|University of North
Florida/Paul Halsall/Spring 2005|
EUH 4932 AE 050 / EUH5934 AR 200
Important Note on Reading Load:
This is a 4000 level seminar, so you can expect to do a substantial amount of reading. However, students in this course are not expected to read all the items listed for each class session. Although some readings will be common to all, the majority of each week's readings will distributed among groups of class members. The job of each group will be to prepare short written summaries of the main points and arguments of their assigned authors and each class session will be based around what each group has learned and can teach the rest of the class.
You can select the appropriate class here, and jump directly to the right section.
2005 Class Topic 1/6 Introduction: Why Saints? 1/13 Emergence of Christian Sainthood: Martyrdom 1/20 Emergence of Christian Sainthood: Holy Men and Women 1/27 Byzantine Sainthood I 2/3 Byzantine Sainthood II 2/10 Early Western Medieval Sainthood 2/17 2/24 Saints and Statistics 3/3 Rome, Canonization and Politics I 3/10 Rome, Canonization and Politics II 3/17 Saints and Gender 3/31 Comparisons: Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist and Jewish Saints 4/7 Saints and Cults in the Later Middle Ages 4/14 Reformation, Counter-Reformation, and Sainthood 4/21 Modern Sainthood [or Exam]
# marks items all class members should read.
Stouck = Mary Ann Stouck, ed. Medieval Saints: A Reader (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures, 4). Peterborough ONT: Broadview Press, 1998.
Class 1: Introduction: Why Saints?
In this first class we ask the question, what is a saint and why study them? If we think about them at all, we usually think of saints as "good people," so "goodness" would seem to be part of the answer. We also tend to associate saints with Roman Catholicism, and so we might want to answer in terms of "canonization" and official Catholic church statements. These answers are not good enough if we want to understand the phenomenon of sainthood as it has presented itself in history. We can look forward to comparing our answers now, with those we will give at the end of the semester. dele
#What is a Saint, Really? [handout]
Simon the the Desert, film, dir. Luis Buñuel [viewed in class]
What is a saint?
Class 2: Emergence of Christian Sainthood: Martyrdom
However we answer last week's question on "what is a saint," and however much we recognize the existence of "sainthood" in many cultures and religions, our language of sainthood in western culture derives from the tradition of Christian sainthood, anc Christian sainthood begins with the martyrs. This class will address who the martyrs were, when they lived and died, and why they became central to the cult of saints. The paradigm text is that of the Martyrdom of Polycarp, a widely read and hugely influential account in all later perceptions of martyrdom. We also discuss Peter Brown's The Cult of the Saints, even though it deals with the growth of the cult of the saints only in the West and after the period of the martyrs, since it has set many of the standards for modern discussion of sainthood.
#Acts 6-8: The Martyrdom of St. Stephen [At IHSP]
#The Martyrdom of Polycarp. [At IHSP][Stouck 3-9]
#The Letter of the Churches of Vienne and Lyons 177 CE [At IHSP][Stouck10-19]
Martyrdom of Ignatius [At IHSP]
Gregory of Tours. De gloria martyrum -- St. Polyeuktos [At UPENN]
#Passion of Perpetua [At IHSP]
Tertullian. To the Martyrs [At American U]
Diocletian: Edicts against Christians [At IHSP]
#Types of Male Saints by Century (Chart/Table)
The Cult of Saints
Exodus 33-34 [Moses meets God]
Leviticus 21 [The holiness of priests]
Augustine, Sermon 280 (On Perpetua and Felicity), Stouck 39-42
#Ambrose of Milan: Letter 22: The Finding of SS. Gervasius and Protasius [At IHSP]
Augustine: On the Care to Be had for the Dead [At IHSP]
#Augustine: City of God: Book 22:8-10. On Miracles [At IHSP]
Jerome: Against Vigilantius [At IHSP]
Edward Gibbon: The Destruction of Paganism and the Rise of the Cult of Saints [Chapter XXVIII of Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire] [At IHSP]
#Brown, Peter R.L. The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.
Dronke, Peter. The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicity [At Millersville]
#Catholic Encyclopedia. Martyr
A useful summary of the legal basis of the persecutions of Christians, and the dates.
#Sheingorn, Pamela. "The Saints in Medieval Culture: Recent Scholarship." Envoi: A Review Journal of Medieval Literature 2:1 (1990): 1-29.
#Wilson, Stephen, "Introduction." In Saints and Their Cults: Studies in Religious Sociology, Folklore, and History. Edited by Stephen Wilson. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Russell, Jeffrey. Miracles and the Meta Normal [At UCSB]
An essay on how historians deal with the issue of miracles.
What makes Polycarp holy? Try to be very specific here, and use the text to specify elements of holiness.
Why was the Martyrdom of Polycarp written? What evidence does the text present about its own transmission?
What happens to Blandina at the moment of her martydom in the Letter of the Churches of Vienne and Lyons?
What did the Christian faith represent to Perpetua? What is her image of Christ? What would Christians at the time have made of her story?
Perpetua writes about two visions (of the ladder and one where she becomes a man)? What does each signify?
What do we learn about family relationships in the third century from Perpetua’s story? What is Perpetua’s relationship with her son, her father, her brother, her husband?
What were the dates of the major persecutions of Christians and estimated number of deaths?
Cult of Saints
How did Augustine respond to saints and miracles in his diocese?
To what attacks was Jerome responding in Against Vigilantius? How did he justify the cult of saints?
Post a chapter by chapter summary of Brown's argument in The Cult of Saints.
What was Gibbon's explanation of the rise of the cult of saints? How does Peter Brown respond to this in chapter 1? What does Brown mean by a "two tier" model of society? From which group of writers (give names) does Brown derive much of his evidence?
What was Ambrose' concern with Gervasius and Protasius?
What made Moses and the Levite priesthood holy according to Exodus and Leviticus?
Why were relics so important? What view of holiness is implied by the idea that an object can be holy?
Can miracles happen [ref. to Russell's article]?
Class 3: Emergence of Christian Sainthood: Holy Men and Women
At least in the names remembered by later Christians, martyrdoms peaked in the early 4th century, during the "Great Persecution" of Diocletian. There were always sporadic areas where persecution ocurred, but after the "triumph of the Church" martyrdom was a limited route to sainthood. Even before the end of the persecutions, Christians were beginning to recognize other paths to sainthood. More and more frequently we find monks/ascetics and bishops counted as saints -- one way of life involved withdrawal from the world, the other engaging the world in defense of the Church. The paradigm text here is Athanasius' Life of Anthony, which happily unites an account of the most famous early monk with his apotheosis by one of the most important bishops of the early Church.
Egyptian Monks (The Desert Fathers). Hindu and Buddhist Ascetism.
Philostratus. Life of Apollonius of Tyana, c. 220 CE [At Magna.com.au]
#Athanasius. Life of St. Anthony [At IHSP][Stouck 57-82]
Palladius. The Lausiac History [At IHSP]
Theodoret of Cyrrhus. Symeon Stylites, from Religious History [Stouck 115-126]
Evagrius. St. Simeon Stylites from Ecclesiastical History, I.13 [At IHSP]
Life of St. Mary of Egypt [At IHSP][Stouck 97-114] or
Life of Mary of Egypt [At Holy Women of Byzantium/Dumbarton Oaks][PDF file]
Gregory of Nyssa (c.335-d.c.395): Life of Macrina [At IHSP]
Mark the Deacon. Life of Porphyry of Gaza [At IHSP]
Gregory Nazianzus: Oration 21: On Athanasius of Alexandria [At IHSP]
Ambrose. Confrontation with Theodosius [At IHSP]
#Brown, Peter. "Eastern and Western Christendom in Late Antiquity: a Parting of the Ways." In The Orthodox Churches and the West. Edited by Derek Baker. Studies in Church History 13 (1976): 1-24. Repr. in Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. 166-95.
#Brown, Peter R.L. "The Saint as Exemplar in Late Antiquity." In Saints and Virtues. Edited by John Stratton Hawley. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
#Brown, Peter R.L. "The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity." Journal of Roman Studies 61 (1971), 80-101. Repr. in Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. 103-52.
Brown, Peter R.L. "Town, Village and Holy Man: The Case of Syria." in Assimilation et résistance à la culture gréco-romaine dans la monde ancien (Bucharest: 1976), 213-20. Repr. in Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. 153-65.
Chadwick, Henry. "Pachomius and the Idea of Sanctity." In The Byzantine Saint. Edited by Sergei Hackel. 11-24. London: Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius, 1981.
Drijvers, H. J. W. "'Hellenistic and oriental origins." In The Byzantine Saint. Edited by Sergei Hackel. 25-33. London: Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius, 1981.
Coon, Lynda L. Sacred Fictions: Holy Women and Hagiography in Late Antiquity. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.
Ommeslaege, F. van. "The Acta Sanctorum and Bollandist methodology." In The Byzantine Saint. Edited by Sergei Hackel. 155-63. London: Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius, 1981.
How do the saints' lives that you have read deal with issues of decision and choice?
Summarize Peter Brown's arguments about the holy man in late antiquity and the saint as an exemplar. What criticisms can you make of his views?
Life of Anthony
Analyze the construction of the Life of Anthony, and write a one page introduction intended for a general public who know nothing about the saint.
How should we understand Anthony's demons?
What did Pachomius do to transform the ideal of sanctity we see in the Life of Anthony?
What was it that made Porphyry seem like a saint to his biographer? What about Athanasius?
Why were bishops so violent?
Discuss the basis of the "Bollandist approach" to the history of saints. How did this approach effect other areas of historical study? Compare this approach with the newer methods and goals discussed by Pamela Scheingorn?
Class 4: Byzantine Sainthood I
One commonly observes in discussions of the history of sainthood a most curious phenomenon. As in this course, there is a discussion of early martyrs and holy people, most of whom lived in the Eastern Mediterranean lands. But the suddenly, the discussion moves on, and one finds that after the fifth-century only sainthood in Western, or Latin, Europe is under consideration. It was not until the end of the 12th century, however, that Latin Christendom clearly gained an advantage over Greek, or Orthodox, Christendom in terms of power and influence in the world. Nor is it clear how even after that, we can exclude the history of sainthood among Orthodox Christians from study of sainthood in general. In this class and the next, we shall examine the history of sainthood in Orthodoxy Christianity, and discover striking ways in which it differed from the Western experience, and other areas in which there were similarities. In the first class we will look at the issues of sainthood and art, sainthood and the miraculous, and sainthood as a source of social history.
Saints in Ravennan Art. Syrian saints. Ancient Cynics as holy men.
The Life of Theodore of Sykeon.
This Life of seventh-century saint is a major source for Byzantine rural and social history, as well as about the development of the cult of saints. Theodore's devotion to St. George is especially noteworthy in this text.
Leontius. The Life of John the Almsgiver, 7th Century.
The 7th-century Patriarch of Alexandria just before the Arab Conquest was later taken as patron by the Order of knights Hospitallers. As such he was the only Byzantine era saint to achieve popularity in the Western middle ages.
Krueger, Derek. Symeon the Holy Fool: Leontius's Life and the Late Antique City. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
[see review by Paul Halsall at The Medieval Review]
Life of St. Daniel the Stylite [At IHSP]
Life of St. Elisabeth the Wonderworker [At Holy Women of Byzantium/Dumbarton Oaks][PDF file]
John of Damascus: Barlaam and Ioasaph Translation:[At OMACL]
Hackel, Sergei, ed. The Byzantine Saint. University of Birmingham Fourteenth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies. London: Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius, 1981. [Repr. San Bernardino, Calif. : Borgo Press, 1991.]
Gendle, Nicholas. "The role of the Byzantine Saint in the development of the icon cult." In The Byzantine Saint. Edited by Sergei Hackel. 181-86. London: Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius, 1981.
#Maguire, Henry. The Icons of Their Bodies: Saints and Their Images in Byzantium. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Kazhdan, Alexander. "Holy and Unholy Miracle Workers." in Byzantine Magic, ed. Henry Maguire. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1995. [At Dumbarton Oaks][PDF file]
Constantelos, Demetrios J. "Lives of Saints, Ethical Teachings, and Social Realities in Tenth-Century Byzantine Peloponnesos." Greek Orthodox Theological Review 30 (1985): 297-310.
Patlagean, Evelyne. "Ancienne hagiographie byzantine et histoire sociale." Annales E.S.C 1 (1968): 106-126. Reprint in Evelyne Patlagean. Structures sociales, famille, chrétienté à Byzance IVe-XIe siècle, V. London: Variorum, 1981. Translated by Jane Hodgkin as "Ancient Byzantine Hagiography and Social History." In Saints and Their Cults: Studies in Religious Sociology, Folklore and History, ed. Stephen Wilson, 101-22. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Krueger, Derek. "Writing as Devotion: Hagiographical Composition and the Cult of the Saints in Theodoret of Cyrrhus and Cyril of Scythopolis." Church History 66:4 (1997), 707-19.
[Online at UNF via the "Wilson Select" Database in FirstSearch]
What is foolish about Symeon's behavior? How does Derek Krueger explain it?
What are the main issues in assessing the composition history of the Life of John the Almoner?
What is the role of other saints in the Life of Theodore of Sykeon?
Sainthood and art
How important was the cult of saints in the origins of icon veneration?
According to Henry Maguire, what were the results of Iconoclasm on the portrayal of saints in Byzantine art?
Sainthood and the miraculous
Compare and contrast the number and sorts of miracles in at least two of the saint's lives assigned in this weeks' reading.
Sainthood as a source of social history.
Use the Life of Theodore of Sykeon to Itemize aspects of rural life in Byzantine Anatolia.
How reliable is the Life of John the Almsgiver as a guide to the urban situation in seventh century Cyprus? [Requires reading Krueger's book on Symeon the Fool]
What is Constantelos' goal in his article on saints in the 10th century Peloponnese?
Class 5: Byzantine Sainthood II
Our second class on Byzantine sainthood will look into the cult of saints in the middle and late Byzantine eras. Our focus will be on issues that are important in understanding Byzantine developments, but that also will enable us to make informed comparisons with events in Latin Christendom. Topic will include canonization in Byzantium; the decline of women saints; and the rise of monastic domination of neo-sainthood.
Middle Byzantine saints as wonderworkers. Byzantine monastery founders. Cyril and Methodius.
Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents [At Dumbarton Oaks]
Life of St. Athanasia of Aegina [At Holy Women of Byzantium/Dumbarton Oaks][PDF file]
Life of St. Theodora of Thessalonike [At Holy Women of Byzantium/Dumbarton Oaks][PDF file]
Life of St. Mary the Younger [At Holy Women of Byzantium/Dumbarton Oaks][PDF file]
Life of St. Thomaïs of Lesbos [At Holy Women of Byzantium/Dumbarton Oaks][PDF file]
Life of Luke of Steiris, trans. Carolyn Connor [see Blackboard]
The Life of Lazaros of Mt. Galesion: An Eleventh-Century Pillar Saint [At Holy Women of Byzantium/Dumbarton Oaks][PDF file]
Gregory of Constantinople. Life of St. Romylos, 14th Century [At IHSP]
Theoktistos the Stoudite. Oration on the Translation of The Relics of Our Holy Father Athanasios, Patriarch of Constantinople. Edited and translated by Alice-Mary Talbot as Faith Healing in Late Byzantium: The Posthumous Miracles of the Patriarch Athanasios I of Constantinople by Theoktistos the Stoudite. Brookline MA: Hellenic College Press, 1983.
Life of Sergius of Radonezh, (c.1314-1392), f.d. Sept. 25 [At Durham]
Dvornik, Francis. Byzantine Missions Among the Slavs: SS. Constantine-Cyril and Methodius. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1970.
#Kazhdan, Aleksandr P. "Hermetic, Cenobitic, and Secular Ideals in Byzantine Hagiography of the Ninth Centuries. (sic)" Greek Orthodox Theological Review 30:4 (1985): 473-87.
#Kazhdan, Aleksandr P. "Byzantine Hagiography and Sex in the Fifth to Twelfth Centuries." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 44 (1990): 131-44.
Kazhdan, Aleksandr P., and Alice-Mary Talbot. "Women and Iconoclasm." Byzantinische Zeitschrift 84/85:2 (1991/1992): 391-408.
Ševcenko, Ihor. "Hagiography of the Iconoclast World." In Iconoclasm: Papers Given at the 9th Spring
Symposium of Byzantine Studies, ed. Anthony Bryer and Judith Herrin, 113-34. Birmingham: Center for Byzantine Studies, University of Birmingham, 1977.
#Rydén, Lennart. "New Forms of Hagiography: Heroes and Saints." In The 17th International Byzantine Congress: Major Papers, Dumbarton Oaks/Georgetown University, Washington DC, August 3-8 1986, 537-54. New Rochelle. NY: Aristide D. Caratzas, 1986.
Morris, Rosemary, "The Political Saint of the Eleventh Century." In The Byzantine Saint. Edited by Sergei Hackel. 43-50. London: Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius, 1981.
Magdalino, Paul, "The Byzantine Holy Man in the Twelfth Century". In The Byzantine Saint. Edited by Sergei Hackel. 67-87. London: Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius, 1981.
Macrides, Ruth. "Saints and Sainthood in the Early Palaiologan Period." In The Byzantine Saint. Edited by Sergei Hackel. 67-87. London: Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius, 1981.
Munitz, Joseph. "Self-Canonisation: the 'Partial Account' of Nikephoros Blemmydes." In The Byzantine Saint. Edited by Sergei Hackel. 164-68. London: Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius, 1981.
Talbot, Alice-Mary. "Old Wine in New Bottles: the Rewriting of Saints' Lives in the Palaiologan Period." In The Twilight of Byzantium. Edited by S. Curcic and D. Mouriki. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.
Talbot, Alice-Mary. "Family Cults in Byzantium: The Case of St. Theodora of Thessalonike." In LEIMWN: Studies Presented to Lennart Rydén on his Sixty-fifth Birthday, ed. Jan Olof Rosenqvist, Studia Byzantina Upsaliensia 6, 49-69. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 1996.
Delehaye, Hippolyte. The Legends of the Saints: An Introduction to Hagiography. Translated by V. M. Crawford. Notre Dame, Ind.:University of Notre Dame Press, 1961. Chapter 1.
Itemize the methods by which someone could become accepted as a saint in Byzantium.
Did saints become unpopular in the 12th century? If so, why?
How did sainthood in the Palaiologan period differ from earlier periods?
What was the impact of Iconoclasm on the cult of saints?
Class 6: Early Western Medieval Sainthood
Having addressed the cult of saints in the late antique Mediterranean and Byzantine developments, we now turn our attention to the cult of saints in the Latin Christendom. A great deal of work has been done on this area in recent years, and in our first week on the subject we will concentrate on understanding a saint through the saint's "dossier" with special attention to the case of St. Foy. Three other themes will attract out attention: the debate over miracles and magic; early missionaries and sainthood; and the connection between sainthood and royalty.
Celtic saints as missionaries. Holy kings. Sainted queens.
#Sheingorn, Pamela, trans. The Book of Sainte Foy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.
Fiacc: Hymn on Life of St. Patrick, [At St. Pachomius Library]
Adamnan: Life of St. Columba [At IHSB]
St. Columba, who established the monastery at Iona, was one of the most famous of the Irish missionary saints.
The Life of St. Declan of Ardmore [Electronic Transcription 1997 Dennis McCarthy]
Jonas the Monk: Life of St. Columban [At IHSB]
Alcuin. Life of Willibrord. [At IHSB]
[Also in Soldiers of Christ: Saints and Saint's Lives from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Edited by Thomas F.X. Novle and Thomas Head. University Park PA: Pennsylvannia State University Press, 1995. 189-213.]
Willibald. Life of Boniface. [At IHSB]
[Also in Soldiers of Christ: Saints and Saint's Lives from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Edited by Thomas F.X. Novle and Thomas Head. University Park PA: Pennsylvannia State University Press, 1995. 107-41.]
Rimbert. The Life of Anskar, the Apostle of the North, 801-865. [At IHSB]
Life of Radegund in Sainted Women of Dark Ages. Edited by Jo Ann McNamara and John Halborg. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1992. 60-106.
[See also Stouck 205-18]
Life of Bathild in Sainted Women of Dark Ages. Edited by Jo Ann McNamara and John Halborg. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1992. 264-78.
Abbo of Fleury.The Martyrdom of St. Edmund, King of East Anglia, 870. [At IHSB]
Ashley, Kathleen, and Pamela Sheingorn. Writing Faith: Text, Sign, & History in the Miracles of Sainte Foy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Miracle and magic
#Van Dam, Raymond. Saints and their Miracles in Late Antique Gaul. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1993.
Flint, Valerie I. J. "The Early Medieval medicus, the Saint - and the Enchanter." Social History of Medicine 2 (1989): 127-45.
Karras, Ruth Mazo. "Pagan Survivals and Syncretism in the Conversion of Saxony." Catholic Historical Review 72 (1986): 553-72.
MacMullen, Ramsay. Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.
Sullivan, Richard E. "The Carolingian Missionary and the Pagan." Speculum 28 (1953): 705-740. [online via JSTOR]
Wood, Ian N. "Missionary Hagiography in the Eighth and Ninth Centuries." In Ethnogenese und Überlieferung: angewandte Methoden der Frühmittelalterforschung. Edited by Karl Brunner and Brigitte Merta. 189-99. Vienna: 1994.
Sainthood and Royalty
Fouracre, Paul. "Merovingian History and Merovingian Hagiography." Past and Present 127 (1990): 3-38. [Journal available in UNF Library]
Nickell, Joe. Looking for a Miracle: Weeping Icons, Relics, Stigmata, Visions & Healing Cures. Buffalo NY: Prometheus Books, 1993.
Why do you think Ste. Foy was such an attractive saint to her clients -- was it her story or her miracles that read the most impressively?
We have used the word "cult" repeatedly: create a list of the all the elements that made up the cult of Ste. Foy.
How does Vam Dam's account of early saints' cults in Gaul compare with Peter Brown's views in The Cult of Saints.
Do miracles in the western cults of saints represent a continuation of pagan religious traditions?
What made a good missionary according to the lives of the missionary saints?
Class 7: Western Hagiography
By now it has become clear that there are various ways of studying the cult of saints. The old Bollandist method was to study the saints themselves. In the past two classes we have emphasized the study of saints' cults as a source of social, cultural and political history. This class focuses on the study of hagiography -- i.e. the study of the texts about saints. Our main focus will be on the important book by Thomas Heffernan which will require focused reading in order to bring out its themes.
Self-canonization. Women writers of hagiography. Jacques de Vitry and women saints.
Gregory of Tours (539-594): Eight Books of Miracles Selections. [At IHSP]
Gregory of Tours (539-594): The Power of Relics [Stouck 356-63]
Sermon Stories: Tales of Relics, 12th-13th Century. [At IHSP]
Invention of the Relics of St. Benedict, (7th century?) [At IHSP]
Claudius of Turin. Apology: An Attack on Veneration of Relics. 8-9th Cent. Trans. by Thomas Head [At ORB] or see Criticism of Relics [Stouck 368-72]
Guibert of Nogent (1053-1124): The Monks of Laon Use Relics [Stouck 398-401] [or see Book 3: Chap 12-13 At IHSP]
#Guibert of Nogent (1053-1124): On the Relics of the Saints [At ORB]
"A full, if haughty consideration of the contemporary cult of relics from a clerical point of view]
Guibert of Nogent (1053-1124): from Treatise on Relics [At IHSP]
Hugh of Fleury. Prologue to his Life, Translation, and Miracles of St. Sacerdos [At ORB]
[A discussion of his methodology as a hagiographer and historian reconstructing the life of a long dead saint.]
#Head, Thomas. "The Cult of Saints and Their Relics [At ORB]
Head, Thomas. The Development of Hagiography and the Cult of Saints in Western Christendom to the Year 1000 [At ORB]
Head, Thomas. An Introductory Guide to Research in Medieval Hagiography [At ORB}
Head, Thomas. Hagiography and the Cult of Saints: The Diocese of Orleans, 800-1200 New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Chapter 3: The Ideal of Sanctity: Formation, Imitation, and Dissemination.
#Heffernan, Thomas J. Sacred Biography: Saints and their Biographers in the Middle Ages. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Especially Chapters 1-4.
[Remember review of Heffernan in Pamela Sheingorn. "The Saints in Medieval Culture: Recent Scholarship." Envoi: A Review Journal of Medieval Literature 2:1 (1990): 1-29.]
#Lifshitz, Felice. "Beyond Positivism and Genre: 'Hagiographical' Texts as Historical Narrative." Viator 25 (1994), 95-113.
How does hagiography differ from other sorts of biography?
Are collections of miracles really a form of historical writing?
Heffernan argues that the narratives of the cult of the saints are theological texts in narrative mode, and that the theology to which they bear witness is nuanced and sophisticated.
What models does Heffernan present for understanding these texts as exercises in theology?
How do their literary, liturgical, and institutional contexts shape (and how are they shaped by) this theology? Does the theology remain constant over time? In what way does it reflect or shape other kinds of theological writing?
How do Heffernan's theses fit with the other saints' lives you have read so far?
Felice Lifshitz argues that hagiographers understood their work to be historiography. Without falling into positivist traps, what can we say about hagiography as historical writing? If set into the literary context of medieval historiography, what can it tell us about medieval models of historicity and historiography? Indeed, of reality?
Compare and contrast Gregory of Tours and Guibert of Nogent as guides to the cults of saints.
What criticisms of the cult of saints were raised by medieval authors? How might this affect our understanding of medieval cultures of sanctity?
Class 8: Saints and Statistics
So far we have looked at humanistic and philological methods of studying saints. But sociologists have also been interested in the phenomenon and one typically sociological method of understanding the cult of saints -- the use of statistical analysis -- has come in for much criticism in recent years is . Initially used by John Broderick and Pierre Delooz, some claim this approach reached both its acme and its nemesis in Weinstein and Bell's Saints and Society (1982).
Others (such as Schulenberg and myself) while criticizing Weinstein and Bell, still think that statistical approaches have value. This class will be devoted to studying the claims of statistical methodologies, and evaluating the critiques.
Statistical analysis of The Golden Legend. Pope John Paul II and canonizations
Jacobus de Voragine. The Golden Legend (Aurea Legenda) 1275, As Englished by William Caxton, 1483
The full text of the 7 volume Temple Classics edition, available in large volume files, and individual feast/saint files.
Norwegian Catholic Church. The Saints of the Catholic Church [Web site of Norwegian Catholic Church]
By far the best web site for statistical information about saints. Unfortunately for anglophones it is in Norwegian, However, it is still quite usable, but seem me for help.
Broderick, John. "A Census of the Saints (993-1955)." American Ecclesiastical Review 135 (1966): 87-115.
#Delooz, Pierre. "Towards a Sociological Study of Canonized Sainthood in the Catholic Church." In Saints and Their Cults, ed. Stephen Wilson, 189-216. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Halsall, Paul. Women's Bodies, Men's Souls: Sanctity and Gender in Byzantium. [Ph.D. Diss] Chapter 2: "Measuring the Cult Of Saints In Byzantium." [Plus statistical appendix]
Schulenburg, Jane Tibbetts. Forgetful of Their Sex: Female Sanctity and Society, ca. 500-1100. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
#Weinstein, Donald, and Rudolph M. Bell. Saints & Society: The Two Worlds of Western Christendom, 1000-1700. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986, c1982.
Saints 1150-1300: Background to the Dataset
Critiques of Use of Statistics
Deroche, Henri, André Vauchez, and Jacques Maître. "Sociologie de la sainteté canonisé." Archives de sociologie des religions 30 (1970): 109-15.
#Kleinberg, Aviad. Prophets in Their Own Country: Living Saints and the Making of Sainthood in the Later Middle Ages. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. Chapter 1. (esp. pp.13-16)
What is Delooz' conclusion from his use of statistics?
Summarize the conclusions, chapter by chapter, of Weinstein and Bell:
Children; Adolescents; Chastity; Adults; Who Was a Saint; Place; Class; Men and Women.
Explain Kleinberg's objection to Weinstein and Bell's methodology.
What are Halsall and/or Schulenberg trying to do with statistics. How does the approach overlap with Weinstein and Bell, and how do their approaches differ.
Using a statistical approach, create a thesis and defend it about the saints in the Golden Legend.
Class 9: Rome, Canonization and Politics I
Having spent the past few weeks in reviewing a variety of methodological approaches to sainthood, for the next two classes we turn to consider the development of sainthood within medieval western Europe. The dominant theme in our discussion must be power and sainthood. By the 13th century the papacy was claiming an exclusive power to make saints, but it took considerably longer before the popes could in fact make the cult of saints an instrument of their authority. This class will focus on non-papal manipulations, uses, and claims re. the saints. Monasteries and cult centers were long able to use the saints to advance their own power, as Geary's book makes clear. The "people" also had a say: whatever new saints came along, simple popularity also played a role in the success of a cult. Often enough, the most popular saints were entirely legendary saints, and we need to address why this was the case.
St. George. St. Nicholas. St. Catherine of Alexandria
Jacobus de Voragine. The Golden Legend (Aurea Legenda) 1275: St. George [At IHSP]
Jacobus de Voragine. The Golden Legend (Aurea Legenda) 1275: St. Nicholas [At IHSP]
Jacobus de Voragine. The Golden Legend (Aurea Legenda) 1275. St. Catherine [At ASAN]
Stories of Military Saints.
St. George. Various Texts [At Military Saints]
St. Mercurius. Passion of St. Mercurius BHG 1274 [At Military Saints]
St. Mercurius. Other Sources [Malalas on Mercurius and Julian] [At Military Saints]
Thefts (or "Translations") of Saints' Relics
The Translation of Saint Nicholas [Greek Anonymous], 13th Century MS, [At IHSP]
The story of the sacred theft of the relics of St. Nicholas from Myra in 1087.
The Translation and Miracles of the Saints Marcellinus and Peter [Stouck 373-94]
Sheingorn, Pamela, trans. "Translation of the Relics of Ste. Foy." In The Book of Sainte Foy. 263-74. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.
Aimery Picaud. The Pilgrim's Guide to Santiago. [Stouck 313-27]
Eigil: Life of Sturm, early 9th Century [At IHSB]
Life of Lebuin, 10th Century [At IHSB]
#Geary, Patrick J. Furta Sacra: Thefts of Relics in the Central Middle Ages. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978.
Baker, Derek. "Vir Dei: Secular Sanctity in the Early 10th Century." in Popular Belief and Practice. Studies in Church History 8. 41-53. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1972).
Delehaye, Hippolyte. The Legends of the Saints: An Introduction to Hagiography. Translated by V. M. Crawford. Notre Dame, Ind.:University of Notre Dame Press, 1961.
How does Geary answer his fundamental question -- "how could actions recognized as thefts by their reporters and publicized for political and economic reasons be reconciled with high religious sentiment?''
What sort of "powers" were connected with the possession of relics? Does such power challenge other sorts of power within the hierarchical church?
Why were legendary saints so popular?
How might the cults of legendary saints be seen as demonstrating lack of central control over religious life?
Conversely, how might the cults of legendary saints challenge localized ecclesiastical power.
Class 10: Rome, Canonization and Politics II
Last week's class considered the cults of legendary saints and relics in central and high middle ages. One important observation was the predominance of the cults of legendary saints, saints about whom we can discern the impact of popular enthusiasm. At the same time the growth of the cults of such "mega saints" represented a decline in the power or local bishops and monasteries, and signaled the increasing supranationality of the Church. This week we continue examination of themes of power and sanctity by focusing on the cults of those medieval saints who achieved both widespread popularity and papal canonization. Our special concern will be to understand the changes in the functioning western cult of saints consequent on the rise of papal canonization with particular emphasis on the work of Vauchez.
Ademar of Chabannes and the invention of St. Martial. Franciscan Saints. Dominican saints.
Reginald of Durham. Life of St. Goderic, a 12th century merchant. [At IHSP]
Two Accounts of the Early Career of St. Bernard, c. 1150 [At IHSP]
Contains excerpts from William of St. Thierry: Life of St. Bernard, c. 1140, and The Acta Sanctorum of Arnold of Bonneval & Geoffrey of Clairvaux, c. 1153
The Chronicle of Roger of Hoveden: 1154-1190 (early 13th c.)
The material from this chronicle relevant to the Becket matter; Roger quotes many letters written by those closely involved in the dispute, including Thomas himself. [At Thomas Becket Page]
The Constitutions of Clarendon, 1164
Key document in the dispute between the king and the archbishop; Henry wanted Thomas to assent to the Constitutions as a statement of the rights of the king over the English Church; Thomas initially assented, then refused.
John of Salisbury: Letter to Canterbury (Oct 1170) [At Thomas Becket Page]
John accompanied Becket into exile; many of his letters deal with aspects of the controversy.
John of Salisbury: Letter to Peter of St-Remi (Dec 1170) [At Thomas Becket Page]
John's account of Becket's return to England.
Gervase of Canterbury: Thomas Becket's Life [At Thomas Becket Page]
A precis of Thomas' career taken from Gervase's History of the Archbishops of Canterbury
Gervase of Canterbury: Thomas Becket's Death [At Thomas Becket Page]
The Chronicle of "Benedict of Peterborough": The Murder of Thomas Becket [At IHSP]
Edward Grim. The Murder of Becket, Dec. 29, 1170 from Vita S. Thomae, Cantuariensis Archepiscopi et Martyris trans. Dawn Marie Hayes [At IHSP]
Garnier of Pont-Sainte-Maxence: The Murder of Thomas Becket [At Thomas Becket Page]
John of Salisbury: Letter to John, bishop of Poitiers (early 1171) [At Thomas Becket Page]
John's account of the murder; John was not an eyewitness to the murder itself, having fled the cathedral moments before; but this letter is the earliest account of Becket's death.
Benedict of Peterborough: Description of the scene just after the murder [At Thomas Becket Page]
Benedict was a monk of Canterbury and at the cathedral the night of the murder.
William of Newburgh: Selections from Book II of his History (c. 1200) [At Thomas Becket Page]
Three chapters concerning Becket's career, the murder, and Henry II's penance at the tomb in 1174.
Pope Alexander III: Bull announcing Canonization of St Thomas Becke 1173 [At Thomas Becket Page]
Alexander III's formal announcement of the status of Thomas as a saint [especially important]
Jacobus de Voragine. The Golden Legend (Aurea Legenda) 1275: St. Thomas Becket [At IHSP]
Catholic Encylopedia: Thomas Becket
Pictorial Tour of Canterbury Cathedral [At Thomas Becket Page]
Francis of Assisi
Thomas of Celano. Two Lives of St. Francis. [At IHSP] [Stouck 470-82
Writings of St. Francis Companions, Stouck 488-96.
Official Life of St. Francis: Stigmata. Stouk 497-503.
Brother Ugolino. The Little Flowers of St. Francis. [At CCEL]
Thomas of Celano: Canonization of St. Francis, Stouck 508-15
Gregory IX: Bull Mira Circa Nos, July 16, 1228 [At EWTN] [especially important]
The Bull canonizing St. Francis of Assisi
Jacobus de Voragine. The Golden Legend (Aurea Legenda) 1275: St. Francis [At IHSP]
Catholic Encylopedia: St. Francis of Assisi
Catholic Encylopedia: Thomas of Celano
St. Francis: The Writings
The Franciscan Archive:
A huge WWW Resource on St. Francis and Franciscanism. [This must be looked at]
Dominican Order: The Lifes of the Brethren of the Order of Preachers, 1206-59 [At Dominican Central]
- Part I: The Foundation of the Order of Preachers
- Part II: The Legend of St. Dominic
- Part III: The Legend of St. Dominic by Blessed Cecilia Cesarine, O.S.B.
- Part IV: The Legend of the Blessed Jordan of Saxony
- Part V: The Progress of the Order
- Part VI: Departure of the Brethren out of this World
St. Dominic: Biographical Documents, edited with an Introduction By Francis C. Lehner, O.P. [At Dominican Central]
- Blessed Jordan - Libellus [Or in pdf ] [especially important]
- Letters of St. Dominic
- Bologna Canonization Process [especially important]
- Toulouse Canonization Process [especially important]
- Nine Ways of Prayer
- Miracles of St. Dominic
- Bull of Canonization [especially important]
- Prayer to St. Dominic
- Bulls of Approbation
- Jordan Of Saxony - Letter
- Primitive Constitutions [Or in pdf]
Jacobus de Voragine. The Golden Legend (Aurea Legenda) 1275: St. Dominic [At IHSP]
Catholic Encylopedia: St. Dominic
Beccari, Camillus. "Beatification and Canonization." In Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol II, 364ff. New York: Encyclopedia Co., 1913.
#Head, Thomas. "The Legacy of André Vauchez’ Sainthood in the Later Middle Ages" [At ORB]
#Vauchez, André. Sainthood in the Later Middle Ages [Saintéte en Occident aux derniers siecles du Moyen Age.] Translated by Jean Birrell. New York : Cambridge University Press, 1997. pp. 1-142
Webb, Diana. "A Saint and his Money: Perceptions of Urban Wealth in the Lives of Italian Saints." In The Church and Wealth. Studies in Church History 24. Edited by W.J. Shiels. 61-73. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987.
Molinari, Paul. "Saints and Miracles." The Way (October 1978), 287-99.
English summary of "Observations aliquot circa miraculorum munus et necessitaten in causis beatificationis et canonizationis." Periodica de re morali canonica liturgica 63 (1974)
Use both the sources texts, and discussion in Vauchez and other secondary sources, to answer these questions.
Why did Thomas Becket become a saint? How does he diffee from other Western European saints of his era? What interests were involved in promoting the cult?
Outline the exact process by which Becket was canonized. [especially important]
Why was Becket's cult so popular in medieval Europe?
Discuss the film treatment of Becket and compare it with the medieval hagiographic approach.
What made Francis of Assisi a saint according to his contemporaries?
How might historians make sense of Francis' stigmata?
If Francis proposed an ethics of poverty and humility, why did his cult get the support from the most powerful and least humble popes of the middle ages?
Outline the exact process by which Francis was canonized. [especially important]
Why is Francis still a popular saint?
Who were the other Franciscan saints of the 13th century? From the perspective of Vauchez, why were there so many?
Dominic and Francis are often listed together as founders of the mendicant orders, but they seem very dissimilar. List the ways in which the primary sources about these saints differ.
What was the role of the Dominican Order (the Order of Preachers) in getting Dominic canonized?
Outline the exact process by which Dominic was canonized. [especially important]
Dominic retains a cult today, although much less so than Francis. Do some net-research to find out what attribute makes the founder of the most intellectual of religious orders continue to appeal to modern Catholics?
Who were the other Dominican saints of the 13th century? From the perspective of Vauchez, why were there so many?
What was the process by which canonization became the usual way to "make saints."
Which groups were able to best take advantage of the process?
What sort of documentation did the process of canonization encourage?
Class 13: Saints and Gender
As the very extensive -- although in fact rather minimal -- bibliography shows, the issue of gender and sainthood has been of increasing interest to scholars in the past 15 years. In practice, those scholars who have considered gender have only -- with a few recent exceptions -- considered sanctity and women; and have tended to concentrate on one area or theme. In this class we will attempt to review the main areas of scholarly interest, and see if any general conclusions may be reached.
Note: The reading list is more extensive that useful this week because a "group presentation" approach will be taken. No-one will need to read more than a few of the items listed!
Transvestite saints. St. Wilgefortis. Military Saints.
Mary/Marina [Stouck 127-34]
Life of St. Mary/Marinos [At Holy Women of Byzantium/Dumbarton Oaks][PDF file]
Life of St. Matrona of Perge [At Holy Women of Byzantium/Dumbarton Oaks][PDF file]
Life of Irene, Abbess of the Convent of Chrysobalanton, trans. Jan Olof Rosenqvist. [At IHSB]
A Legend of the Austrian Tyrol: St. Kümmernis [Aka Wilgefortis] [At IHSP]
Thomas of Cantimpré. Christina the Astonishing (1150-1204), trans. Margot King, Stouck 436-52
Jacques De Vitry. Life of Mary of Oignies, trans. Margot King, [See Blackboard]
Umiliata of Faenza. Stouck 453-68
Catherine of Siena. Dialogue of the Seraphic Virgin [At CCEL]
Julian of Norwich (1343-1443): Revelations of Divine Love, 1371 [At CCEL]
Catholic Encyclopedia: Juliana of Norwich.
Huneberc of Heidenheim: The Hodoeporican of St. Willibald, 8th Century [At IHSB]
Huneberc of Heidenheim. Prologue to the Hodoeporicon of St. Willibald
A defence of a woman as author. [At ORB]
Anon. Transcript of Trial of Joan of Arc 1431 [At IHSP]
Joan was not canonized until the 20th century.
Stephen de Bourbon: De Supersticione: On St Guinefort [At IHSP]
The basis of the film The Sorceress about a sainted dog. Based on the tradition of St. Christopher as being "dog-faced".
Early Christian Saints
Delierneux, Nathalie, "Virilité physique et sainteté féminine dans l'hagiographie orinetale du IVe au VIIe siècle." Byzantion 67 (1997): 179-243.
Harvey, Susan Ashbrook. "Women in Early Syrian Christianity." In Images of Women in Antiquity, ed. Averil Cameron and Amélie Kuhrt, 288-298. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1983.
Harvey, Susan Ashbrook. "Women in Early Byzantine Hagiography: Reversing the Story." In That Gentle Strength: Historical Perspectives on Women in Christianity, ed. Lynda L. Coon, Katherine J. Haldane, and Elizabeth W. Summer, 36-59. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1990.
Harvey, Susan Ashbrook. "Sacred Bonding: Mothers and Daughters in Early Syriac Hagiography." Journal of Early Christian Studies 4:1 (1996): 27-56 [http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/earl/4.1harvey.html]
Harrison, Nonna Verna. "The Feminine Man in Late Antique Ascetic Piety." Union Seminary Quarterly Review 48:3-4 (1994).
Karras, Ruth Mazo. "Holy Harlots: Prostitute Saints in Medieval Legend." Journal of the History of Sexuality 1:1 (1990): 3-32.
Rossi, Mary Ann. The Passion of Perpetua, Everywoman of Late Antiquity [At WomenPriests]
Galatariotou, Catia. "Holy Women and Witches: Aspects of Byzantine Conceptions of Gender." Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 9 (1984-85): 54-94.
Galatariotou, Catia. "Eros and Thanatos: A Byzantine Hermit's Conception of Sexuality." Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 13 (1989): 95-137.
Halsall, Paul. "Wedded to Christ: Nuptiality and Gender Reversal in the Lives of Byzantine Male Saints." Byzantine Studies Conference, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 26 September 1997.
Early Medieval Saints
Head, Thomas. Women and Hagiography in Medieval Christianity [At ORB]
Kitchen, John. Saints' Lives and the Rhetoric of Gender: Male and Female in Merovingian Hagiography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.McNamara, JoAnn and Susan Wemple. "Sanctity and Power: The Dual Pursuit of Medieval Women." In Becoming Visible: Women in European History. Edited by Renate Bridenthal & Claudia Koonz. 90-118. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977.
Schulenburg, Jane Tibbetts. "Female Sanctity: Public and Private Roles, ca. 500-1100." In Women and Power in the Middle Ages.. Edited by Mary Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski. 102-25. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988.
Schulenberg, Jane Tibbets. "Sexism and the Celestial Gynaceum from 500-1200." Journal of Medieval History 4 (1978): 117-133.
Schulenburg, Jane Tibbetts. "Female Sanctity: Public and Private Roles, ca. 500-1100." In Women and Power in the Middle Ages.. Edited by Mary Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski. 102-25. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988.
Schulenburg, Jane Tibbetts. "Saints and Sex, 500-1100: Striding Down the Nettled Path of Life." In Sex in the Middle Ages. Edited by Joel T. Rosenthal. 285-320. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1990.
Schulenburg, Jane Tibbetts. Forgetful of Their Sex: Female Sanctity and Society, ca. 500-1100. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
Smith, Julia M. H. "The Problem of Female Sanctity in Carolingian Europe c. 780-920." Past and Present 146 (1995): 3-37.
Later Medieval Saints
Barstow, Anne Llewellyn. "Joan of Arc and Female Mysticism." Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 1:2 (1985):29-42.
Bynum , Caroline Walker. Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion. New York: Zone Books; Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by the MIT Press, 1991.
---Chapter V: "And Woman His Humanity": Female Imagery in the Religious Writing of the Later Middle Ages. (pp. 151-79);
---Chapter VI: The Female Body and Religious Practice in the Later Middle Ages (pp. 181-238)
Coakley, John. "Friars, Sanctity, and Gender: Mendicant Encounters with Saints, 1250-1325." In Medieval Masculinities: Regarding Men in the Middle Ages. Edited by Clare A. Lees. 91-110. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.
Levin Carole. "St. Frideswide and St. Uncumber: Changing Images of Female Saints in Renaissance England." In Women, Writing and the Reproduction of Culture in Tudor and Stuart England. Edited by Mary E. Burke et al. 223-37. Syracuse NY: Syracuse university Press, 2000.
Mooney, Catherine M., and Caroline Walker Bynum, eds. Gendered Voices: Medieval Saints and Their Interpreters. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.
Voice, Gender, and the Portrayal of Sanctity /Catherine M. Mooney
Hildegard and Her Hagiographers: The Remaking of Female Sainthood / Barbara Newman
Holy Woman or Unworthy Vessel? The Representations of Elisabeth of Schonau /Anne L. Clark
Imitatio Christi or Imitatio Mariae? Clare ofAssisi and Her Interpreters / Catherine M. Mooney
Inside Out: Beatrice of Nazareth and Her Hagiographer / Amy Hollywood
A Marriage and Its Observer: Christine of Stommeln, the Heavenly Bridegroom, and Friar Peter of
Dacia / John Coakley
Henry Suso and Elsbeth Stagel: Was the Vita a Cooperative Effort? / Frank Tobin
Mystical Death, Bodily Death: Catherineof Siena and Raymond of Capua on the Mystic's Encounter
with God / Karen Scott
Authorizing a Life: The Collaboration of Dorothea of Montau and John Marienwerder / Dyan Elliott
The Saints and Their Interpreters: Selected Primary Sources in Original Languages
Schimmel, Annemarie. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975.
Appendix 2: The Feminine Element in Sufism.
McNamara, Jo Ann. "The Need to Give: Suffering and Female Sanctity in the Middle Ages." In Images of Sainthood in Medieval Europe. Edited by Renate Blumenthal-Kosinski and Timea Szell. 199-221. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.
Schulenburg, Jane Tibbetts. "Saint's Lives as a Source for the History of Women, 500-1100." In Medieval Women and the Sources of History. Edited by Joel T. Rosenthal. 285-320. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1990.
Identify the ways in which women martyrs were masculinized.
Identify the ways in which early women confessors were masculinized.
According to Harrison, how and why were male saints feminized in late antiquity?
Why do modern feminist historians see sanctity as an aspect of power for early medieval women?
Discuss the role played by mysticism in women's sanctity in the later middle ages?
Why wasn't Joan of Arc a medieval saint?
Class 12: Comparisons: Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist and Jewish Saints
Our approach in this class has been "comparative" all along -- comparing the cults of saints in different periods, and within different Christian cultures (Byzantine, Syriac, Latin).Figures who are comparable to saints are however found in a number of religious traditions - i.e. human beings who are/were considered holy and who receive(d) special veneration alive or dead. This class will consider saint figures in Islam and Judaism, as well as in a number of Asian traditions. Our goal will be to discover the functions of sainthood in these non-Christian traditions so that we may grasp what is distinctive about Christian sainthood, and what represents more generalized religious sentiment and practice..
Rabia (a Muslim women saint). Jewish grave cults. The Buddhist Arhant.
Rebbe Schneerson's Grave, New York [website]
Rebbe Nachman and Breslov [website]
Companions of The Prophet [website]
[ILL]Bilu, Yoram, and E. Ben-Ami, "Saints' Sanctuaries in Israeli Development Towns: On a Mechanism of Urban Transformation." Urban Anthropology 16 (1987): 243-72.
Cohn, Robert L. "Sainthood on the Periphery: The case of Judaism." In. Sainthood: Its Manifestations in World Religions. Edited by Richard Kieckhefer. 43-68. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
Dunn-Macetti, Manuela. Sainthood: The Chosen Few. New York: Ballantine Books, 1994. Chapter 3: The Jewish Case
Hasan-Rokem, Galit, and Eli Yassif. The Study of Jewish Folklore in Israel [At http://www.folklore.org.il/]
Brinner, William M. "Prophet and Saint: The Two Exemplars of Islam." In Saints and Virtues. Edited by John Stratton Hawley. 36-51. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
Denny Frederick M. "'God's Friends': The Sanctity of Persons in Islam." In Sainthood: Its Manifestations in World Religions. Edited by Richard Kieckhefer. 69-97. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
Dunn-Macetti, Manuela. Sainthood: The Chosen Few. New York: Ballantine Books, 1994. Chapter 4: The Wonders of Islam
Gaborieau, Marc. "The Cult of Saints among the Muslims of Nepal and Northern India." In Saints and Their Cults: Studies in Religious Sociology, Folklore, and History. Edited by Stephen Wilson. 291-308. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Grunebaum, G. E. von. Muhammadan Festivals. London: Curzon Press; Totowa NJ: Rowman and Littlefied, 1951. Chapter IV: The Prophet and the Saints.
Lanneh, Lamin. "Saints and Virtue in African Islam." In Saints and Virtues. Edited by John Stratton Hawley. 127- 43. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
Schimmel, Annemarie. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975.
Chapter: 4: Man and His Perfection, esp. pp. 199-213 (Saints and Miracles); and pp. 213-27 (Veneration of the Prophet.)
Lewis, I.M. "Sufism in Somaliland: a Study in Tribal Islam." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 17 (1955)
India and China
Dunn-Macetti, Manuela. Sainthood: The Chosen Few. New York: Ballantine Books, 1994. Chapter 5: The Hindu path to Sainthood; Chapter 6: The Buddhist Paradigm of Man Perfected.
Hawley, John Stratton. "Morality beyond Morality in the Lives of Three Hindu Saints." In Saints and Virtues. Edited by John Stratton Hawley. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
#Lieu, Samuel N.C. "The Holy Men and Their Biographers in Early Byzantium and Mediaeval China." In Maistor: Classical Byzantine and Renaissance Studies for Robert Browning. Edited by Ann Moffatt. 113-48. Canberrra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1984
Tu Wei-ming. "The Confucian Sage." In Saints and Virtues. Edited by John Stratton Hawley. 73-86. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
Tambiah, Stanley J. "The Buddhist Arahant." In Saints and Virtues. Edited by John Stratton Hawley. 111-26. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
Trainor, Kevin. Review of Reginald Ray. Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations. History of Religions 37 (1997): 96-98
#Head, Thomas. "The Holy Person in Comparative Perspective." [At ORB]
Kieckhefer, Richard, "Afterword: Toward a Comparative Study of Sainthood." In. Sainthood: Its Manifestations in World Religions. Edited by Richard Kieckhefer. 243-53. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
Where can sainthood be located in Jewish religious practice? In answering this question, take "where" in both a geographical and socio-cultural sense.
Why does the suggestion of "Jewish saints" upset so many Jewish commentators in the US?
What sorts of figures count as saints in Islam? Identify the various titles, and distinguish between them.
How does Islamic sainthood differ from Catholic traditions as developed in the later middle ages? How does the practice of the cult of saints overlap? Who are the "big" saints of the Muslim world?
What problems are there in using the term "saint" about figures in Buddhism, Indian religions, and Confucianism?
Class 13: Saints and Cults in the Later Middle Ages
Thanks to the work of Vauchez and Duffy we can now see the later middle ages (for this purpose roughly 1300-1550) as a a distinct period in the history of Western sainthood. On the one hand papal control over the process of official canonization was completely established and accepted; on the other, the creation and popularity of "unofficial" cults proliferated in a period of intense religiosiity. All this was to change in the Reformation/Counter Reformation, when saints' cults were banished from Protestant areas, and central control was made much more effective by the popes. For this section, all class participants should do all the reasing, especially the sources, Duffy, and Vauchez.
Anti-semitic saints' cults. Saints and art in the Italian Renaissance.
Thomas of Monmouth. The Life and Miracles of St. William of Norwich, 1144, excerpts. [At IHSP]
One of the major accusations against Jews of the charge that they killed Christian children. This blood-libel was the center of a number of saint's cults.
Image and Story of Anderl von Rinn: A Blood Libel Saint, supposedly 1462, but the cult is 17th-century. [At IHSP]
Duffy, Eamon. The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, c.1400-c.1580. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992. Chapter 5: The Saints (pp.155-205)
Head, Thomas. The Development of Hagiography and the Cult of the Saints in the Later Middle Ages: The Example of the Kingdom of France from the Capetian Accession to the Reformation [At ORB]
Smoller, Laura A. "Miracle, memory and Meaning in the Canonization of Vincent Ferrar." Speculum 73 (1998): 429-54.
Vauchez, André. Sainthood in the Later Middle Ages [Saintéte en Occident aux derniers siecles du Moyen Age.] Translated by Jean Birrell. New York : Cambridge University Press, 1997. pp. 147-245, 387-412.
Kleinberg, Aviad M. "Proving Sanctity: Selection and Authentication of Saints in the Later Middle Ages." Viator 20 (1989), 183-206
Outline the strengths of the cults of saints in pre-Reformation England according to Duffy? What is his ideological perspective as a historian? What historical narrative is he seeking to challenge?
Why did Vincent Ferrer gain official canonization at a time when many other cults were not approved by the popes?
How do anti-Semitic cults fit into the history of late medieval saint sainthood?
What are the implications of Vauchez' findings for out understanding of the cult of saints? Why, for instance, did mysticism become such an issue?
Class 14: Reformation, Counter-Reformation, and Sainthood
The Protestant Reformation represented the greatest challenge to the cult of saints since antiquity. As a consequence of their rejection of the Catholic doctrine of the mediation of grace and real sanctification, there was no real role for saints within Lutheran or Calvinist churches. Nevertheless, Protestants continued to use the terms "saint" about some figures, and to create their own hagiography. For Catholics the period was equally traumatic: the Tridentine "Roman Catholic Church" was a much more clearly structured organization than the amorphous late medieval Latin Christianity it emerged from. Under the Catholic Reformation popes the plethora of unrecognized cults were either made official or suppressed: by the 17th century papal canonization (a pleonasm as we have seen) was the only way to sainthood. The popes, however, canonized new saints at a much steadier rate than in the past. The result was a new period in the history of sainthood.
Melanchthon and the Protestant rejection of saints. The Council of Trent on Saints. Foxe's Book of Martyrs
John Wycliffe (1330-1384).: On The Church 2: Canonization and Miracles, Stouck, 595-97.
Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560). Augsburg Confession of Faith: Article 21: The Worship of Saints. 1530 [Project Wittenberg]
Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560). The History of the Life and Acts of Luther. Part I, Part II 1548.
Prepared by Dr. Steve Sohmer 1996. Translated by T.Frazel 1995. [Project Wittenberg]
Book of Common Prayer (1662): 39 Articles: Article 22: Of Purgatory [At BCP]
Book of Common Prayer: Calendar 1549 : Calendar 1552 : Calendar 1559 : Calendar 1662 [See also Notes]
Second Book of Homiles: Homily Against Peril of Idolatry [At Anglican Library]
John Foxe (1516-1587). Book of Martyrs [At CCEL] or Complete text in one file [Calvary Chapel]
Erasmus (1466-). A Pilgrimage for Religion's Sake, 1526. Stouck 601-28.
William Roper. Life of Sir Thomas More [At IHSP]
Teresa of Avila. Life (Autobiography) [At CCEL]
Council of Trent: On the Invocation, Veneration, and Relics, of Saints, and on Sacred Images (25th Session) [Hanover College]
Cardinal John Henry Newman. To Henry Wilberforce - Account of the visit to Naples, Sept. 17, 1847. [Cf. Lytton Strachey on this Episode: Eminent Victorians: Cardinal Manning] [At NewmanReader]
Cardinal John Henry Newman. My Belief in Specific Miracles, from Present Position of Catholics in England [At NewmanReader]
Hemming, Carole Piper. Protestants and the Cult of the Saints in German-Speaking Europe, 1517-1531 (Sixteenth Century Essays & Studies, V. 65). Truman State University Press, 2003
Gregory, Brad. Salvation at Sake: Christian Martyrdom in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Kolb, Robert. For all the Saints: Changing Perceptions of Martyrdom and Sainthood in the Lutheran Reformation. Macon, GA : Mercer University Press, 1987.
Longley, Katherine. Saint Margaret Clitherow. Wheathampstead, Herts.: Anthony Clarke, 1986.
Meissner, William W. Ignatius of Loyola: The Psychology of a Saint. New Haven: Yale University Press, c1992.
Soergel, Philip M. Wondrous in His Saints: Counter-Reformation Propaganda in Bavaria. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Catholic Encylopedia: Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Your basic assignment for this penultimate class is to reconstruct from the sources above an account of the fate of the cult of saints in Protestant Christianity.
What was the official Protestant view of saints -- look at Melanchthon and the Second Book of Homelies in order to answer this question.
What role did the saints play in Anglican liturgical calendars? Can you detect any change in the various versions.
How was Protestants' biographies of their heroes similar to catholic hagiography? How did it differ?
What were Erasmus' criticism of the cult of saints? Can the Council of Trent be seen as responding to such worries.
What made Theresa of Avila a paradigmatic saint of the Catholic Reformation?
Cardinal Newman recounts his experiences in Southern Italy: how effective do you think Catholic reform efforts were in that area?
Compare the accounts of the lives of Martin Luther and Thomas More. One was Catholic and the other Protestant, but can you see similarities of approach between Roper and Melanchton?
Class 15: Modern Sainthood
Our final meeting will focus on the continuing meaning of sainthood in the modern world. The question will be "Given the wide array of cultures which contain saint figures, can we make valid cross-cultural claims about a "need for saints?" In addition to investigating the cult of saints in modern Christian churches, we will also try to make sense of the numerous "secular saints" of the twentieth century.
Secular saints of modern revolutions (French, American, Russian). The cult of saints in Jacksonville.
Thérèse of Lisieux. The Story of a Soul
Web: National Shrine of St. Jude and its Rival
Web: St. Frances Cabrini Shrine New York
Web: Shrine of St. John Neuman, Philadelphia
Washington Post: Mother Teresa Website
Frontline: Long Walk of Nelson Mandela
Brown, Karen McCarthy. " Aourdes : a case study of moral leadership in Hatian Vodou" In Saints and Virtues. Edited by John Stratton Hawley. 144-67. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
Orsi, Robert A. The Madonna of 115th Street: Faith and Community in Italian Harlem, 1880-1950. New Haven : Yale University Press, 1985.
Orsi, Robert A. "'He Keeps Me Going' : Women's Devotion to Saint Jude and the Dialectics of Gender in American Catholicism, 1929-1965." In Belief in History: Innovative Approaches to European and American Religion. Edited by Thomas Kselman. Notre Dame : University of Notre Dame Press, c1991.
#Woodward, Kenneth L. Making Saints: How the Catholic Church Determines Who Becomes a Saint, Who Doesn't, and Why. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990. [Touchstone ed. 1996]
James Kiefer. Gladys Aylward - with a feast day of Jan 3. [At Hillsdale College]
Clifton F. Guthrie. Why A Sanctoral Cycle? Or, Are We Ready for Methodist Hagiography? [At http://www.materialreligiom.org/]
Juergensmeyer, Mark. 'Saint Gandhi." In Saints and Virtues. Edited by John Stratton Hawley. 187-204. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
Merck, Mandy, ed. After Diana: Irreverent Elegies. New York: Verso, 1998.
A light books in some respects, but a number of articles address Diana's "sainthood" and compare here directly with Mother Theresa, who died the same week: see among others, Sara Maitland, "The Secular Saint," 63-74.
Radio National (Australia): 20th Century Saints
Soboul, Albert. "Religious Feeling and Popular Cults during the French Revolution: 'Patriot' Saints and Martyrs for Liberty." In Saints and Their Cults, ed. Stephen Wilson, 216-32.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Find a modern person (1850-present) who has been treated as a saint, and explain why you think that the person deserves or does not deserve the accolade. In making your case, try to justify it by referring to the various past patterns of sainthood we have examined