Deportation Assembly Points.

No. 35 Karolinenstraße.

With the building of the school at No. 35 Carolinenstraße in 1884 the two existing Jewish schools for girls, the Israelitsche Mädchenschule, established in 1798 and the Armen-Mädchenschule der Deutsch-Israelitische Gemeinde, established in 1819, were combined as the Israelitsche Töchterschule (Israelite Secondary School for Girls). The school was built by the architect von der Heyde and officially opened in 1884. A generous donation from Markus and Sarah Nordheim mostly financed the building.
Initially, two principals managed the school, Mathilde Lippmann and Marianne Marcus. Frau Lippmann came from the former Armen-Mädchenschule der Deutsch-Israelitische Gemeinde.

Israelite Secondary School for Girls.

Girl pupils of the former Israelite Secondary School for Girls 1918/1919. Frau W's Mother (see below) is in the second row from the front, second from the right.

The Armen-Mädchenschule der Deutsch-Israelitische Gemeinde, founded in 1818, was, from 1843, situated in a building of the former hospital of the Deutsch-Israelitische Gemeinde (German Israelite Community), the former hospital of the Wandsbek Jewish community in Hamburg, at No. 52 Bei den Hütten.
Initially, with the payment of a small fee the girls were allocated to state (Christian) schools in the city and only received lessons in writing, arithmetic, and religion in this school. Later, two Jewish female teachers were engaged to teach the girls. It was known earlier as the Israelitische Mädchen-Freischule, and was situated in Neuer Steinweg or Kleine Hütten. As this organisation of teaching proved impractical a school building was rented in 1831.

Parents had to make a written commitment that their children remain in the school until they were 14 years old. The daily school hours were from 08.00-12.00 and 14.00-18.00 hrs. The needlework lessons were divided into two classes, while a third class covered the remaining subjects. In 1865 the school had more than 100 pupils. Dr. G. Salomon taught religion. Louis Heine and Dr. M. Isler had headship of the school.

After Frau Mathilde Lippmann's death, in 1899, Frau Mary Marcus, known by her first name Mary, became sole head of the Israelitische Töchterschule at No.35 Carolinenstraße. She retired in 1924 at the age of 80. She came originally from the Israelitsche Mädchenschule, established in 1798. Dr. Alberto Jonas succeeded her. He had taught, for a short period, prior to this in the Talmud-Tora-Realschule at No. 30 Grindelhof. He was qualified to teach Hebrew, Latin and Greek. He reformed the school so that, in 1930, it obtained the status of Realschule. In 1930 it took the title Mädchenschule der Deutsch-Israelitische Gemeinde (Volks- und Realschule) (German Israelite Community Girls' School, Primary and Secondary School).

Chemistry lesson, 1930.

Chemistry experiment.

Initially, after 1933 teaching was allowed to continue relatively undisturbed, as Jewish pupils were being educated separately in their own school. However, the school suffered badly due to the large fluctuation in both pupils and teachers. At first the number of pupils rose due to the admission of non-Jewish pupils, but then sank following "Auswanderung" ("migration"). In November 1935 there were 730 pupils, while in November 1938 there were only 470. After the enactment of "(Reichs-)Erlaß des Reichsministers für Erziehung und Unterricht über den Schulbesuch jüdischer Kinder" ("Decree of the Reich Minister of Education concerning the school attendance of "Jewish" children") of 15.11.1938, all "Jewish" children were excluded from attending German schools. These pupils were admitted to the school. Among these pupils were a number of non-denominational or baptised children, whom the Nazis classified as "Rassejuden" ("racial Jews"). From this time on, these and other Jewish school children moved to Hamburg from all over prewar Germany. Some of these children lived in a childrens' home at No. 13 Kielortallee.

In April 1939 the school was merged with the Talmud-Tora-Schule, as it was named by the Gestapo in July 1939. Arthur Spier was the head of this school, formerly the Talmud-Tora-Oberrealschule. For several months boys and girls attended the school buildings at No. 30 Grindelhof, and No. 38 Grindelhof (a former villa next door). The school building in Carolinenstraße stood temporarily empty, as the planned transfer to this building of the Israelitische Krankenhaus (Israelite Hospital) did not take place.

Already by July 1939 the Reichsstatthalter (Reich Governor for Hamburg) Karl Kaufmann had ordered the school building at No. 30 Grindelhof to be put at the disposal of the Hochschule für Lehrbildung (Teacher Training College). At the same time he ordered the entire transfer of the school in Carolinenstraße, that was closed in September 1939. Only the building at No. 38 Grindelhof was permitted to be used further, until April 1940. During this period, from December 1939 onwards, the school had to carry the title "Volks- und Oberschule für Juden".

All further education and other events for Jews, that until now had been held in Grindelhof, continued, as well as could be managed, in the school in Carolinenstraße. The school was especially concerned with the preparation for Auswanderung (emigration). There were training workshops in metalwork and carpentry, a training course for gardeners, a technical college for dressmaking, a school for household management, as well as language and commercial courses. Teaching and administration meant a lot of additional work for the teachers.

The last Abitur (school leaving exam and university entrance qualification = GCE A-levels) pupils were Oskar Judelowitz from Latvia, and Rolf Levisohn from Hamburg, who, at the beginning of 1940, passed the exam at the Volks-und Höhere Schule für Juden. In the previous years, from 1934 onwards, 14 girls had passed their Abitur at the Talmud-Tora-Oberrealschule. Oskar Judelowitz had wanted to return to Latvia; he was probably murdered there. Rolf Levisohn, severely physically disabled, was arrested by the Gestapo in the street and imprisoned in Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp, where he remained for six weeks. Following this experience, in depair, he sought emigration. His efforts were in vain. He was one of the deportees in the first transports to Lodz on 25.10.1941.

The last head of the school in Carolinenstraße was Dr. Alberto Jonas, as the incumbent head Arthur Spier had remained in New York while on a journey in the USA in summer 1939, on instructions from the head of the Judenreferat (Jewish Department), Richard Göttsche. In October 1941 the school in Carolinenstraße had a roll of 343 boys and girl pupils.


From 19.09.1941 they were also required to wear the Judenstern.
Following the 1.09.1941 nationwide "police regulation regarding the identification of Jews", all Jews above the age of six, as defined by the Nuremburg decrees, were forbidden to appear in public without the visible identification of a "Judenstern". The "Judenstern" consisted of a palm of the hand sized, black-bordered, yellow, six-pointed star with the label "JUDE" in black letters in the centre. It had to be sewn visibly onto the left breast of the garment (Section 1, paragraph 1 and 2). The Reichsgesetzblatt (German Law Gazette) of 5.09.1941 pubicized this regulation which came into effect 14 days later on 19.09.1941.
There were now twenty-three male and female teachers.
Following the deportation transport to Riga on 6.12.1942 only 76 children and 11 teachers remained.

The Hamburg Education Authority requested the Gestapo to immediately make the building vacant. Göttsche agreed on the condition that alternative accommodation be found for the children. The Education Authority proposed a totally self contained wing on the third floor of the elementary school at former No. 105 Schanzenstraße, today No. 120, in the Sternschanze district of Hamburg. However, there arose such an angry protest from the school against the unwelcome quartering of Jews, that would severely threaten the "good reputation" of the school, that it was necessary to look for an alternative site.

In May 1942, the Sprachheilschule (School for Children with Speech Impediments), formerly at No. 7 Felix-Dahn-Straße, moved into the building in Carolinenstraße, as the building at No. 7 Felix-Dahn-Straße was required for teacher training. In May 1942, the last Jewish children and their teachers remaining in Hamburg were housed in the Israelitische Waisen-Institut für Knaben (Israelite Orphanage for Boys), at former No. 3 Papendamm. The building was unsuitable for use as a school, however, tuition recommenced in these cramped conditions. In the meantime, from June 1941 onwards, the school had to call itself "Jüdische Schule in Hamburg".

On 30.06.1942, the day all Jewish schools in Germany were closed, school reports were issued to the remaining 76 children. Strangely enough this last name of the school i.e. "Jüdische Schule in Hamburg" did not appear on these reports. A few days after the issue of the school reports most of these children and their teachers received the "Evakuierungsbefehle" (order for deportation) to Auschwitz or Theresienstadt. In December 1942 the school building at No. 35 Carolinenstaße and the gymnasium building at No. 62 Kampstraße were compulsorily sold.

Later the administration department of the Gestapo moved into the building in Carolinenstaße. A list of salary-earners from 7.08.1944 from the Gestapo Regional Headquarters in Hamburg listed 38 public employees from different departments.

Dr. Alberto Jonas-Haus:

The school building remains today with the description Israelitische Töchterschule on the façade of the building, and an informative commemorative plaque. Today it functions as a crèche, and on 22nd May 1989 a Memorial and Education Centre was opened in the partly preserved schoolrooms. It is the aim of the centre to keep alive the remembrance of the children and teachers who became victims of the Holocaust. However, suffering and death are not the only themes. One of the permanent exhibitions is titled "Formerly at Home in Hamburg - Jewish School Life in the Grindel District of Hamburg" and presents a vivid impression of school life in the former German-Jewish Community. The centre organizes numerous seminars and individual events in an endeavour to keep alive the discussion about the National Socialist period in Germany.
The building is protected as an historic monument.

During the time the school was known as the Jüdische Schule in Hamburg (Jewish School in Hamburg) the following teachers were deported from Hamburg, and later murdered.

Deportation Transport on 25.10.1941 destination Lodz:

Name Date of Birth Place of Birth Occupation Address Country of Birth
Arndt, Henriette 13.05.1882 Regenwalde Teacher Semperstraße 67 DR
Rothschild, Rebecca 23.12.1897 Frankfurt Teacher Klosterallee 2 DR

Deportation Transport on 8.11.1941 destination Minsk:

Name Née Date of Birth Place of Birth Occupation Address Country of Birth
London, Sophie Cohn 3.04.94 Hamburg Teacher Grindelallee 134 DR
Nachum, Emil   22.08.1893 Hamburg Teacher (retired) Grindelberg 5 DR

Deportation Transport on 18.11.1941 destination Minsk:

Name Date of Birth Place of Birth Occupation Address Country of Birth
Behrend, Elsa 13.02 1879 Hamburg   Hochallee 23 DR
Hirsch, Leopold 5.05.1896 Samter Teacher Grindelallee 134 DR

Deportation Transport on 6.12.1941 destination Riga:

Name Date of Birth Place of Birth Occupation Address Country of Birth
Eldot, Naphtalie 3.02.1899 Höchberg Teacher Ostmarkstraße DR
Heilbut, Jettchen 7.09.1885 Altona Teacher Grindelallee 184 DR
Löwenthal, Therese 16.12.1885 Mühringen Teacher Husumerstraße 1 DR
Massé, Margot 15.07.1895 Hamburg      

During the time the school was known as the Jüdische Schule in Hamburg (Jewish School in Hamburg) the following girls were deported from Hamburg, and later murdered.

Deportation Transport on 25.10.1941 destination Lodz:

Name Date of Birth Place of Birth Address
Abraham, Anita 14.06.1929 Elbing Laufgraben 37, Paulinenstift
Beer, Lotte 4.07.1927 Hamburg Bartelstraße 72
Brummer, Ruth 2.08.1929 Hamburg Schlüterstraße 63
Dettmann, Siegrid 15.06.1931 Hamburg Laufgraben 37
Freimuth, Renate Eva 7.08.1925 Hamburg Isestraße 43
Gerstenzang, Helga Anni 12.04.1934 Hamburg Krochmannstraße 68
Goldberg, Lea 16.10.1932 Hamburg, Altona Adolfstraße 71
Grünberg, Inge 1.12.1933 Hamburg, Altona Parallelstraße 13
Hecht, Jutta 23.03.1932 Hamburg Emilienstraße 59
Israel, Edith 14.07.1928 Hamburg Isestraße 53
Kahan, Rahel 27.12.1926 Hamburg Bornstraße 16
Kargauer, Tesse 7.06.1929 Altona Breitestraße 11
Kaufmann, Ruth 7.09.1934 Hamburg Kielortallee 24
Landau, Karin 30.06.1930 Hamburg Brahmsallee 15
Lesheim, Ruth 27.05.1930 Hamburg Kleiner Schäferkamp House B I
Levisohn, Manja 16.12.1929   Greflingerstraße 1
Liebenthal, Fränzel 3.11.1935 Hamburg Grabenstraße 3
Monheit, Mirla 21.04.1926 Kiel Rappstraße 3
Plessner, Ruth 6.02.1925 Hamburg Grindelallee 168
Schwarz, Helga 6.05.1930 Berlin Grindelhof 95

Deportation Transport on 8.11.1941 destination Minsk:

Name Date of Birth Place of Birth Address
Baer, Hedi S. 1.11.1928 Hamburg Isesraße 61
Behrend, Ursula Silli S. 23.03.1930 Hamburg Pelzestraße 9
Behrens, Ruth Bella S. 13.10.1932 Hamburg Rappstraße 15
Berlin, Hildegard 4.07.1934 Hamburg Gneisenaustraße 10
Bernard, Lotte S. 29.04.1929 Rostock Klosterallee 65
Bezen, Hannelore S. 22.07.1931 Hamburg Neuer Steinweg 78, House 4
Burchard, Marianne 3.04.1928 Hamburg Papenhudestraße 53
Cohn, Vera 16.02.1928 Hamburg Laufgraben 37
Eisenstein, Ruth S. 16.01.1931 Göttingen Heitmannstraße 68
Gerson, Jutta 2.03.1928 Vechta Rutschbahn 15 (Domestic)
Henschel, Gerda S. 10.11.1927 Hamburg Neuer Steinweg 78, House 12
Heymann, Wilma 18.06.1927 Hamburg Kielortallee 24
Levy, Ester 18.02.1930 Hamburg Rappstraße 16
Loewenberg, Ruth 16.03.1927 Waren Hansastraße 57
Marcus, Marion 21.07.1929 Hamburg Grindelberg 7
Salomon, Ursula 22.07.1934 Hamburg Neuer Steinweg 92
Scheier, Hedwig 16.10.1934 Hamburg  
Schlachcic, Rita 3.06.1935 Hamburg Dillstraße 15
Schlesinger, Esther 16.03.1928 Hamburg Rutschbahn 25 a, House 2
Simenauer, Karla 6.12.1927 Hamburg Bundesstraße 40
Simonsohn, Gerda 9.09.1931 Hamburg Henriettenstraße 71
Spiegel, Marga 24.10.1931 Versmold Heinrich Barthstraße 8
Spiegel, Rita 26.09.1929 Versmold Heinrich Barthstraße 8
Weiss, Ellen 24.03.1933 Hamburg Kleiner Schäferkamp 32
Wittmund, Lisa 27.08.1932 Hamburg Kleiner Schäferkamp 32
Wolf, Friedel 24.11.1927 Niederohmen Bornstraße 8

Deportation Transport on 18.11.1941 destination Minsk:

Name Date of Birth Place of Birth Address
Appermann, Mali 16.03.1933 Hamburg Kantstraße 4
Appermann, Ruth 19.12.1931 Hamburg Kantstraße 4
Bieber, Ruth 31.05.1931 Hamburg Rappstraße 13
Cohen, Ellen 28.09.1926 Ibbenbüren Marktstraße 44
Flörsheim, Margot 19.05.1927 Hamburg Grindelhof 17
Hass, Ellen 16.08.1933 Hamburg Klosterallee 47
von Halle, Ingrid 20.12.1928 Hamburg Groß Neumarkt 56
Isaac, Ruth 12.11.1926 Hamburg Brahmsallee 16
Jacobsohn, Berta 9.03.1924 Hamburg Ostmarkstraße 55
Jacobsohn, Ernestine 18.06.1925 Hamburg Ostmarkstraße 55
Jacobsohn, Eva 28.04.1927 Hamburg Ostmarkstraße 55
Jacobsohn, Mathilde 30.08.1934 Hamburg Ostmarkstraße 55
Kurzondkowski, Ingrid 9.03.1935 Altona Zeisestraße 138
Riesenfeld, Ellen 1.10.1924 Altona Isestraße 96
Salomon, Brigitte 24.06.1933 Jena Marktstraße 95
Weiss, Inge 31.08.1926 Hamburg Laufgraben 37

Deportation Transport on 6.12.1941 destination Riga:

Name Date of Birth Place of Birth Address
Carlebach, Noemie 21.10.1927 Hamburg Ostmarkstraße 76
Carlebach, Ruth 11.08.1926 Altona Ostmarkstraße 76
Carlebach, Sara 24.12.28 Hamburg Ostmarkstraße 76
Daniel, Marja 22.09.1934 Hamburg Beneckestraße 20
Goldschmidt, Margot 5.04.1927 Hamburg Kleiner Schäferkamp 32
Gumprecht, Hanni 25.03.1927 Goslar Parkallee 6
Heilbut, Julia 12.08.1934 Hamburg Bornstraße 20
Herz, Ruth 28.07.1931 Hamburg Klosterallee 26
Hirschel, Marion 24.03.1928 Kiel Bundesstraße 35, House d
Jakob, Dorit 12.10.1935 Hamburg Kielortallee 24
Jakob, Marion 26.10.1934 Hamburg Kielortallee 24
Lazarus, Vera 2.04.1933 Hamburg, Altona Große Bergstraße 108
Leider, Lina 15.02.1930 Altona Turmstraße
Levor, Ingrid 3.08.1926 Hamburg Groß Neumarkt 56
Marvanykö, Mariza Eva 30.12.1927 Hamburg  
Pollak, Renate 23.02.1928   Isestraße 53
Schlesinger, Friederike 6.03.1927 Hamburg Durchschnitt 1
Schwab, Herma 30.01.1927 Hamburg  
Streim, Mirjam 24.06.1927 Hamburg Grindelallee 184
Vogel, Edith 10.05.1928 Hamburg, Altona Kirchenstraße 18
Vogel, Hildegard 14.02.1930 Hamburg, Altona Kirchenstraße 18
Weldt, Helga Lina 3.04.1933 Hamburg Heinrich Barthstraße 19

The gymnasium in todays Grabenstraße, formerly No. 62 Kampstraße, of the former Jüdische Schule in Hamburg functioned as a collection centre for the personal belongings of Jewish women and children shortly before their deportation.

Inspection of the personal belongings of Jewish women and children, prior to deportation in November 1941, in the gymnasium of the former Judische School in Hamburg, No. 62 Kampstraße (drawing by an eyewitness).

In Hamburg, in April 1982, Frau W. recounted the following:
"I remember a day in November 1941 when a deportation transport departed for the east. Women and children had to deposit their suitcases that were later conveyed by furniture lorry to the Hannoverscher Bahnhof (Hannoverscher Station). (This station was formerly situated south-west of the Hauptbahnhof (City Railway Station), on the Grasbrook island in the river Elbe in the port, today Lohseplatz, named after the engineer of the river Elbe bridges. It was originally called the Venloer station and then the Pariser station, and finally in 1892 the Hannoverscher station. It was the terminus of the north-south traffic via the river Elbe bridges. Today what remains of the building is used by a haulage contractor. The Hannoverscher Bahnhof was the departure station for the 17 group transports of Hamburg Jews). The women and children appeared to be very composed, as their husbands and fathers had been deported a week prior to this. It is not known why these families had been separated. The women were presumably calm as they believed they were to be reunited with their husbands. I should remark that there were women there in advanced stages of pregnancy.
Long tables were set up in the gymnasium with large laundry baskets beneath. The women had to place their cases on the tables and open them for inspection. These were naturally crammed full and it was difficult to get everything back in after the Gestapo had rummaged through them. As the women and children were to be sent in the direction of Russia during the cold winter there were many fur garments, that were confiscated.

The Gestapo were furious when they found sweets or chocolate that neighbours had given the children. They threw these in the laundry baskets. On asking what was to happen to these I was told they were to be given to the NSV (Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt) (National Socialist Popular Welfare). What disturbed me the most was how brusquely and roughly the SS people treated the women. What especially struck me was a young, pistol carrying, SS man who was especially brutal when elderly women started crying.

I repacked the cases and attempted to stuff some of the things in the laundry baskets back into the cases, when the SS or Gestapo people, who stood together in a corner, were no longer looking. I presume some people were later surprised to find other people's belongings in their cases, if they ever in fact received their cases again. I suddenly came to the attention of the Gestapo. One Gestapo man beckoned me over to him and asked me my name and why I was not wearing a "Judenstern". I explained that my father and mother, who was a Jewess, lived in a "privilegierte Mischehe" (priviliged mixed marriage). He further asked me, despite this, what I was doing there. I answered that I had family and friends there, and that it was a kind of labour of love that I wanted to show them. The brutal young SS man I mentioned before was encouraged to attempt to make a date with me that evening. I simply asked him if he could accept the responsibility as I was "Halbjüdin" ("half Jewish"). I said he should better help with the cases, which he immediately did."

The Hannöverscher Station on the river Elbe Grassbrook island in the port of Hamburg.

The Hannoverscher Station, in 1889 still known as the Venloer Station.

German text: Dipl.-Pol. Wilhelm Mosel, Deutsch-Jüdische Gesellschaft, Hamburg.

Struan Robertson