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Chapter 37: Languages

Annexure 1: Three language formula

The modified or graduated three-language formula, as recommended by the education commission (1964-66) include 1) the mother tongue or the regional language 2) the official language of the union or the associate official language (i.e. English) 3)a modern Indian or foreign language not covered under 1) and 2) and other than that used as the medium instruction. The implications of the modified formula are:

1.  at the lower primary stage only one language should be studied compulsorily-the mother tongue or the regional language, at the option of the pupil

2.  at the higher primary stage only to languages should be studied on a compulsory basis i) the mother tongue or the regional language, and ii) the official or the associate official language of the union

3.  at the secondary (lower) stage (i.e. classes 8-10) a study of three languages should be obligatory; and a student should be under an obligation to study either the official language of the union or the associate official language which he had not elected at the higher primary stage

4.  at the higher secondary classes (i.e. 10+2) which will serve largely as preparatory stage for higher education, only two languages need be made compulsory and students should have the option to select any two of the three languages studied earlier or a combination of nay two languages taken from i)modern Indian languages ii) modern foreign languages; iii) classical languages Indian and foreign (report pp.192-193).

Though the revised graduated three-language formula, as recommended by the education commission, has been accepted by the government of India, the general pattern of language instruction is not identical in all the part of the country. It varies from place to place, according to the difference in the spread and distribution of the various linguistic communities and the language policies of the respective stage governments.

Annexures for Chapter 37: Languages

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