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Animal Welfare
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Information Resources on Beef Cattle Housing, Care and Welfare

AWIC Resource Series No. 24

June 2004

Updates Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Beef Cattle, 1995

Watering cattle and providing shelter are two important ways to help keep them cooler
and less stressed during heat waves. Photo by Keith Weller, USDA, ARS, Photo Library.

Compiled and edited by:

Cynthia P. Smith, M.S.
Animal Welfare Information Center
National Agricultural Library
U.S. Department of Agriculture

Published by:

U. S. Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service
National Agricultural Library
Animal Welfare Information Center
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
Web site:

Published in cooperation with the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine




How to Use This Document

An Overview of Current Beef Welfare Concerns by James W. Oltjen, Ph.D. and Frank M. Mitloehner, Ph.D.

            Behavior / Breeding / Feeding / General / Health / Housing
            Husbandry / Legislation / Production Systems and Management
            Reproduction / Slaughter / Transport

Website Resources


            The editor gratefully acknowledges James Oltjen, Ph.D, and Frank Mitloehner, Ph.D., Extension Specialists with Department of Animal Science, University of California, for their expert review and written introduction to this publication.

          Special thanks to D’Anna Jensen for the cover design, final editing, formatting, and printing of this publication. Her role in guiding this publication to completion is greatly appreciated.

            The Animal Welfare Information Center acknowledges CAB International and CABI Publishing, a leading international, not-for-profit publisher in applied life sciences, including animal science, nutrition, integrated crop management, plant sciences and forestry, for the use of more than sixty abstracts from the CAB Abstracts database. More information on CABI Publishing and CAB International is available at

How to Use This Document


            This publication is divided into three major sections: Introduction, Bibliography, and Website Resources. A section containing National Agricultural Library Document Delivery Information for U.S. and foreign patrons and a subject Index follows these sections.


            The introduction to this document was written jointly by James Oltjen, Ph.D, and Frank Mitloehner, Ph.D., Extension Specialists with Department of Animal Science, University of California. They have reviewed and summarized the latest research and regarding the care and welfare of today’s beef cattle and provided comments on critical areas of concern.


            An extensive bibliography categorized into eleven subject subsections covering all aspects of beef cattle care, husbandry, health, and welfare comprise this section of the publication. Citations were selected from searches conducted using a variety of agricultural, medical, and life science databases. Within a subject category citations are arranged alphabetically according to the last name of the primary author. Each citation is listed with a set of keywords that describe useful information about the entry. If a citation is listed from a publication available through the National Agricultural Library (NAL) a NAL call number has been included. Entries were included with publications dates ranging from 1996-2003. Please note that citations with a copyright notice are protected by U.S. and/or international copyright laws and are used by special permission.

Web Site Resources

            More than forty annotated web site resources relating to the care, welfare, and housing of beef cattle have been selected and listed alphabetically for convenience. Resources selected cover: codes of practice, animal welfare requirements, housing, disease, nutrition, and general husbandry information. World Wide Web addresses are listed to access specialized databases, extension materials, and publications produced by a variety of non-profit organizations. All resources are accessible through the internet and are current as of September 2004. Readers are cautioned as to the dynamic nature of the internet and the fact that addresses and content are subject to change.

National Agricultural Library Document Delivery

            Information on how to request materials that are included in the collection of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) may be found on the Document Delivery Services Branch website at Please read carefully as there are certain restrictions on media and document types.

            All patrons are encouraged to explore local library resources first before contacting the National Agricultural Library.

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The Animal Welfare Information Center,
September 7, 2004