time if the action be diligently prosecuted no small commodities in Sugers , Suckets , and Marmalades.
Many other commodities by planting may there also bee
PAGATOWR, a kinde of graine so called by the inhabitants; the same in the West Indies is called MAYZE : English men call it Guinney wheate or Turkie wheate, according to the names of the countreys from whence the like hath beene brought. The graine is about the bignesse of our ordinary English peaze and not much different in forme and shape: but of divers colours : some white, some red, some yellow, and some blew. All of them yeelde a very white and sweete flowre : beeing used according to his kinde it maketh a very good bread. Wee made of the same in the countrey some mault, whereof was brued as good ale as
Okindgier, called by us Beanes , because in greatnesse & partly in shape they are like to be the Beanes in England; saving that they are flatter, of more divers colours, and some pide. The leafe also of the stemme is much different. In taste they are altogether as good as our English peaze.
Wickonzówr, called by us Peaze , in respect of the beanes for distinction sake, because they are much lesse ; although in forme they little differ; but in goodnesse of tast much, & are far better then our English peaze. Both the beanes and peaze are ripe in tenne weekes after they are set. They make them victuall either by boyling them all to pieces into a broth; or boiling them whole untill they bee soft and beginne to breake as is used in England, eyther by themselves or mixtly together: Sometime they mingle of the wheate with them. Sometime also beeing whole sodden, they bruse or pound them in a morter, & thereof make loaves or lumps of dowishe bread, which they use to eat for varietie.
Macócqwer, according to their severall formes called by us, Pompions , Mellions , and Gourdes , because they are of the like formes as those kindes in England. In Virginia such of severall formes are of one taste and very good, and do also spring from one seed. There are two sorts; one is ripe in the space of a moneth, and the other in two moneths.
There is an hearbe which in Dutch is called Melden. Some of those that I describe it unto, take it to be a kinde of Orage ; it
There is also another great hearbe in forme of a Marigolde, about sixe foote in height; the head with the floure is a spanne in breadth. Some take it to bee Planta Solis: of the seedes heereof they make both a kinde of bread and broth.
All the aforesaid commodities for victuall are set or sowed, sometimes in groundes apart and severally by themselves; but for the most part together in one ground mixtly : the manner thereof with the dressing and preparing of the ground, because I will note unto you the fertilitie of the soile ; I thinke good briefly to describe.
The ground they never fatten with mucke, dounge or any other thing; neither plow nor digge it as we in England, but onely prepare it in sort as followeth. A fewe daies before they sowe or set, the men with wooden instruments, made almost in forme of mattockes or hoes with long handles; the women with short peckers or parers, because they use them sitting, of a foote long and about five inches in breadth: doe onely breake the upper part of the ground to rayse up the weedes, grasse, & old stubbes of corne stalkes with their rootes. The which after a day or twoes drying in the Sunne, being scrapte up into many small heapes, to save them labour for carrying them away; they burne into ashes. (And whereas some may thinke that they use the ashes for to better the grounde ; I say that then they woulde eyther disperse the ashes abroade ; which wee observed they doe not, except the heapes bee too great: or els would take speciall care to set their corne where the ashes lie, which also wee finde they are carelesse of.) And this is all the husbanding of their ground that they use.
Then their setting or sowing is after this maner. First for their corne, beginning in one corner of the plot, with a pecker they make a hole, wherein they put foure graines with that care they
The ground being thus set according to the rate by us experimented, an English Acre conteining fourtie pearches in length, and foure in breadth, doeth there yeeld in croppe or of-come of corne, beanes, and peaze, at the least two hundred London bushelles : besides the Macocqwer, Melden, and Planta Solis: When as in England fourtie bushelles of our wheate yeelded out of such an acre is thought to be much.
I thought also good to note this unto you, if you which shall inhabite and plant there, maie know how specially that countrey corne is there to be preferred before ours: Besides the manifold waies in applying it to victuall, the increase is so much that small labour and paines is needful in respect that must be used for ours. For this I can assure you that according to the rate we have made proofe of, one man may prepare and husbande so much grounde (having once borne corne before) with lesse then foure and twentie houres labour, as shall yeelde him victuall in a large proportion for a twelve moneth if hee have nothing else, but that which the same ground will yeelde, and of that kinde onelie which I have before spoken of: the saide ground being also but of five and twentie yards square. And if neede require, but that there is ground enough, there might be raised out of one and the selfsame ground two harvestes or of-comes; for they sowe or set and may at anie time when they thinke good from the middest of March untill the ende of June: so that they also set when they have eaten of their first croppe. In some places of the countrey notwithstanding they have two harvests, as we have heard, out of one and the same ground.
For English corne nevertheles whether to use or not to use it,
There is an herbe which is sowed a part by it selfe & is called by the inhabitants Uppówoc: In the West Indies it hath divers names, according to the severall places & countries where it groweth and is used: The Spaniardes generally call it Tobacco. The leaves thereof being dried and brought into powder: they use to take the fume or smoke thereof by sucking it through pipes made of claie into their stomacke and heade ; from whence it purgeth superfluous fleame & other grosse humors, openeth all the pores & passages of the body: by which meanes the use thereof not only preserveth the body from obstructions; but also if any be, so that they have not beene of too long continuance, in short time breaketh them: wherby their bodies are notably preserved in health, & know not many greevous diseases wherewithall wee in England are oftentimes afflicted.
This Uppówoc is of so precious estimation amongest them, that they thinke their gods are marvelously delighted therwith : Wherupon sometime they make hallowed fires & cast some of the pouder therein for a sacrifice: being in a storme uppon the waters, to pacifie their gods, they cast some up into the aire and into the water: so a weare for fish being newly set up, they cast some therein and into the aire : also after an escape of danger, they cast some into the aire likewise: but all done with strange gestures, stamping somtime dauncing, clapping of hands, holding up of hands, & staring up into the heavens, uttering therewithal and chattering strange words & noises.
We our selves during the time we were there used to suck it after their maner, as also since our returne, & have found manie rare and wonderful experiments of the vertues thereof; of which
And these are all the commodities for sustenance of life that I know and can remember they use to husband: all else that followe are founde growing naturally or wilde.
OPENAUK are a kind of roots of round forme, some of the bignes of walnuts, some far greater, which are found in moist & marish grounds growing many together one by another in ropes, or as thogh they were fastened with a string. Being boiled or sodden they are very good meate.
OKEEPENAUK are also of round shape, found in dry grounds: some are of the bignes of a mans head. They are to be eaten as they are taken out of the ground, for by reason of their drinesse they will neither roste nor seeth. Their tast is not so good as of the former rootes, notwithstanding for want of bread & somtimes for varietie the inhabitants use to eate them with fish or flesh, and in my judgement they doe as well as the houshold bread made of rie heere in England.
Kaishcúpenauk a white kind of roots about the bignes of hen egs & nere of that forme : their tast was not so good to our seeming as of the other, and therfore their place and manner of growing not so much cared for by us: the inhabitants notwithstanding used to boile & eate many.
Tsinaw a kind of roote much like unto the which in England is called the China root brought from the East Indies. And we know not anie thing to the cotrary but that it maie be of the same kind. These roots grow manie together in great clusters and doe bring foorth a brier stalke, but the leafe in shape far unlike; which beeing supported by the trees it groweth neerest unto, wil reach or climbe to the top of the highest. From these roots while they be new or fresh beeing chopt into small pieces & stampt, is strained with water a juice that maketh bread, & also being boiled, a very good spoonemeate in maner of a gelly, and is much better in tast if it bee tempered with oyle. This Tsinaw is not of that sort which by some was caused to be brought into England or the China roote , for it was discovered since, and is in use as is afore saide : but that which was brought hither is not yet knowne neither by us nor by the inhabitants to serve for any use or purpose; although the rootes in shape are very like.
Coscúshaw, some of our company tooke to bee that kinde of roote which the Spaniards in the West Indies call Cassauy, whereupon also many called it by that name: it groweth in very muddie pooles and moist groundes. Being dressed according to the countrey maner, it maketh a good bread, and also a good sponemeate, and is used very much by the inhabitants: The juice of this root is poison, and therefore heede must be taken before any thing be made therewithal: Either the rootes must bee first sliced and dried in the Sunne, or by the fire, and then being pounded into floure wil make good bread: or els while they are greene they are to bee pared, cut into pieces and stampt ; loves of the same to be laid neere or over the fire untill it be floure, and then being well pounded againe, bread, or spone meate very good in taste, and holsome may be made thereof.
Habascon is a roote of hoat taste almost of the forme and bignesse of a Parseneepe, of it selfe it is no victuall, but onely a helpe beeing boiled together with other meates.
There are also Leekes differing little from ours in England that grow in many places of the countrey, of which, when we came in places where, wee gathered and eate many, but the naturall inhabitants never.
CHESTNUTS, there are in divers places great store: some they use to eate rawe, some they stampe and boile to make spoonemeate, and with some being sodden they make such a manner of dowe bread as they use of their beanes before mentioned.
WALNUTS: There are two kindes of Walnuts, and of then infinit store: In many places where very great woods for many miles together the third part of trees are walnuttrees. The one
MEDLARS a kind of verie good fruit, so called by us chieflie for these respectes : first in that they are not good untill they be rotten: then in that they open at the head as our medlars, and are about the same bignesse : otherwise in taste and colour they are farre different: for they are as red as cheries and very sweet: but whereas the cherie is sharpe sweet, they are lushious sweet.
METAQUESUNNAUK, a kinde of pleasaunt fruite almost of the shape & bignes of English peares, but that they are of a perfect red colour as well within as without. They grow on a plant whose leaves are verie thicke and full of prickles as sharpe as needles. Some that have bin in the Indies, where they have seen that kind of red die of great price which is called Cochinile to grow, doe describe his plant right like unto this of Metaquesunnauk but whether it be the true Cochinile or a bastard or wilde kind, it cannot yet be certified; seeing that also as I heard, Cochinile is not of the fruite but founde on the leaves of the plant; which leaves for such matter we have not so specially observed.
GRAPES there are of two sorts which I mentioned in the marchantable cõmodities.
STRABERIES there are as good & as great as those which we have in our English gardens.
MULBERIES, Applecrabs, Hurts or Hurtleberies, such as wee have in England.
SACQUENVMMENER a kinde of berries almost like unto capres but somewhat greater which grow together in clusters upon a plant or herb that is found in shalow waters: being boiled eight or nine hours according to their kind are very good meate and
There is a kind of reed which beareth a seed almost like unto our rie or wheat, & being boiled is good meate.
In our travailes in some places wee founde wilde peaze like unto ours in England but that they were lesse, which are also good meate.
There is a kind of berrie or acorne, of which there are five sorts that grow on severall kinds of trees; the one is called Sagatémener, the second Osámener, the third Pummuckóner. These kind of acorns they use to drie upon hurdles made of reeds with fire underneath almost after the maner as we dry malt in England. When they are to be used they first water them until they be soft & then being sod they make a good victuall, either to eate so simply, or els being also pounded, to make loaves or lumpes of bread. These be also the three kinds of which, I said before, the inhabitants used to make sweet oyle.
An other sort is called Sapúmmener which being boiled or parched doth eate and taste like unto chestnuts. They sometime also make bread of this sort.
The fifth sort is called Mangúmmenauk, and is the acorne of their kind of oake, the which beeing dried after the maner of the first sortes, and afterward watered they boile them, & their servants or sometime the chiefe themselves, either for varietie or for want of bread, doe eate them with their fish or flesh.
Deare , in some places there are great store: neere unto the sea coast they are of the ordinarie bignes as ours in England, & some lesse : but further up into the countrey where there is better seed they are greater: they differ from ours onely in this, their tailes are longer and the snags of their hornes looke backward.
Conies , Those that we have seen & al that we can heare of are of a grey colour like unto hares: in some places there are such plentie that all the people of some townes make them mantles of the furre or flue of the skinnes of those they usually take.
Saquenúckot & Maquówoc; two kindes of small beastes greater then conies which are very good meat. We never tooke any of them our selves, but sometime eate of such as the inhabitants had taken and brought unto us.
Squirels which are of a grey colour, we have taken & eaten.
Beares which are all of black colour. The beares of this countrey are good meat; the inhabitants in time of winter do use to take & eate manie, so also somtime did wee. They are taken commonlie in this sort. In some Ilands or places where they are, being hunted for, as soone as they have spiall of a man they presently run awaie, & then being chased they clime and get up the next tree they can, from whence with arrowes they are shot downe starke dead, or with those wounds that they may after easily be killed; we sometime shotte them downe with our caleevers.
I have the names of eight & twenty severall sortes of beasts which I have heard of to be here and there dispersed in the countrie, especially in the maine : of which there are only twelve kinds that we have yet discovered, & of these that be good meat we know only them before mentioned. The inhabitãnts somtime kil the Lyon and eat him: & we somtime as they came to our hands of their Wolves or wolvish Dogges , which I have not set downe for good meat, least that some woulde understand my judgement therin to be more simple than needeth, although I could alleage the difference in taste of those kindes from ours, which by some of our company have beene experimented in both.
Turkie cockes and Turkie hennes : Stockdoves: Partridges: Cranes: Hernes : & in winter great store of Swannes & Geese. Of al sortes of foule I have the names in the countrie language of fourescore and sixe of which number besides those that be named,
There are also Parats , Faulcons , & Marlin haukes , which although with us they bee not used for meate, yet for other causes I thought good to mention.
For foure monethes of the yeere, February, March, Aprill and May, there are plentie of Sturgeons: And also in the same monethes of Herrings, some of the ordinary bignesse as ours in England, but the most part farre greater, of eighteene, twentie inches, and some two foote in length and better; both these kindes of fishe in those monethes are most plentifull, and in best season which wee founde to bee most delicate and pleasaunt meate.
There are also Troutes , Porpoises, Rayes , Oldwives, Mullets, Plaice, and very many other sortes of excellent good fish, which we have taken & eaten, whose names I know not but in the countrey language; wee have of twelve sorts more the pictures as they were drawn in the countrey with their names.
The inhabitants use to take then two maner of wayes, the one is by a kind of wear made of reedes which in that countrey are very strong. The other way which is more strange, is with poles made sharpe at one ende, by shooting them into the fish after the maner as Irishmen cast dartes ; either as they are rowing in their boates or els as they are wading in the shallowes for the purpose.
There are also in many places plentie of these kindes which follow.
Sea crabbes , such as we have in England.
Oystres , some very great, and some small; some rounde and some of a long shape: They are founde both in salt water and
Also Muscles , Scalopes , Periwinkles, and Creuises.
Seekanauk, a kinde of crustie shell fishe which is good meate, about a foote in breadth, having a crustie tayle, many legges like a crab; and her eyes in her backe. They are founde in shallowes of salt waters; and sometime on the shoare.
There are many Tortoyses both of lande and sea kinde, their backes & bellies are shelled very thicke ; their head, feete, and taile, which are in appearance, seeme ougly as though they were membres of a serpent or venemous: but notwithstanding they are very good meate, as also their egges. Some have bene founde of a yard in bredth and better.
And thus have I made relation of all sortes of victuall that we fed upon for the time we were in Virginia, as also the inhabitants themselves, as farre foorth as I knowe and can remember or that are specially worthy to bee remembred.
Those other things which I am more to make rehearsall of, are such as concerne building, and other mechanicall necessarie uses: as divers sortes of trees for house & ship timber, and other uses els : Also lime, stone, and brick, least that being not mentioned some might have bene doubted of, or by some that are malicious reported the contrary.
Okes , there are as faire, straight, tall, and as good timber as any can be, and also great store, and in some places very great.
Walnut trees, as I have saide before very many, some have
Firre trees fit for masts of ships, some very tall & great.
Rakiock, a kind of trees so called that are sweet wood of which the inhabitans that were neere unto us doe commonly make their boats or Canoes of the form of trowes ; only with the helpe of fire, hatchets of stones, and shels ; we have known some so great being made in that sort of one tree that they have carried well xx. men at once, besides much baggage: the timber being great, tal, streight, soft, light, & yet tough enough I thinke (besides other uses) to be fit also for masts of ships.
Cedar, a sweet wood good for seelings, Chests, Boxes, Bedsteedes, Lutes, Virginals, and many things els, as I have also said before. Some of our company which have wandered in some places where I have not bene, have made certaine affirmation of Cyprus which for such and other excellent uses, is also a wood of price and no small estimation.
Maple, and also Wich - hazle , wherof the inhabitants use to make their bowes.
Holly a necessary thing for the making of birdlime.
Willowes good for the making of weares and weeles to take fish after the English manner, although the inhabitants use only reedes, which because they are so strongly as also flexible, do serve for that turne very well and sufficiently.
Beech and Ashe , good for caske hoopes : and if neede require, plow worke, as also for many things els.
Ascopo a kinde of tree very like unto Lawrell, the barke is hoat in tast and spicie, it is very like to that tree which Monardus describeth to bee Cassia Lignea of the West Indies.
There are many other strange trees whose names I knowe not but in the Virginian language, of which I am not nowe able, neither is it so convenient for the present to trouble you with particular relation: seeing that for timber and other necessary uses I have named sufficient: And of many of the rest but that they may be applied to good use, I know no cause to doubt.
Now for Stone, Bricke and Lime, thus it is. Neere unto the Sea coast where wee dwelt, there are no kinde of stones to bee found (except a fewe small pebbles about foure miles off) but such as have bene brought from farther out of the maine. In some of our voiages wee have seene divers hard raggie stones, great pebbles, and a kinde of grey stone like unto marble, of which the inhabitants make their hatchets to cleeve wood. Upon inquirie wee heard that a little further up into the Countrey were of all sortes verie many, although of Quarries they are ignorant, neither have they use of any store whereupon they should have occasion to seeke any. For if everie housholde have one or two to cracke Nuttes, grinde shelles, whet copper, and sometimes other stones for hatchets, they have enough: neither use they any digging, but onely for graves about three foote deepe : and therefore no marvaile that they know neither Quarries, nor lime stones, which both may bee in places neerer than they wot of.
In the meane time untill there bee discoverie of sufficient store in some place or other convenient, the want of you which are and shalbe the planters therein may be as well supplied by Bricke : for the making whereof in divers places of the countrey there is clay both excellent good, and plentie ; and also by lime made of Oister shels, and of others burnt, after the maner as they use in the Iles of Tenet and Shepy, and also in divers other places of England: Which kinde of lime is well knowne to bee as good as any other. And of Oister shels there is plentie enough: for besides divers other particular places where are abundance, there is one shallowe sounde along the coast, where for the space of many miles together in length, and two or three miles in breadth, the grounde is nothing els beeing but halfe a foote or a foote under water for the most part.
This much can I say further more of stones, that about 120 miles from our fort neere the water in the side of a hill was founde by a Gentleman of our company, a great veine of hard ragge stones, which I thought good to remember unto you.
It resteth I speake a word or two of the naturall inhabitants,
They are a people clothed with loose mantles made of Deere skins, & aprons of the same rounde about their middles; all els naked; of such a difference of statures only as wee in England; having no edge tooles or weapons of yron or steele to offend us withall, neither know they how to make any: those weapons that they have, are onlie bowes made of Witch hazle, & arrowes of reeds; flat edged truncheons also of wood about a yard long, neither have they any thing to defend themselves but targets made of barcks ; and some armours made of stickes wickered together with thread.
Their townes are but small, & neere the sea coast but few, some containing but 10 or 12 houses: some 20. the greatest that we have seene have bene but of 30 houses: if they be walled it is only done with barks of trees made fast to stakes, or els with poles onely fixed upright and close one by another.
Their houses are made of small poles made fast at the tops in rounde forme after the maner as is used in many arbories in our gardens of England, in most townes covered with barkes, and in some with artificiall mattes made of long rushes; from the tops of the houses downe to the ground. The length of them is commonly double to the breadth, in some places they are but 12 and 16 yardes long, and in other some wee have seene of foure and twentie.
In some places of the countrey one onely towne belongeth to the government of a Wiróans or chiefe Lorde ; in other some two or three, in some sixe, eight, & more; the greatest Wiroans that yet we had dealing with had but eighteene townes in his governmet, and able to make not above seven or eight hundred fighting men at the most: The language of every government is different from any other, and the farther they are distant the greater is the difference.
Their maner of warres amongst themselves is either by sudden
If there fall out any warres between us & them, what their fight is likely to bee, we having advantages against them so many maner of waies, as by our discipline, our strange weapons and devises els ; especially by ordinance great and small, it may be easily imagined; by the experience we have had in some places, the turning up of their heeles against us in running away was their best defence.
In respect of us they are a people poore, and for want of skill and judgement in the knowledge and use of our things, doe esteeme our trifles before thinges of greater value: Notwithstanding in their proper manner considering the want of such meanes as we have, they seeme very ingenious; For although they have no such tooles, nor any such craftes, sciences and artes as wee ; yet in those thinges they doe, they shewe excellencie of wit. And by howe much they upon due consideration shall finde our manner of knowledges and craftes to exceede theirs in perfection, and speed for doing or execution, by so much more the more is it probable that they shoulde desire our friendships & love, and have the greater respect for pleasing and obeying us. Whereby may bee hoped if meanes of good government bee used, that they may in short time be brought to civilitie, and the imbracing of true religion.
Some religion they have alreadie, which although it be farre from the truth, yet beyng as it is, there is hope it may bee the easier and sooner reformed.
They beleeve that there are many Gods which they call Montóac, but of different sortes and degrees; one onely chiefe and great God, which hath bene from all eternitie. Who as they affirme when hee purposed to make the worlde, made first other goddes of a principall order to bee as meanes and instruments to bee used in the creation and government to follow; and after the Sunne, Moone, and Starres, as pettie goddes and the instruments of the other order more principall. First they say were made
For mankind they say a woman was made first, which by the woorking of one of the goddes, conceived and brought foorth children: And in such sort they say they had their beginning.
But how manie yeeres or ages have passed since, they say they can make no relation, having no letters nor other such meanes as we to keepe recordes of the particularities of times past, but onelie tradition from father to sonne.
They thinke that all the gods are of human shape, & therfore they represent them by images in the formes of men, which they call Kewasowok, one alone is called Kewás; Them they place in houses appropriate or temples which they call Mathicómuck; Where they woorship, praie, sing, and make manie times offerings unto them. In some Machicomuck we have seene but one Kewas, in some two, and in other some three; The common sort thinke them to be also gods.
They beleeve also the immortalitie of the soule, that after this life as soone as the soule is departed from the bodie according to the workes it hath done, it is eyther carried to heaven the habitacle of gods, there to enjoy perpetuall blisse and happinesse, or els to a great pitte or hole, which they thinke to bee in the furthest partes of their part of the worlde towarde the sunne set, there to burne continually: the place they call Popogusso.
For the confirmation of this opinion, they tolde mee two stories of two men who had been lately dead and revived againe, the one happened but few yeres before our comming in the countrey of a wicked man which having beene dead and buried, the next day the earth of the grave beeing seen to move, was taken up againe ; Who made declaration where his soule had beene, that is to saie very neer entring into Popogusso, had not one of the gods saved him & gave him leave to returne againe, and teach his friends what they should doe to avoid that terrible place of torment.
The other happened in the same yeere we were there, but in a towne that was threescore miles from us, and it was tolde mee for straunge newes that one beeing dead, buried and taken up
What subtilty soever be in the Wiroances and Priestes, this opinion worketh so much in manie of the common and simple sort of people that it maketh them have great respect to their Governours, and also great care what they do, to avoid torment after death, and to enjoy blisse ; althought notwithstanding there is punishment ordained for malefactours, as stealers, whoremoongers, and other sortes of wicked doers; some punished with death, some with forfeitures, some with beating, according to the greatnes of the factes.
And this is the summe of their religion, which I learned by having special familiarity with some of their priestes. Wherein they were not so sure grounded, nor gave such credite to their traditions and stories but through conversing with us they were brought into great doubts of their owne, and no small admiration of ours, with earnest desire in many, to learne more than we had meanes for want of perfect utterance in their language to expresse.
Most thinges they sawe with us, as Mathematicall instruments, sea compasses, the vertue of the loadstone in drawing yron, a perspective glasse whereby was shewed manie strange sightes, burning glasses, wildefire woorkes, gunnes, bookes, writing and reading, spring clocks that seeme to goe of themselves, and manie other thinges that wee had, were so straunge unto them, and so farre exceeded their capacities to comprehend the reason and meanes how they should be made and done, that they thought they were rather the works of gods then of men, or at the leastwise they had bin given and taught us of the gods. Which
Manie times and in every towne where I came, according as I was able, I made declaration of the contentes of the Bible; that therein was set foorth the true and onelie God, and his mightie woorkes, that therein was contayned the true doctrine of salvation through Christ, with manie particularities of Miracles and chiefe poyntes of religion, as I was able then to utter, and thought fitte for the time. And although I told them the booke materially & of it self was not of anie such vertue, as I thought they did conceive, but onely the doctrine therein contained; yet would many be glad to touch it, to embrace it, to kisse it, to hold it to their brests and heades, and stroke over all their bodie with it; to shewe their hungrie desire of that knowledge which was spoken of.
The Wiroans with whom we dwelt called Wingina, and many of his people would be glad many times to be with us at our praiers, and many times call upon us both in his owne towne, as also in others whither he sometimes accompanied us, to pray and sing Psalmes ; hoping thereby to bee partaker of the same effectes which wee by that meanes also expected.
Twise this Wiroans was so grievously sicke that he was like to die, and as hee laie languishing, doubting of anie helpe by his owne priestes, and thinking he was in such daunger for offending us and thereby our god, sent for some of us to praie and bee a meanes to our God that it would please him either that he might live or after death dwell with him in blisse, so likewise were the requestes of manie others in the like case.
On a time also when their corne began to wither by reason of a drouth which happened extraordinarily, fearing that it had come to passe by reason that in some thing they had displeased us, many woulde come to us & desire us to praie to our God of England, that he would preserve their corne, promising that when it was ripe we also should be partakers of the fruite.
There could at no time happen any strange sicknesse, losses, hurtes, or any other crosse unto them, but that they would impute to us the cause or meanes therof for offending or not pleasing us.
One other rare and strange accident, leaving others, will I mention before I ende, which mooved the whole countrey that either knew or hearde of us, to have us in wonderfull admiration.
There was no towne where we had any subtile devise practised against us, we leaving it unpunished or not revenged (because wee sought by all meanes possible to win them by gentlenesse ) but that within a few dayes after our departure from everie such towne, the people began to die very fast, and many in short space; in some townes about twentie, in some fortie, in some sixtie, and in one sixe score, which in trueth was very manie in respect of their numbers. This happened in no place that wee coulde learne but where wee had bene, where they used some practise against us, and after such time; The disease also so strange, that they neither knew what it was, nor how to cure it; the like by report of the oldest men in the countrey never happened before, time out of minde. A thing specially observed by us as also by the naturall inhabitants themselves.
Insomuch that when some of the inhabitants which were our friends & especially the Wiroans Wingina had observed such effects in foure or five towns to follow their wicked practises, they were perswaded that it was the worke of our God through our meanes, and that wee by him might kil and slai whom we would without weapons and not come neere them.
And thereupon when it had happened that they had understanding that any of their enemies had abused us in our journeyes, hearing that wee had wrought no revenge with our weapons, & fearing upon some cause the matter should so rest: did come and intreate us that we woulde bee a meanes to our God that they as others that had dealt ill with us might in like sort die; alleaging how much it would be for our credite and profite, as also theirs; and hoping furthermore that we would do so much at their requests in respect of the friendship we professe them.
Whose entreaties although wee shewed that they were
Yet because the effect fell out so sodainly and shortly after according to their desires, they thought neverthelesse it came to passe by our meanes, and that we in using such speeches unto them did but dissemble the matter, and therefore came unto us to give us thankes in their manner that although wee satisfied them not in promise, yet in deedes and effect we had fulfilled their desires.
This marvelous accident in all the countrie wrought so strange opinions of us, that some people could not tel whether to think us gods or men, and the rather because that all the space of their sicknesse, there was no man of ours knowne to die, or that was specially sicke : they noted also that we had no women amongst us, neither that we did care for any of theirs.
Some therefore were of opinion that wee were not borne of women, and therefore not mortall, but that wee were men of an old generation many yeeres past then risen againe to immortalitie.
Some woulde likewise seeme to prophesie that there were more of our generation yet to come, to kill theirs and take their places, as some thought the purpose was by that which was already done.
Those that were immediately to come after us they imagined to be in the aire, yet invisible & without bodies, & that they by our intreaty & for the love of us did make the people to die in that sort as they did by shooting invisible bullets into them.
To confirme this opinion their phisitions to excuse their ignorance in curing the disease, would not be ashamed to say, but earnestly make the simple people beleve, that the strings of blood that they sucked out of the sicke bodies, were the strings wherewithal the invisible bullets were tied and cast.
Some also thought that we shot them our selves out of our pieces from the place where we dwelt, and killed the people in any such towne that had offended us as we listed, how farre distant from us soever it were.
And other some saide that it was the speciall woorke of God for our sakes, as wee our selves have cause in some sorte to thinke no lesse, whatsoever some doe or maie imagine to the contrarie, specially some Astrologers knowing of the Eclipse of the Sunne which wee saw the same yeere before in our voyage thytherward, which unto them appeared very terrible. And also of a Comet which beganne to appeare but a few daies before the beginnning of the said sicknesse. But to exclude them from being the speciall an accident there are farther reasons then I thinke fit at this present to bee alleadged.
These their opinions I have set downe the more at large that it may appeare unto you that there is good hope they may be brought through discreet dealing and governement to the imbracing of the trueth, and consequently to honour, obey, feare and love us.
And although some of our companie towardes the ende of the yeare, shewed themselves too fierce, in slaying some of the people, in some towns, upon causes that on our part, might easily enough have been borne withall : yet notwithstanding because it was on their part justly deserved, the alteration of their opinions generally & for the most part concerning us is the lesse to bee doubted. And whatsoever els they may be, by carefulnesse of our selves neede nothing at all to be feared.
The best neverthelesse in this as in all actions besides is to be endevoured and hoped, & of the worst that may happen notice to bee taken with consideration, and as much as may be eschewed.
Now I have as I hope made relation not of so fewe and smal things but that the countrey of men that are indifferent & wel disposed maie be sufficiently liked. If there were no more knowen then I have mentioned, which doubtlesse and in great reason is nothing to that which remaineth to bee discovered, neither the soile nor commodities. As we have reason so to gather by the difference we found in our travails: for although all which I have before spoken of, have bin discovered & experimented not far from the sea coast where was our abode & most of our travailing: yet sometimes as we made our journeies farther into the maine and countrey ; we found the soyle to bee fatter; the trees greater and to growe thinner; the grounde more firme and deeper mould; more and larger champions; finer grasse and as good as ever we saw in England; in some places rockie and farre more high and hillie ground; more plentie of their fruites ; more abondance of beastes ; the more inhabited with people, and of greater pollicie & larger dominions, with greater townes and houses.
Why may wee not then looke for in good hope from the inner parts of more and greater plentie, as well of other things, as of those which wee have alreadie discovered? Unto the Spaniardes happened the like in discovering the maine of the West Indies. The maine also of this countrey of Virginia, extending some wayes so many hundreds of leagues, as otherwise then by the relation of the inhabitants wee have most certaine knowledge of, where yet no Christian Prince hath any possession or dealing, cannot but yeeld many kinds of excellent commodities, which we in our discoverie have not yet seene.
What hope there is els to be gathered of the nature of the climate, being answerable to the Iland of Japan, the land of China, Persia, [unclear: Jury] , the Ilandes of Cyprus and Candy, the South parts of Greece, Italy, and Spaine , and of many other notable and famous countreis, because I meane not to be tedious, I leave to your owne consideration.
Whereby also the excellent temperature of the ayre there at all seasons, much warmer then in England, and never so violently
For the holsomnesse thereof I neede to say but thus much: that for all the want of provision, as first of English victuall ; excepting for twentie daies, wee lived only by drinking water and by the victuall of the countrey, of which some sorts were very straunge unto us, and might have bene thought to have altered our temperatures in such sort as to have brought us into some greevous and dangerous diseases: secondly the want of English meanes, for the taking of beastes, fishe, and foule, which by the helpe only of the inhabitants and their meanes, coulde not bee so suddenly and easily provided for us, nor in so great numbers & quantities, nor of that choise as otherwise might have bene to our better satisfaction and contentment. Some want also wee had of clothes. Furthermore, in all our travailes which were most speciall and often in the time of winter, our lodging was in the open aire upon the grounde. And yet I say for all this, there were but foure of our whole company (being one hundred and eight) that died all the yeere and that but at the latter ende thereof and upon none of the aforesaide causes. For all foure especially three were feeble, weake, and sickly persons before ever they came thither, and those that knewe them much marveyled that they lived so long beeing in that case, or had adventured to travaile.
Seeing therefore the ayre there is so temperate and holsome, the soyle so fertile and yeelding such commodities as I have before mentioned, the voyage also thither to and fro beeing sufficiently experimented, to bee perfourmed thrise a yeere with ease and at any season thereof: And the dealing of Sir Walter Raleigh so liberall in large giving and granting lande there, as is alreadie knowen, with many helpes and furtherances els : (The least that hee hath graunted hath beene five hundred acres to a man onely for the adventure of his person:) I hope there remaine no cause wherby the action should be misliked.
If that those which shall thither travaile to inhabite and plant bee but reasonably provided for the first yere as those are which were transported the last, and beeing there doe use but that diligence and care as is requisite, and as they may with eese : There is no doubt but for the time following they may have
And this is all the fruites of our labours, that I have thought necessary to advertise you of at this present: what els concerneth the nature and manners of the inhabitants of Virginia: The number with the particularities of the voyages thither made; and of the actions of such that have bene by Sir Walter Raleigh therein and there imployed, many worthy to bee remembred ; as of the first discoverers of the Countrey : of our generall for the time Sir Richard Greinvile; and after his departure, of our Governour there Master Rafe Lane; with divers other directed and imployed under theyr governement : Of the Captaynes and Masters of the voyages made since for transportation; of the Governour and assistants of those alredie transported, as of many persons, accidents, and thinges els, I have ready in a discourse by it self in maner of a Chronicle according to the course of times, and when time shall bee thought convenient shall be also published.
Thus referring my relation to your favourable constructions, expecting good successe of the action, from him which is to be acknowledged the authour and governour not only of this but of all things els, I take my leave of you, this moneth of Februarii, 1588.
DILIGENTLYE COLLECTED AND DRAWne by IHON WHITE who was sent thither speciallye and for the same purpose by the said SIR WALTER RALEGH the year abovesaid 1585. and also the year 1588.
|I.||The carte of all the coast of Virginia.|
|II.||The arrivall of the Englishemen in Virginia.|
|III.||A Weroan or great Lorde of Virginia.|
|IIII.||One of the chieff Ladyes of Secota.|
|V.||One of the Religeous men in the towne of Secota.|
|VI.||A younge gentill woeman doughter of Secota.|
|VII.||A chieff Lorde of Roanoac.|
|VIII.||A chieff Ladye of Pomeiooc.|
|IX.||An aged manne in his winter garment.|
|X.||Their manner of careynge ther Childern and atyere of the chieffe Ladyes of the towne of Dasamonquepeuc.|
|XII.||Their manner of makinge their Boates.|
|XIII.||Their manner of fishynge in Virginia.|
|XIIII.||The browyllinge of their fishe over the flame.|
|XV.||Their seetheynge of their meate in earthen pottes.|
|XVI.||Their Sitting at meate.|
|XVII.||Their manner of prayinge with their Rattels abowt the fyer.|
|XVIII.||Their danses whych they use at their hyghe feastes.|
|XIX.||The towne of Pomeiooc.|
|XX.||The towne of Secota.|
|XXI.||Their Idol Kiwasa.|
|XXII.||The Tombe of their Werowans or chieff Lordes.|
|XXIII.||The marckes of sundrye of the chiefe mene of Virginia.|
ALTHOUGH ( frendlye Reader) man by his disobedience, weare deprived of those good Gifts wher with he was indued in his creation, yet he was not berefte of wit to provyde for hym selfe, nor discretion to devise things necessarie for his use, except suche as appartayne to his soules healthe, as may be gathered by his savage nations, of whome this present worke intreateth. For although they have noe true knoledge of God nor of his holye worde and are destituted of all lerninge, Yet they passe us in many thinges, as in Sober feedinge and Dexteritye of witte, in makinge without any instrument of mettall thinges so neate and so fine, as a man would scarselye beleve the same, Unless the Englishemen Had made proofe Therof by their travailes into the contrye. Consideringe, Therfore that yt was a thinge worthie of admiration, I was verye willinge to offer unto you the true Pictures of those people wich by the helpe of Maister Richard Hakluyt of Oxford Minister of Gods Word, who first Incouraged me to publish the Worke, I creaved out of the verye original of Maister Ihon White an Englisch paynter who was sent into the contrye by the queenes Majestye, onlye to draw the description of the place, lyvely to describe the shapes of the Inhabitants their apparell, manners of Livinge, and fashions, att the speciall Charges of the worthy knighte, Sir WALTER RALEGH , who bestowed noe Small Sume of monnye in the serche and Discoverye of that countrye, From the yeere, 1584, to the ende of The yeare 1588. Morover this booke which intreateth of that parte of the new World which the Englishemen call by the name of Virginia I heer sett out in the first place, beinge therunto requested of my Frends, by Reason of the memorye of the fresh and late performance therof, albeyt I have in hand the Historye of Florida wich should bee first sett foorthe because yt was discovured by the Frencheman longe befor the discoverye of Virginia, yet I hope shortlye also to publish the same, A Victorye, doubtless so Rare, as I thinke the like hath not ben heard nor seene. I craeved both of them at London, and brought Them hither to Franckfurt, wher I and my sonnes haven taken ernest paynes in gravinge the pictures ther of in Copper, seeing yt is a matter of noe small importance. Touchinge the stile of both the Discourses, I have caused yt to bee Reduced into verye Good Frenche and Latin by the aide of verye worshipfull frend of myne. Finallye I hartlye Request thee, that yf any seeke to Contrefaict thes my bookx, (for in this dayes many are so malicious that they seeke to gayne by other men labours ) thow wouldest give noe credit unto suche conterfaited Drawghte. For dyvers secret marks lye hiddin in my pictures, which wil breede Confusion unless they bee well observed.
The sea coasts of Virginia arre full of Ilands, wher by the entrance into the mayne lãd is hard to finde. For although they bee separated with divers and sundrie large Division, which seeme to yeeld convenient entrance, yet to our great perill we proved that they wear shallowe, and full of dangerous flatts, and could never perce opp into the mayne land, untill wee made trialls in many places with or small pinness. At lengthe wee fownd an entrance uppon our mens diligent serche therof. Affter that wee had passed opp, and sayled ther in for a short space we discovered a mightye river fallinge downe in to the sownde over against those Ilands, which nevertheless wee could not saile opp any thinge far by Reason of the shallewness, the mouth ther of beinge annoyed with sands driven in with the tyde therfore saylinge further, wee came unto a Good bigg yland, the Inhabitants therof as soone as they saw us began to make a great and horrible crye, as people which never befoer had seene men apparelled like us, and camme a way makinge out crys like wild beasts or men out of their wyts. But beeng gentlye called backe, wee offred them of our wares, as glasses, knives, babies, and other trifles, which wee thougt they deligted in. Soe they stood still, and percevinge our Good will and courtesie came fawninge uppon us, and bade us welcome. Then they brougt us to their village in the iland called, Roanoac, and unto their Weroans or Prince, which entertained us with Reasonable curtesie, althoug they wear amased at the first sight of us. Suche was our arrivall into the parte of the world, which we call Virginia, the stature of bodye of wich people, theyr attire, and maneer of lyvinge, their feasts, and banketts, I will particullerlye declare unto yow.
THE Princes of Virginia are attyred in suche manner as is expressed in this figure. They weare the haire of their heades long and bynde opp the ende of the same in a knot under their eares. Yet they cutt the topp of their heades from the forehead to the nape of the necke in a manner of a cokscombe, stickinge a faier longe fether of some berd att the Begininge of the creste uppon their foreheads, and another short one on bothe seides about their eares. They hange at their eares ether thicke pearles, or somwhat els, as the clawe of some great birde, as cometh in to their fansye. Moreover They ether pownes, or paynt their forehead, cheeks, chynne, bodye, armes, and leggs, yet in another sorte then the inhabitants of Florida. They weare a chaine about their necks of pearles or beades of copper, wich they muche esteeme, and ther of wear they also braselets on their armes. Under their brests about their bellyes appeir certayne spotts, whear they use to lett them selves bloode, when they are sicke. They hange before them the skinne of some beaste verye feinelye dresset in suche sorte, that the tayle hangeth downe behynde. They carye a quiver made of small rushes holding their bowe readie bent in one hand, and an arrowe in the other, redie to defend themselves. In this manner they goe to warr, or to their solemne feasts and banquetts. They take muche pleasure in huntinge of deer wher of ther is great store in the contrye, for yt is fruitfull, pleasant, and full of Goodly woods. Yt hathe also store of rivers full of divers sorts of fishe. When they go to battel they paynt their bodyes in the most terrible manner that thei can devise.
The woemen of Secotam are of Reasonable good proportion. In their goinge they carrye their hands danglinge downe, and air dadil in a deer skinne verye excell&etilde;tlye wel dressed, hanginge downe fro their navell unto the mydds of their thighes, which also covereth their hynder parts. The reste of their bodies are all bare. The forr parte of their haire is cutt shorte, the rest is not over Longe, thinne, and softe, and falling downe about their shoulders: They weare a Wreath about their heads. Their foreheads, cheeks, chynne, armes and leggs are pownced. About their necks they wear a chaine, ether pricked or paynted. They have small eyes, plaine and flatt noses, narrow foreheads, and broade mowths. For the most parte they hange at their eares chaynes of longe Pearles, and of some smootht bones. Yet their nayles are not longe, as the woemen of Florida. They are also delighted with walkinge in to the fields, and beside the rivers, to see the huntinge of deers and catchinge of fische.
THE Priests of the aforesaid Towne of Secota are well stricken in yeers, and as yt seemeth of more experience then the comon sorte. They weare their heare cutt like a creste, on the topps of their heades as other doe, but the rest are cutt shorte, savinge those which growe above their foreheads in manner of a perriwigge. They also have somwhat hanginge in their ears. They weare a shorte clocke made of fine hares skinnes quilted with the hayre outwarde. The rest of their bodie is naked. They are notable enchaunters, and for their pleasure they frequent the rivers, to kill with their bowes, and catche wilde ducks, swannes, and other fowles.
VIRGINS of good parentage are apparelled altogether like the woemen of Secota above mentionned, saving that they weare hanginge abowt their necks in steede of a chaine certaine thicke, and rownde pearles, with little beades of copper, or polished bones betweene them. They pounce their foreheads, cheeckes, armes and legs. Their haire is cutt with two ridges above their foreheads, the rest is trussed opp on a knott behinde, they have broade mowthes, reasonable fair black eyes: they lay their hands often uppon their Shoulders, and cover their brests in token of maydenlike modestye. The rest of their bodyes are naked, as in the picture is to bee seene. They deligt also in seeinge fishe taken in the rivers.
THE cheefe men of the yland and towne of Roanoac weare the haire of their crounes of theyr heades cutt like a cokes combe, as the others doe. The rest they wear longe as woemen and truss them opp in a knott in the nape of their necks. They hange pearles stringe uppon a threed att their eares, and weare bracelets on their armes of pearles, or small beades of copper or of smoothe bone called minsal, nether paintinge nor powcinge of them selves, but in token of authoritye, and honor, they wear a chaine of great pearles, or copper beades or smoothe bones abowt their necks, and a plate of copper hinge uppon a stringe, from the navel unto the midds of their thighes. They cover themselves before and behynde as the woemen doe with a deers skynne handsomley dressed, and fringed. More over they fold their armes together as they walke, or as they talke one with another in signe of wisdome. The yle of Roanoac is verye pleisant, and hath plaintie of fishe by reason of the Water that environeth the same.
ABOUT 20. milles from that Iland, neere the lake of Paquippe, ther is another towne called Pomeioock hard by the sea. The apparell of the cheefe ladyes of that towne differeth but litle from the attyre of those which lyve in Roanoac. For they weare their haire trussed opp in a knott, as the maiden doe which we spake of before, and have their skinnes pownced in the same manner, yet they wear a chaine of great pearles, or beades of copper, or smoothe bones 5. or 6. fold about their necks, bearinge one arme in the same, in the other hand they carye a gourde full of some kinde of pleasant liquor. They tye deers skinne doubled about them crochinge hygher about their breasts, which hange downe before almost to their knees, and are almost altogither naked behinde. Commonlye their yonge daugters of 7. or 8. yeares olde do wait upon them wearinge abowt them a girdle of skinne, which hangeth downe behinde, and is drawen under neath betwene their thighes, and bownde above their navel with mosse of trees betwene that and their skinnes to cover their privities withall. After they be once past 10. yeares of age, they wear deer skinnes as the older sorte do. They are greatlye Diligted with puppetts, and babes which wear brought oute of England.
THE aged men of Pommeioocke are covered with a large skinne which is tyed uppon their shoulders on one side and hangeth downe beneath their knees wearinge their other arme naked out of the skinne, that they maye bee at more libertie. Those skynnes are Dressed with the hair on, and lyned with other furred skinnes . The yonnge men suffer noe hairr at all to growe uppon their faces but assoone as they growe they put them away, but when they are come to yeeres they suffer them to growe although to say truthe they come opp very thinne. They also weare their haire bownde op behynde , and, have a creste on their heads like the others. The contrye abowt this plase is soe fruit full and good, that England is not to bee compared to yt.
IN the towne of Dasemonquepeuc distant from Roanoac 4. or 5. milles, the woemen are attired, and pownced, in suche sorte as the woemen of Roanoac are, yet they weare noe wreathes uppon their heads, nether have they their thighes painted with small pricks. They have a strange manner of bearing their children, and quite contrarie to ours. For our woemen carrie their children in their armes before their brests, but they taking their sonne by the right hand, bear him on their backs, holdinge the left thighe in their lefte arme after a strange, and unuseuall fashion, as in the picture is to bee seene.
THEY have comonlye conjurers or juglers which use strange gestures, and often contrarie to nature in their enchantments: For they be verye familiar with devils, of whome they enquier what their enemys doe, or other suche thinges. They shave all their heads savinge their creste which they weare as other doe, and fasten a small black birde above one of their ears as a badge of their office. They weare nothinge but a skinne which hangeth downe from their gyrdle, and covereth their privityes. They weare a bagg by their side as is expressed in the figure. The Inhabitants give great credit unto their speeche, which oftentymes they finde to bee true.
THe manner of makinge their boates in Virginia is verye wonderfull. For wheras they want Instruments of yron, or other like unto ours, yet they knowe howe to make them as handsomelye, to saile with whear they liste in their Rivers, and to fishe withall, as ours. First they choose some longe, and thicke tree, accordinge to the bignes of the boate which they would frame, and make a fyre on the grownd abowt the Roote therof, kindlinge the same by little, and little with drie mosse of trees, and chipps of woode that the flame should not mounte opp to highe, and burne to muche of the lengte of the tree. When yt is almost burnt thorough, and readye to fall they make a new fyre, which they suffer to burne untill the tree fall of yts owne accord. Then burninge of the topp, and bowghs of the tree in suche wyse that the bodie of the same may Retayne his just lengthe, they raise yt uppon potes laid over cross wise uppon forked posts, at suche a reasonable heighte as they may handsomlye worke uppon yt. Then take they of the barke with certayne shells: they reserve the innermost parte of the [unclear: lennke] , for the nethermost parte of the boate. On the other side they make a fyre accordinge to the lengthe of the bodye of the tree, savinge at bothe the endes. That which they thinke is sufficientlye burned they quenche and scrape away with shells, and makinge a new fyre they burne yt agayne, and soe they continne somtymes burninge and sometymes scrapinge, untill the boate have sufficient bothowmes. Thus God indueth thise savage people with sufficient reason to make thinges necessarie to serve their turnes.
THEY have likewise a notable way to catche fishe in their Rivers, for whear as they lacke both yron, and steele, they fasten unto their Reedes or longe Rodds, the hollowe tayle of a certaine fishe like to a sea crabb in steede of a poynte, wherwith by nighte or day they stricke fishes, and take them opp into their boates. They also know how to use the prickles, and pricks of other fishes. They also make weares, with settinge opp reedes or twigges in the water, which they soe plant one with another, that they growe still narrower, and narrower, as appeareth by this figure. Ther was never seene amonge us soe cunninge a way to take fish withall, wherof sondrie sortes as they fownde in their Rivers unlike unto ours, which are also of a verye good taste. Doubtless yt is a pleasant sighte to see the people, somtymes wadinge, and goinge somtymes sailinge in those Rivers, which are shallowe and not deepe, free from all care of heapinge opp Riches for their posterite, content with their state, and livinge frendlye together of those thinges which god of his bountye hath given unto them, yet without givinge hym any thankes according to his desarte.
So savage is this people, and deprived of the true knowledge of god. For they have none other then is mentionned before in this worke.
AFTER they have taken store of fishe, they gett them unto a place fitt to dress yt. Ther they sticke upp in the grownde 4. stakes in a square roome, and lay 4 potes uppon them, and others over thwart the same like unto an hurdle, of sufficient heigthe, and layinge their fishe uppon this hurdle, they make a fyre underneathe to broile the same, not after the manner of the people of Florida, which doe but schorte, and harden their meate in the smoke onlye to Reserve the same duringe all the winter. For this people reservinge nothinge for store, thei do broile, and spend away all att once and when they have further neede, they roste or seethe fresh, as wee shall see heraffter. And when as the hurdle can not holde all the fishes, they hange the Rest by the fyrres on sticks set upp in the grounde a gainst the fyre, and than they finish the rest of their cookerye. They take good heede that they bee not burntt. When the first are broyled they lay others on, that wear newlye broughte, continuinge the dressinge of their meate in this sorte, untill they thincke they have sufficient.
THEIR woemen know how to make earthen vessells with special Cunninge and that so large and fine, that our potters with [unclear: lhoye] wheles can make noe better: ant then Remove them from place to place as easelye as we can doe our brassen kettles. After they have set them uppon an heape of erthe to stay them from fallinge, they putt wood under which being kyndled one of them taketh great care that the fyre burne equallye Rounde abowt. They or their woemen fill the vessel with water, and then putt they in fruite, flesh, and fish, and lett all boyle together like a galliemaufrye, which the Spaniarde call, olla podrida. Then they putte yt out into disches, and sett before the companye, and then they make good cheere together. Yet are they moderate in their eatinge wherby they avoide sicknes. I would to god wee would followe their exemple. For wee should bee free from many kyndes of diseasyes which wee fall into by sumptwous and unseasonable banketts, continuallye devisinge new sawces, and provocation of gluttonnye to satisfie our unsatiable appetite.
THEIR manner of feeding is in this wise. They lay a matt made of bents one the grownde and sett their meate on the mids therof, and then sit downe Rownde, the men uppon one side, and the woemen on the other. Their meate is Mayz sodden, in suche sorte as I described yt in the former treatise of verye good taste, deers flesche, or of some other beaste, and fishe. They are verye sober in their eatinge, and drinkinge, and consequentlye verye longe lived because they doe not oppress nature.
WHEN they have escaped any great danger by sea or lande, or be returned from the warr in token of Joye they may a great fyer abowt which the men, and woemen sitt together, holdinge a certaine fruite in their hands like unto a rownde pompion or a gourde, which after they have taken out the fruits, and the seedes, then fill with small stons or certayne bigg kernells to make the more noise, and fasten that uppon a sticke, and singinge after their manner, they make merrie : as my selfe observed and noted downe at my beinge amonge them. For it is a strange custome, and worth the observation.
AT a Certayne tyme of the yere they make a great, and solemne feaste wherunto their neighbours of the townes adjoininge repayre from all parts, every man attyred in the most strange fashion they can devise havinge certayne marks on the backs to declare of what place they bee. The place where they meet is a broade playne, abowt the which are planted in the grownde certayne posts carved with heads like to the faces of Nonnes covered with theyr vayles. Then beeing sett in order they dance, singe, and use the strangest gestures that they can possiblye devise. Three of the fayrest Virgins, of the companie are in the mydds, which imbrassinge one another doe as yt wear turne abowt in their dancinge. All this is donne after the sunne is sett for avoydinge of heate. When they are weerye of dancinge . they goe oute of the circle, and come in untill their dances be ended, and they goe to make merrye as is expressed in the 16. figure.
THE townes of this contrie are in a maner like unto those which are in Florida, yet are they not soe stronge nor yet preserved with soe great care. They are compassed abowt with poles starcke faste in the grownd, but they are not verye stronge. The entrance is verye narrowe as may be seene by this picture, which is made accordinge to the forme of the towne of Pomeiooc. Ther are but few howses therin, save those which belonge to the kinge and his nobles. On the one side is their tempel separated from the other howses, and marked with the letter A. yt is builded rownde, and covered with skynne matts, and as yt wear compassed abowt with cortynes without windowes, and hath noe lighte but by the doore. On the other side is the kings lodginge marked with the letter B. Their dwellinges are builded with certaine potes fastened together, and covered with matts which they turne op as high as they thinke good, and soe receve in the lighte and other. Some are also covered with boughes of trees, as every man lusteth or liketh best. They keepe their feasts and make good cheer together in the midds of the towne as yt is described in the 17. Figure. When the towne standeth fare from the water they digg a great ponde noted with the letter C wherhence they fetche as muche water as they neede.
THEIR townes that are not inclosed with poles are commonlye fayrer then suche as are inclosed, as appereth in this figure which livelye expresseth the towne of Secotam. For the howses are Scattered heer and ther, and they have gardein expressed by the letter E. wherin groweth Tobacco which the inhabitants call Uppowoc. They have also groaves wherin thei take deer, and fields wherin they sowe their corne. In their cornefields they builde as yt weare a scaffolde wher on they sett a cottage like to a rownde chaire, signiffied by F. wherin they place one to watche, for there are suche nomber of fowles, and beasts, that unless they keepe the better watche, they would soone devoure all their corne. For which cause the watcheman maketh continual cryes and noyse. They sowe their corne with a certaine distance noted by H. other wise one stalke would choke the growthe of another and the corne would not come unto his rypenes G. For the leaves therof are large, like unto the leaves of great reedes. They have also a severall broade plotte C. whear they meete with their neighbours, to celebrate their cheefe solemne feastes as the 18. picture doth declare: and a place D. whear after they have ended their feaste they make merrie togither. Over against this place they have a rownd plott B. wher they assemble themselves to make their solemne prayers. Not far from which place ther is a lardge buildinge A. wherin are the tombes of their kings and princes, as will appere by the 22. figure likewise they have garden notted bey the letter I. wherin they use to sowe pompions. Also a place marked with K. wherin the make a fyre att their solemne feasts, and hard without the towne a river L. from whence they fetche their water. This people therfore voyde of all covetousnes lyve cherfullye and att their harts ease. Butt they solemnise their feasts in the night, and therfore they keepe verye great fyres to avoyde darkenes, and to testifie their Joye.
THE people of this cuntrie have an Idol, which they call KIWASA: yt is carved of woode in lengthe 4. foote whose heade is like the heades of the people of Florida, the face is of a flesh colour, the brest white, the rest is all blacke, the thighes are also spottet with whitte. He hath a chayne abowt his necke of white beades, betweene which are other Rownde beades of copper which they esteeme more then golde or silver. This Idol is placed in the temple of the towne of Secotam, as the keper of the kings dead corpses. Somtyme they have two of thes idoles in theyr churches, and somtine 3. but never above, which they place in a darke corner wher they shew terrible. Thes poore soules have none other knowledge of god although I thinke them verye Desirous to know the truthe. For when as wee kneeled downe on our knees to make our prayers unto god, they went abowt to imitate us, and when they saw we moved our lipps, they also dyd the like. Wherfore that is verye like that they might easelye be brougt to the knowledge of the gospel. God of his mercie grant them this grace.
THEY builde a Scaffolde 9. or 10. foote highe as is expressed in this figure under the tombs of their Weroans, or cheefe lordes which they cover with matts, and lai the dead corpses of their weroans theruppon in manner followinge. First the bowells are taken forthe. Then layinge downe the skinne, they cutt all the flesh cleane from the bones, which they drye in the sonne, and well dryed they inclose in Matts, and place at their feete. Then their bones ( remaininge still fastened together with the ligaments whole and uncorrupted) are covered agayne with leather, and their carcase fashioned as yf their flesh wear not taken away. They lapp eache corps in his owne skinne after the same is thus handled, and lay yt in his order by the corpses of the other cheef lordes. By the dead bodies they sett their Idol Kiwasa, wherof we spake in the former chapiter : For they are persuaded that the same doth kepe the dead bodyes of their cheefe lordes that nothinge may hurt them. Moreover under the foresaid scaffolde some one of their preists hath his lodginge, which Mumbleth his prayers nighte and day, and hath charge of the corpses. For his bedd he hath two deares skinnes spredd on the grownde, yf the wether bee cold hee maketh a fyre to warme by withall. Thes poore soules are thus instructed by nature to reverence their princes even after their death.
THE inhabitants of all the cuntrie for the most parte have marks rased on their backs, wherby yt may be knowen what Princes subjects they bee, or of what place they have their originall. For which cause we have set downe those marks in this figure, and have annexed the names of the places, that they might more easelye be discerned. Which industrie hath god indued them withal although they be verye simple, and rude. And to confesse a truthe, I cannot remember that ever I saw a better or quietter people then they.
The marks which I observed amonge them, are heere put downe in order folowinge.
The marke which is expressed by A. belongeth to Wingino, the cheefe lorde of Roanoac.
That which hath B. is the marke of Wingino his sisters husbande.
Those which be noted with the letters, of C. and D. belonge unto diverse chefe lordes in Secotam.
Those which have the letters E. F. G. are certaine cheefe men of Pomeiooc, and Aquascogoc.